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|Size||42.0 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 31000 items)|
|Abstract||Henry Toole Clark, Jr. (1917-), son of Henry Toole and Cornelia Josey Clark of Scotland Neck, N.C., received a B.A., UNC, 1937, and M.D., University of Rochester, 1944. Clark was director, Vanderbilt University Hospital, 1948-1950; administrator, Division of Health Affairs, UNC-CH, 1950-1966; director, Connecticut Regional Medical Program and medical school visiting professor, University of Connecticut and Yale University, 1966-1973; visiting professor community medicine, University of Connecticut, 1973-1975; director, Project HOPE, Jamaica and professor of community medicine, University of the West Indies, 1976-1978; and consultant on planning and operating university health centers, 1978-1981. Papers documenting the professional career, civic activities, and personal life of Henry T. Clark. The bulk of the collection relates to Clark's employment as a medical administrator at the University of Rochester, Vanderbilt University, the University of North Carolina, and as director of the Connecticut Regional Medical Program (CRMP). Much material relates to his work as director of Project Hope in Jamaica, and his extensive consulting activity at the Tuskegee Institute, in Puerto Rico, in the Dominican Republic, and at the University of Leiden and the National Institutes of Health. Materials relating to his participation in professional organizations, including the Society of American Administrators, the American Hospital Association, and the Association for Academic Health Centers, are also included. In addition, Clark's involvement with tennis, church, and and charities in Chapel Hill, N.C., and in Woodbridge, Conn., and with alumni affairs at the University of North Carolina, with Sigma Nu fraternity, and at the University of Rochester are also documented.|
|Creator||Clark, Henry T. (Henry Toole), 1917-|
The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.
Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.
Chronology excerpted (with slight modifications) from information supplied by Henry Toole Clark, Jr.
1933-1937 A.B., University of North Carolina
1937-1939 Certificate in Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine
1939-1940; M.D., University of Rochester School of Medicine, 1943-1944
1940-1941 Student Intern, Trudeau Sanitorium, Saranac Lake, N.Y.
1942-1943 Fellow in Physiology, Trudeau Sanitorium
1944-1945 Fellow in Pathology, University of Rochester
1945-1946 Intern in Medicine, Duke University Hospital
1946-1948 Administative Assistant, Assistant Director, Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, N.Y.
1948-1950 Director, Vanderbilt University Hospital, Nashville, Tenn.
1950-1965 Administrator of the Division of Health Affairs (later title Vice Chancellor for Health Affairs), University of North Carolina (responsible for schools of Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing, Public Health, and Pharmacy, and for the North Carolina Memorial Hospital)
1965-1966 On leave, University of North Carolina
1 September 1965-31 March 1966 Special Consultant to the Director of the National Institutes of Health
1 April 1966-30 September 1966 Resident Advisor on Long Range Planning, University of Leiden Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
1966-1973 Director, Connecticut Regional Medical Program; Visiting Professor of Medical Care, Yale University; Visiting Professor of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut.
1973-1975 Visiting Professor of Community Medicine (full time), University of Connecticut.
1975-1976 Lecturer, Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut; private consultant; at work on "The CRMP Story" and other volumes
1976-1978 Director, Project HOPE in Jamaica; Visiting Professor of Community Medicine, University of the West Indies
1978-1981 Private consultant; writing
Since 1981 Semi-retired in Chapel Hill, N.C. Occasional consultant on planning and operating various University Health Centers
From the introduction to an oral history interview conducted for the Southern Oral History Program, UNC-CH, written by Fran Weaver in March 1999:
Dr. Henry Toole Clark, Jr. was born on 13 October 1917, and grew up in the small farming community of Scotland Neck in Halifax County, N.C. His childhood paralleled the years of the Great Depression and he witnessed the hardships of the many economically depressed people in his community, especially the black sharecroppers on the surrounding farms. The milieu of Scotland Neck with its emphasis on church, schooling, and family fostered in the young Clark a commitment to devoting his life in service to other people. He briefly considered the ministry (six close relatives were missionaries overseas) but later decided that medicine would be a better career choice for him.
Clark entered the University of North Carolina in September 1933 at the age of 15. He was active in campus affairs, served as president of his fraternity and of the Interfraternity Council, was a member of the UNC golf team, and earned membership in Phi Beta Kappa. He became a casual friend and great admirer of Dr. Frank Porter Graham and applauded his activist roles in addressing the main societal concerns of that era.
