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|Size||0.5 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 6 items)|
|Abstract||John Walker was a cotton and wheat planter and silkworm grower of King and Queen County, Va. The son of Humphry and Frances (Temple) Walker, John married Margaret Watkins Shepherd in 1829, and had two surviving children, Watson (1834-1900) and Melville (1846-1904). Walker was an active member of the Methodist Church and held several public offices, including overseer of the poor and surveyor of roads for King and Queen County. The collection includes a journal, 1824-1867, kept by Walker for his Chatham Hill plantation, and a Walker family genealogical chart. The journal documents religious life, plantation finances, and slavery in and around King and Queen County. Information appears on camp meetings, church business, and Methodist preachers. Also documented are Walker's income and expenditures from cotton and wheat planting and his silkworm business, and his legal actions as executor of his father's and of other estates. The journal is particularly rich as a source on slave genealogy, activities, and slave/owner relations, as it often records vital statistics, family relationships, and the purchase and sale of slaves. Several entries provide information on slaves holding skilled positions outside the household or fields. Entries also provide many examples of slave resistance. Also documented is Samuel Thomson's method of botanic medicine, which Walker adopted in the 1830s. Little information appears on family or community life. The family tree documents the Walker family from the mid-1660s through the 1950s.|
|Creator||Walker, John, 1785-1867.|
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John Walker (1785-1867), cotton and wheat planter of King and Queen County, Virginia, was born at Locust Grove, the home of his parents, Humphry (1762-1820) and Frances Temple Walker (1760-1824). As a young man, he lived in Nashville, Tennessee, but returned in 1819 to King and Queen County where he went into trade with Baylor Temple at Walkerton Mills. He took up planting in 1824 at his plantation, Chatham Hill, near Clarkston on the Mattaponi River. Walker grew mostly cotton, wheat, oats, and corn, and raised livestock at Chatham Hill, but supplemented these with a variety of vegetables and peach and apple orchards. In 1840, he also began experimenting with growing silkworms.
In 1829, Walker married Margaret Watkins Shepherd, and together they had seven children, five of whom died in early or late childhood. Two, Watson (1834-1900) and Melville (1846-1904), survived.
Walker was a devout Methodist. He first joined the Church in 1818 in Nashville, and joined Shepherd's Chapel upon his return to King and Queen County in 1819. He served for many years as a steward for the Gloucester and Essex circuits and the Richmond District of the Methodist Church.
In addition to his church activities, Walker held several public positions, including overseer of the poor in 1828 and surveyor of the road in 1831 for King and Queen County. Walker also served as executor for the estates of his father and of Joseph Temple. He died in 1867 at Chatham Hill.Back to Top
Walker's journal is most useful for the study of religious life, plantation finances, and slavery in and around King and Queen County. Information appears on camp meetings, church business, and Methodist preachers. Often the movements of preachers on their circuits can be traced from the entries. Walker also provided some insight into the race and gender of converts at camp meetings.
The journal documents Walker's finances thoroughly, including his income and expenditures. Some information, principally notes on suits filed and fees paid, appears on Walker's legal actions as executor of his father's and Joseph Temple's estates.
The journal is particularly rich as a source on slave genealogy, activities, and slave/owner relations, often recording vital statistics, family relationships, and the purchase and sale of slaves. Several entries provide information on slaves holding skilled positions outside the household or fields. Entries also provide many examples of slave resistance.
Another topic receiving considerable attention is Samuel Thomson's method of Botanic Family Medicine, which Walker adopted in the 1830s.
Only a few entries appear on the public offices Walker held in King and Queen County or on his family life. Family information is limited to some discussion of disputes between relatives and occasional mentions of his attendance at camp meetings with his wife and children and of household tasks his wife completed.
Originals appear for the first two volumes only. Typed transcriptions appear for the first two and one half volumes. All seven volumes appear on microfilm.
