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|Size||69.0 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 33,000 items)|
|Abstract||Cameron family of Orange and Durham counties and Raleigh, N.C. Among antebellum North Carolina's largest landholders and slave holders, the Camerons also owned substantial plantations in Alabama and Mississippi. Prominent family members included Richard Bennehan (1743-1825), merchant; Duncan Cameron (1777-1853), lawyer, judge, banker, and legislator; and Paul C. Cameron (1808-1891), planter, agricultural reformer, and railroad builder. The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence, financial and legal documents, and account books. In addition, there are speeches, writings, printed material, pictures, and miscellaneous other types of personal papers. Included is extensive information about Richard Bennehan's store at Stagville, N.C., and the Stagville and Fairntosh plantations, including crop and slave records. Family correspondence details the familial relationships and social behavior of a wealthy planter family, particularly the women. In addition to documentation about Duncan Cameron's legal career, there is also information about the State Bank of North Carolina and the banking industry, the education of the Cameron children at various schools, the development of the University of North Carolina, the state militia, the Episcopal Church, railroads, and state government.|
|Creator||Cameron (Family : Orange County, N.C.)|
|Curatorial Unit||Southern Historical Collection|
The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.
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The Cameron family of Orange County was one of antebellum North Carolina's wealthiest families. On the eve of the Civil War, Paul Cameron and his siblings owned over one thousand slaves and nearly thirty thousand acres of plantation land in Orange, Wake, Person, and Granville Counties, as well as plantations in Alabama and Mississippi.
This industrious family originally migrated to the Piedmont of North Carolina from neighboring Virginia, beginning in the mid-eighteenth century. The first to arrive in North Carolina was Richard Bennehan, Paul Cameron's maternal grandfather.
Richard Bennehan was born 15 April 1743, near Warsaw in Richmond County, Va. He was the fifth child of Rachel and Dudley Bennehan, modest landowners of Irish extraction. Dudley Bennehan died when Richard was only six, and did not leave any of his estate to Richard. Instead, Richard was apprenticed to a local merchant. In 1762, he moved to Petersburg, Va., where he was employed by Edward Stabler, a commission merchant. In 1768, William Johnston, a North Carolina back country merchant and landowner, offered Bennehan a one-third partnership in the Little River Store, located on Johnston's Snowhill Plantation near Hillsborough, N.C. The store was on the heavily traveled Indian Trading Path that ran through the back country of North Carolina, Virginia, and Georgia.
Bennehan accepted the offer, and moved to North Carolina in late 1768 or early 1769. Because of the store's excellent location and Bennehan's able management, the business prospered. Around 1776, Bennehan began to invest the profits in land and slaves, and in 1776 or 1777, he married Mary Amis of Northampton County, N.C., who also owned land and slaves inherited from her father. Their first home was at Brick House Plantation, formerly owned by Tyree Harris, the sheriff of Orange County, N.C.
When Bennehan's partner William Johnston died in 1785, Bennehan decided to open his own store. He bought property on the Trading Path from Judith Stagg, and opened what was known as the Stagville Store. Soon after, Bennehan built a modest plantation house near the store, and the family moved from Brick House to Stagville.
As a prosperous merchant and landowner, Bennehan soon became involved in the civic life of North Carolina. He apparently had been a genuine patriot in the Revolution and was a close friend of William Richardson Davie, a war hero and governor of the state. Through his association with Davie, Bennehan became an early supporter of the University of North Carolina, donating books and supplies, as well as serving on the University's Board of Visitors and Board of Trustees. Bennehan also served on the commission that planned the new state capitol building in Raleigh.
Richard and Mary Bennehan had two children, Rebecca, born in 1778, and Thomas Dudley, born in 1782. Thomas was one of the first students to attend the University of North Carolina. He matriculated in 1795 as a student in the preparatory school. He received his degree in 1801, after which he returned to Stagville to help his father manage the store and plantation. Thomas Bennehan never married. After his father died in 1825, he inherited the Stagville lands, and continued to live there, tending the store and plantation until his death in 1847. Although not as active in civic matters as his father had been, Thomas Bennehan served on the Board of Trustees of the University for 35 years, from 1812 until his death.
Thomas Bennehan's sister Rebecca was educated at home. When she married Duncan Cameron in 1803, her father gave the newlywed couple land adjoining the Stagville Plantation, where Duncan Cameron built Fairntosh, a grand plantation house.
Duncan Cameron, like Richard Bennehan, was born in Virginia. He was born 15 December 1777, in Mecklenburg County. His father John Cameron was an Anglican minister and a recent immigrant from Scotland, who had married well. John Cameron's wife was Ann Owen Nash, the daughter of Colonel Thomas Nash, one of the King's Attorneys. Her uncle Abner Nash was the governor of North Carolina, her uncle Francis Nash was a general in the Revolution, and her maternal grandfather was Colonel Clement Read, a King's Attorney.