Clark obtained his M.D. degree from the University of Rochester in 1944, graduating as president of Alpha Omega Alpha, the medical school equivalent of Phi Beta Kappa. His medical education was interrupted by three years spent at the Trudeau Sanitorium in the Adirondack Mountains of New York where he was treated for tuberculosis contracted from an indigent patient under his care in Rochester.
As a senior medical student at Rochester and later as a medical intern at Duke University Hospital in Durham, N.C., Clark became painfully aware that most of the indigent patients--and some of the private patients--he was seeing would not have appropriate medical supervision on their return home from the hospital. He would soon realize that millions of Americans, and especially those living in the inner cities and rural areas, did not have access to adequate medical care. Furthermore, though the medical establishment in the U.S. proudly proclaimed that medical practice in the U.S. was 'the best in the world,' there were actually many gaps, overlaps and inefficiencies in the system and there was a wide variation in quality of medical care available in various settings.
During the course of a year spent as a post graduate fellow in Pathology at Rochester, the departmental chairman called Clark in for a little chat one day. That chairman, Dr. George Whipple, was also dean of the medical school and a Nobel Laureate and he had become Clark's mentor and good friend. Whipple suggested that Clark consider a career in 'Administrative Medicine' rather than becoming a practitioner, which would give him the opportunity to influence the program thrust of any medical organization he served. Whipple cited his own personal satisfaction from his work in overseeing the operation of his school as a medical dean. He referred Clark to Dr. Basil MacLean, the Director of the University Hospital at Rochester, to explore this idea.
While Whipple was a recognized leader among the medical profession of that era, MacLean was equally well-known nationally as a university hospital director and advocate for patients. His message to Clark was, in effect: 'We university medical centers are too smug in our focus on research and teaching. We need to give greater consideration to the needs of the people around us. We should expand our thinking and point the way toward good medical care for everyone.' He offered Clark a position as his assistant at the Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester.
Whipple and MacLean thus helped Clark to launch a career that provided Dr. Clark--and his wife, Blanche--with a series of challenges and adventures in a number of settings over a 40-year period. Clark gradually became convinced that university medical centers should become central elements and catalytic forces in the development of regional medical programs providing good quality health care to all the people of their surrounding areas. He felt that this university outreach service could develop in such a way as to enhance, rather than dilute, the traditional university medical center's focus on teaching and research. In addition, with further guidance from MacLean, Dr. Clark became convinced that community hospitals could be transformed into community health centers with the capacity to study overall community needs and, in turn, become catalysts to meet those needs.
Before long, while serving as Administrator of the Division of Health Affairs at the University of North Carolina during 1950-1965, Clark sought to implement these concepts in North Carolina. In addition to his own convictions, he felt that implementation of his philosophy would fulfill the legislative mandate that had created the UNC Medical Center in the late 1940s.
While the Division of Health Affairs grew and prospered during Dr. Clark's tenure, he had little support from the Dean of the UNC Medical School or the senior administrative officers of the University in his efforts to develop the model regional medical program he envisioned. Dr. Clark left the University of North Carolina in July 1965.
Nevertheless, Clark's ideas and commitment were endorsed by a number of national leaders in medicine. He was invited to serve as a special consultant to Dr. James Shannon, Director of the National Institutes of Health, in 1965 to help to refine and implement PL 89-239. This act, which was passed by Congress in 1965, called for the creation of Regional Medical Programs across the country, with a university health center at the core of each, to help develop a more effective national health program. Later, the Connecticut Regional Medical Program which Dr. Clark directed (1966-1973) received wide recognition as the best of those programs.
Dr. Clark's 40-year professional career included full-time senior appointments at several universities (Rochester, Vanderbilt, North Carolina, Yale and Connecticut). In addition, he had a number of appointments as long-term advisor or consultant to many national and international organizations: the University of Puerto Rico, the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, the National Institutes of Health, Project Hope in Jamaica, Tuskegee, and other medical and academic institutions.