Also included is a family tree that documents the Walker family of King and Queen County from the mid 1660s through the 1950s.Back to Top
Originals of the first two of seven volumes of a journal kept by John Walker for his Chatham Hill plantation in King and Queen County, Virginia. The first volume (88 p.) covers the period from 28 March 1824, when Walker first moved to Chatham Hill, to 17 April 1832. The second volume (262 p.) covers the period from 9 April 1832 to 28 March 1837. The bulk of the entries in both volumes concern Walker's farming activities, his relations with neighboring planters, his slaves, his religious activities, and his financial and legal affairs.
Most of Walker's agricultural entries concern the weather and planting, harvesting, and marketing his crops. He frequently mentioned conflicts with neighbors over damage done to his crops by unfenced livestock and by fox hunters trespassing on his land.
The journal is particularly rich as a source on slave genealogy, activities, and slave/owner relations. Walker often recorded births, illnesses, marriages, deaths, family relationships, medical treatments given, and the purchase and sale of his slaves. He frequently gave the ages and birth dates of adult slaves and noted from whom he bought and to whom he sold them.
Several of Walker's entries illustrate the hierarchical nature of slavery in Tidewater Virginia. The range of employment he mentioned includes field workers; house servants; a cooper, Daniel, whom he hired out to shops in Richmond; and a doctor (Doctor Lewis) of King William City, belonging to John Steverson, whom he hired to treat his slaves in 1833 and 1834.
The journal also provides many examples of slave resistance, including frequent running away and stealing of food. Of note are entries for 21 March 1826, reporting that a local doctor's slaves had burned down his house; 13 November 1832, noting that one of Reverend Hezekiah McLelland's slaves had poisoned the minister to death; and 30 April 1836, claiming that a slave woman, Sillar, had poisoned Walker's son, as well as a slave girl. In retaliation for their resistance, Walker often had his slaves whipped or sold. Walker also administered punishment to slaves for other transgressions. On 2 July 1834, angry at the death of one of his slaves from venereal disease, he had several slaves whipped on the charge that they had acted as procurers of slave women for a local brothel catering to white men.
A substantial amount of information also appears on the activities of Methodists in and around King and Queen County. Walker frequently listed preachers active at Shepherd's Chapel, especially the Reverends Lewis Skidmore, Hezekiah McLelland, William H. Starr, George W. Nolley, Moses Brock, Frank Scott, J. P. Gregory, and Richard R. Corbin. Other Methodist preachers he mentioned include Reverend Philip Long of Shiloh Meeting House in Caroline County, J. McDonald and James M. Lewis of the Essex Circuit, and David Fisher of Coles Chapel in King and Queen County. Walker often attended camp meetings at Shiloh Meeting House and Coles Chapel, as well as at Powels Chapel in King William City, Whit's Chapel and St. John's Chapel in Caroline County, Logan Chapel in Essex City, and other locations. He usually noted the size of meetings, those preaching, and the number of converts; he sometimes recorded the names and race of converts.
Entries of note are one for 3 May 1832, mentioning Reverend William H. Starr's founding of a Sunday School at Shepherd's Chapel; one for 30 July 1832, describing a conflict between Reverend Starr and a Reverend Duvall, a Baptist Campbellite, over Starr's administering the eucharist to Methodist Sempleites and Baptist Campbellites together; and one for 12 April 1834, mentioning the formation of the Essex Circuit.
Walker made frequent entries on his financial and legal transactions, including mention of notes and bills paid, crops sold, items bought, monies owed him, monies donated to the church and to missionaries, and taxes and court fees paid. The volumes also contain other financial information. Several copies of business letters, interspersed with the entries, discuss food and farm supplies Walker ordered to be shipped from Norfolk by James H. Johnston; the manufacture of a wheat thresher for him by J. Parker of Richmond in 1837; the terms of hire for Daniel to Richmond coopers John A. Pilcher between 1833 and 1836 and Silas Wyatt in 1837; and the management of his stock in the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad Company in 1834 and following years. In addition, accounts appear at the beginning and end of the second volume. The first 3 pages of accounts, dated 1833 and 1834, are mostly with farm workers and weavers, and those at the end detail expenses and income between 1833 and 1837. Walker itemized amounts spent for sundries, food, and medicines; midwives', doctors', and attorneys' fees; wages to farm hands; donations to missionaries; and miscellaneous expenditures, and recorded income from the sale of slaves, corn, and livestock and from railroad stock dividends. Also appearing at the end of the second volume are recipes, home cures, and a list of important events recorded in the volume. The list seems to have been added by a later reader of the journal rather than by Walker.