Dr. Clark retired in 1978 and he and Mrs. Clark returned to Chapel Hill in 1981 where they both have given unselfishly of their time and resources. Dr. Clark has been active in his church, has brought a fresh concept to Habitat for Humanity, and has worked toward the betterment of student life at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Back to Top
This collection primarily documents the professional career of Henry Toole Clark, Jr. It also contains materials relating to his civic activities and personal life. To a large extent, the collection is organized according to the scheme established by Clark. Generally, series were created for specific professional and nonprofessional fields. For instance, there are series relating to his work with the University of Rochester, Vanderbilt University, and the University of North Carolina. Another series documents his consulting work, with subseries for some specific consulting projects and other professional activities. In addition, materials relating to tennis, church, charity, and alumni affairs are filed in separate series.
Letters and other correspondence comprise a major part of the collection, but there are also many reports that Clark generated and received as a medical administrator. Some were authored by Clark himself or written under his supervision. Two are especially significant in their comprehensiveness. Series 5 contains Clark's history of the Connecticut Regional Medical Program, and Series 6.1 includes the files he used to write his book about his tenure as a program director in the Caribbean for Project Hope, Hope Amid Turmoil in Jamaica: 1976-1978.
Note that Series 1 contains many documents relevant to other parts of the collection. Note also that much material relating to Clark's tenure as director of the Division of Health Affairs at the University of North Carolina, 1950-1966, is held by University Archives and Records Service, UNC-CH.
Personal correspondence of Henry T. Clark, Jr. This includes letters regarding family and personal life and financial business as well as medical business, including conferences and speaking engagements that he attended. Letters written, 1969-1973, are concerned with his work on the advisory board of the Connecticut Regional Medical Program. This addition also includes Clark's monthly appointment calendars, 1966-1973.
Correspondence and related materials of Henry T. Clark, Jr., regarding family and personal life, medical business, and charitable services. The bulk of the material is Clark's correspondence as director of the Division of Health Affairs at the University of North Carolina, 1950-1965. There is also material related to Clark's position as director of the Connecticut Regional Medical Program (CRMP), including general correspondence and correspondence with Ballinger Publishing Company and rough drafts of "The CRMP Story." In addition, there is some material concerning Clark's fraternity, Sigma Nu, including correspondence and other materials relating to its centennial celebration and a record book from the 1930s and 1940s. Other materials include correspondence about job possibilities; meeting notes for the North Carolina Tennis Association and a bound compendium of tennis columns relating to Clark; correspondence, certificates, and other papers relating to Clark's education, family, and personal life; and correspondence regarding Clark's early contributions to local communities and institutions. Also included is a picture of the Clark family.
Correspondence of Henry T. Clark, Jr., regarding family and personal life, medical business and charitable services. The bulk of the materials relate to the affairs of Clark's fraternity, Sigma Nu. Included is correspondence and other materials relating to fundraising and Clark's concern that his alma mater was not living up to its fraternal ideals. Other materials include correspondence, letters, notes, and speeches associated with Clark's participation in community service projects, including Clark's charitable gift fund and partnership program activities with University of North Carolina students and fraternities and with the Chapel of the Cross and Habitat for Humanity. There is also some financial material relating to Clark's work as director of the Division of Health Affairs at the University of North Carolina, 1950-1965. Material related to Clark's position as director of the Connecticut Regional Medical Program (CRMP) includes correspondence, clippings, reports, studies, and articles and speeches. Other materials include letters, reports, and minutes of meetings related to Clark's association with the Chapel of the Cross in Chapel Hill, N.C. Also included is Clark's genealogy notebook; personal correspondence with Vicki Everette, president of the North Carolina Tennis Foundation; and pictures of Habitat for Humanity projects with several portraits of Henry and Blanche Clark.Back to Top
Correspondence, reports, and other material filed by subject. Note that Clark's filing system has, for the most part, been retained. Included is a vast range of material; many documents are relevant to other parts of the collection.
Most of this series is comprised of correspondence with friends, family, and colleagues of Clark. Much is associated with the community of medical administrators with whom Clark corresponded throughout his career. Clark filed many letters according to the name of the correspondent. Correspondence in quantities too small to justify individual folders for each correspondent is assembled in "Miscellaneous correspondence" (Folders 81-82). There is also much material filed under the names of professional organizations, such as the American Hospital Association, American Medical Association, or the Society of Medical Administrators.