Miscellaneous entries of interest in the two volumes are several between 1834 and 1837 concerning Walker's adoption of Samuel Thomson's method of botanic family medicine (see especially 7 June 1834; 21 November 1835; and 4 February 1837) to treat his own family and his slaves, and several between 1834 and 1837 concerning members of the Walker family migrating to Alabama (see 23 October 1834 and 15 March 1837). A number of entries also appear on Walker's actions as executor of his father's and Joseph Temple's estates.
Typed transcriptions of the first two and one-half volumes of John Walker's plantation journal. The transcription of the first volume contains 109 pages, and that of the second volume contains 339 pages.
The partial (158 p.) transcription of the third volume covers the period between 1 April 1837 and 21 March 1840, and contains some accounts for renovations at Shepherd's Chapel in 1838, 1843, and 1844 and a brief list of family births and deaths and important events between 1837 and 1844. Topics appearing in this volume are very similar to those in the first two volumes, concerning mostly plantation activities, slaves, church affairs, and Walker's financial and legal activities.
Of note are entries concerning Reverend Henry B. Cowles and his family, who boarded with Walker in 1837; several entries between 1837 and 1839 concerning the treatment of a slave boy, William, for scufola, first in the Thomsonian Infirmary in Richmond, later by a Thomsonian doctor, Dr. George K. Hooper of Richmond, and finally by an Elliott Chiles of Chesterfield County; and several entries pertaining to church affairs. On 11 August 1838, Walker described the laying of the cornerstone of a new Methodist church on the county line, and, on 24 October 1838, he noted that the new brick Shepherd's Chapel had been completed.
Several copies of business letters appear among the entries, written by Walker to James Johnston of Norfolk, ordering supplies; to his attorney in Richmond, concerning his railroad stock; and to agents in Richmond, concerning the hire of Daniel to cooper Silas Wyatt.
On 18 January 1840, Walker noted that Robert D. Edwards had come to live with him to work as an overseer and experiment with the raising of silkworms.
A note of interest at the beginning of the volume remarks on the construction of Walkerton Mill on the Mattaponi River between 1799 and 1800.
Microfilm of all seven volumes of Walker's plantation journal. The first two volumes (Reel 1) are described in Series 1. The third volume (see Series 2 for partial transcript) is dated 1 April 1837 through 23 November 1841, and is contained on Reel 2. The remainder of the volumes microfilmed cover the following time periods:
Fourth volume: 4 December 1844-1 March 1851 (Reel 3)
Fifth volume: 4 March 1851-15 August 1857 (Reel 3)
Sixth volume: 15 August 1857-10 June 1860 (Reel 4)
Seventh volume: 16 June 1860-22 September 1866 (Reel 4)
The originals of volumes 3-7 were returned to the donor in 1943.
Genealogical chart of the Walker family of King and Queen County, Virginia, compiled by J. Henley Walker Senior (born 1875), grandson of John Walker. The chart traces the descendants of Thomas Walker (born 1689), son of Lieutenant Colonel John Walker. The margins contain additional information on the Walkers of King and Queen County, the Thomas Walker Bible, and other Walker family records.
Processed by: Jill D. Snider, August 1991
Encoded by: ByteManagers Inc., 2008
Includes originals of the first two volumes of the journal, typed transcriptions of the first two and one-half volumes, and microfilm of all seven volumes.
This collection was rehoused under the sponsorship of a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, Office of Preservation, Washington, D.C., 1990-1992.Back to Top