Chiefly reports, correspondence, and printed material, 1946-1948, relating to evaluations by Basil MacLean and Henry Clark of health agencies of the Jewish Federation of St. Louis; the Freedman's Hospital, Washington, D.C.; hospital facilities in Asheville, N.C.; Provident Hospital, Baltimore, Md.; University of Maryland Medical Center; and Vanderbilt University Hospital all produced while Clark was assistant director of the Strong Memorial Hospital, University of Rochester.
Two folders contain material other than the reports. Folder 310 contains miscellaneous correspondence and printed matter dating as late as 1963, but still relating to Clark's two years at Rochester. Folder 311 contains materials relating to Vanderbilt University, especially correspondence with administrators while he negotiated accepting a position with them.
Progress reports written by Clark to the staff of Vanderbilt University Hospital, general correspondence, and letters congratulating Clark on his new position at the University of North Carolina.
Materials relating to Clark's work as director of the Division of Health Affairs at the University of North Carolina (see also materials held by University Archives and Records Service, UNC-CH).
Correspondence, clippings, and reports documenting Clark's work in Connecticut, where, between 1966 and 1973, he was professor of community medicine at the University of Connecticut, director of the new Connecticut Regional Medical Program (CRMP), and visiting professor of community medicine at Yale University.
Papers relating to the CRMP include correspondence, teaching materials, reports from committees, and reference material Clark consulted in the course of his work. Also included is Clark's history of the program, a series of books entitled The CRMP Story.
Arrangement: by project.
Personal and official correspondence relating to Clark's work with Project Hope, before, during, and after his tenure as director, October 1976-April 1978. Included are minutes of staff meetings, official program plans, and reports from the University of the West Indies, which sometimes cooperated with Project Hope in medical education programs. Many important documents are collected in Clark's account of his work, Hope Amid Turmoil in Jamaica: 1976-1978.
Correspondence and articles Clark consulted while researching and writing his report for the University of Leiden in 1966. Folder 577 contains two drafts of the report, "A New University for Leiden."
Correspondence, reports, and printed material relating to Clark's work in Puerto Rico, beginning in 1956. Most of this series is comprised of the contents of nine notebooks Clark filled with material relating to this work. Reports issued by the Provisional Board of the Puerto Rico Medical Center are foldered separately. Also included are studies and articles by other writers about the Medical Center and the overall state of health care in Puerto Rico. Note that some materials are in Spanish.
Correspondence, reports, and printed material related to Clark's work as consultant during two periods: 1960-1961, when he wrote a feasibility study for a program of expanding Tuskegee's capacity in medical and nursing education and community health care; and 1967-1968, when he worked on the expansion of Tuskegee's John A. Andrew Hospital. Also included are copies of architect's reports sent to Clark as his recommendations took shape in later years and annual reports of the president, 1960-1961 and 1966-1971.
Correspondence, chiefly between Clark and Jaime Vinas Roman, the chief administrator of the Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriquez Urena (UNPHU), and Fernando Batlle, a physician in the Dominican Republic. Material is related to Clark's 1983 consultantship to plan a regional health care program for the Dominican Republic. Also included are letters and reports relating to his visit to Spain in March 1983 in order to meet with representatives of Informes y Proyectos, S.A. (INYPSA), an engineering consulting firm. Note that some materials are in Spanish.
Correspondence, reports, and other papers related to Clark's work, 1965-1966, as special consultant to the director of the National Institutes of Health. Clark's assignment was to gather background information and help develop a plan for putting into operation major health legislation then pending in Congress, including a proposal to establish a series of regional medical complexes for heart disease, cancer, and stroke.
Correspondence and other papers relating to Clark's smaller consulting projects, to his contacts about potential consulting projects, and to contacts about job possibilities and offers.
Papers, chiefly from the 1980s, relating to tennis organizations, tournaments, and friends.
Material relating to Clark's lifelong association with the Episcopal Church. Much material comes from his membership on various committees within the church. At the Chapel of the Cross in Chapel Hill, N.C., for instance, he chaired the Building Committee, 1956-1957. The greatest number of items comes from his work with the Companion Diocese Commission sponsored by the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina. Clark saved letters, reports, and minutes of meetings that chronicle the Commission's missionary, charity, and educational work, chiefly in Belize. Clark served on the Commission from 1982 to 1984.
There is a small amount of material relating to churches in Scotland Neck, N.C., and New Haven, Conn., which Clark attended when he lived in those places. Also included are letters, records, and printed material from the Christian Children's Fund, an organization that Clark and his wife supported beginning in the 1950s.
Largely correspondence, clippings, and a final report dating from Clark's chairing the 1961 Chapel Hill Community Chest Fund.
Arrangement: by institution.
Contents of three notebooks that Clark assembled relating to the annual Spicer-Breckenridge Memorial Lecture at the University of North Carolina. Most materials date from 1982, when Clark help raise money to finance the lecture, and from 1989, when he was honored as the annual speaker.
Correspondence and other material relating to class reunions, alumni lists, and the affairs of Clark's fraternity, Sigma Nu. Most material dates from the 1980s, but there is also a small number of items from the 1930s.
Correspondence, clippings, magazines, and other printed material, primarily relating to reunions of the Medical School class of 1944.
Correspondence, school papers, clippings, and other papers relating to Clark's childhood, education, family, and personal life. Much of this material was saved by Clark's mother. Included are letters between Henry Clark and his parents when he was an undergraduate and a medical student at the University of North Carolina, when he was traveling across the United States in the summer of 1937, and when he was a medical student at the University of Rochester.
Arrangement: by subject.
Correspondence, reports, clippings, and other material filed by subject. Note that Clark's filing system and folder titles have, for the most part, been retained.
Correspondence relating to Clark's work as director of the Division of Health Affairs at the University of North Carolina. This material is similar to material found in folder 334. Note that much material relating to Clark's tenure as director of the Division of Health Affairs at the University of North Carolina, 1950-1966, is held by University Archives and Records Service, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Arrangement: by subject.
General correspondence and correspondence with Ballinger Publishing Company and rough drafts of "The CRMP Story" document Clark's work as director of the Connecticut Regional Medical Program (CRMP).
Correspondence and other papers relating to Jack Masur of the United States Public Health Service about job possibilities.
Meeting notes for the North Carolina Tennis Association and a bound compendium of columns that Clark wrote for the Chapel Hill newspaper, along with miscellaneous news stories about the North Carolina Tennis Association, the North Carolina Tennis Foundation, and Clark's own tennis career.
Correspondence and other material relating to the centennial celebration affairs of Clark's fraternity, Sigma Nu. There is also a meeting record book from the 1930s and 1940s.
Correspondence, certificates, and other papers relating to Clark's education, family, and personal life.
Correspondence associated with Henry Toole Clark's early contributions to local communities and institutions.
Correspondence with friends and colleagues, many associated with the community of medical administrators with whom Clark corresponded throughout his career. This material is similar to that in folders 81 and 82, miscellaneous correspondence, and is arranged chronologically.
Materials relating to Clark's work as director of the Division of Health Affairs at the University of North Carolina (see also materials held by the University Archives and Records Service, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).
Correspondence, clippings, reports, studies, articles, and speeches documenting Clark's work in Connecticut as director of the Connecticut Regional Medical Program (CRMP). Also included is Clark's first draft of the history of the program, a series of books entitled "The CRMP Story."
Personal correspondence between Henry Toole Clark, Jr., and Vicki Everette, president of the North Carolina Tennis Foundation.
Material relating to Clark's lifelong association with the Episcopal Church, chiefly at the Chapel of the Cross in Chapel Hill, N.C. Clark saved letters, reports, and minutes of meetings that chronicle his involvement with committees within the Church.
Arrangement: alphabetical by subject.
Correspondence, minutes, agendas, reports, and other material relating to the affairs of Clark's fraternity, Sigma Nu. Most materials relate to fundraising efforts of Clark and document Clark's deep commitment to its fraternal ideals.
Genealogy notebook of Henry Toole Clark, documenting his lineage to the 15th century.
Correspondence, letters, notes, and speeches associated with Henry Toole Clark's participation in community service projects, including summaries of Clark's charitable gift fund and partnership program activities with UNC students and fraternities. There are also materials relating to the Chapel of the Cross and to Habitat for Humanity.
Processed by: Gary Frost, June 1996; Adera Scheinker, October 1997; James Roth, September 2000
Encoded by: ByteManagers Inc., 2008
Materials have been arranged according to the organization scheme of the original deposit.
Diacritics and other special characters have been omitted from this finding aid to facilitate keyword searching in web browsers.Back to Top