Duncan Cameron was educated by his father, who, in addition to being a minister, ran several academies in the various parishes he served in Virginia. After studying law under Paul Carrington, Duncan Cameron was licensed to practice in 1797. He immediately moved to North Carolina, first to Warrenton, then Martinsville, finally settling in Hillsborough in 1799. Cameron was an ambitious and capable lawyer who soon prospered. Like Bennehan, Duncan Cameron invested in slaves and land.
Cameron's success as a lawyer marked him for the bench and, from 1814 to 1816, he served as Superior Court Judge. He also served several terms in the North Carolina House, in 1806, 1807, 1812, and 1813. He then served three terms in the State Senate in 1819, 1822, and 1823. While in the Senate Cameron served as chairman of the influential Committee on Internal Improvement, which had been originally led by Cameron's friend, Archibald Murphey.
Duncan Cameron's civic service was not limited to politics and law. In 1812, he was appointed Major General of the North Carolina Militia and served in that capacity until 1814. He, like Bennehan, was a devoted friend of the University of North Carolina, serving on the Board of Trustees from 1802 until 1853.
Cameron was instrumental in the development of the Episcopal Church in North Carolina in the 1820s. In 1833, he bought the defunct Episcopal School for Boys in Raleigh, reestablishing it with the Rev. Aldert Smedes as its director. In 1841, the school became Saint Mary's, an Episcopal girls' school, with Rev. Aldert Smedes again as director. The school remained in Cameron family hands until it was sold to the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina in 1897. Duncan Cameron also helped to establish Christ Church in Raleigh, and built Salem Chapel at Fairntosh, which provided a place for family and slaves to worship.
When the State Bank of North Carolina formed in 1811, Duncan Cameron was one of its first directors, and in 1829 he accepted its presidency. Later the bank was dissolved and reformed as the Bank of the State of North Carolina. Cameron served as president of the new bank from 1834 until his resignation in 1849.
Cameron was also a successful businessman. He formed a number of partnerships with various family members to run stores in North Carolina and Virginia. The most important of these partnerships were with his father in law Richard Bennehan and brother in law Thomas Bennehan. The first was a limited partnership drawn up in 1806, giving Thomas Bennehan and Duncan Cameron a share in the management and profits of the store at Fishdam Ford on the Neuse River, opened by Richard Bennehan in 1802. The second partnership drawn up in 1807 was much more extensive. It combined the Bennehan and Cameron plantations, slaves, stores, and flour and saw mills into one powerful and profitable enterprise. The plantations and stores were managed by the Bennehans and overseers, while Duncan Cameron provided his legal and financial expertise to the business.
Cameron was also involved in a partnership beginning in 1802 with his step nephew George Anderson, establishing a store in Hillsborough, N.C., which later moved to Martinsville, Va. In the 1810s, Cameron started a commission merchant firm in Petersburg, Va., with his brother William Cameron and Samuel Snow. These and other business ventures of Duncan Cameron were largely unsuccessful except for the lucrative partnership with Thomas and Richard Bennehan.
Rebecca and Duncan Cameron had eight children, Mary Anne born in 1804, Thomas Amis Dudley in 1806, Paul Carrington in 1808, Margaret Bain in 1811, Rebecca Bennehan in 1813, Jean Syme in 1815, Anne Owen in 1817, and Mildred Coles born in 1820.
The Cameron girls were educated at home by governesses, the most popular of which was Mary McLean Bryant who corresponded with the girls long after she left the Cameron's employ. Only Mary Anne, the eldest, went to school. She attended Jacob Mordecai's Seminary in Warrenton, N.C., for several years, leaving in 1818.
Paul and Thomas had a number of tutors before they were sent away to school, including W. P. Mangum. Finding a school suitable for Thomas, who had an intellectual disability, proved difficult. In 1813, he was sent to Lunenberg, Va., to attend his grandfather John Cameron's school. He was then sent to John Rudd's School in Elizabethtown, N.J., and finally, in 1820, to Captain Partridge's school in Norwich, Vt.
Paul attended a number of schools as well. First, he went to the Hillsborough Academy. He started preparatory school at the University of North Carolina in 1824, but was expelled for fighting in 1825. He then transferred to Captain Partridge's school. Finally, he attended Washington College (now Trinity College) in Hartford, Conn., graduating in 1829.
Of the eight children, only Paul and Margaret were healthy. Mary Ann, Rebecca, Jean, and Anne contracted tuberculosis. Despite trips to Warm Springs, Charleston, and Florida, made in hopes of curing or arresting the disease, the girls succumbed one by one. Rebecca, Jean, and Anne died in their twenties, and Mary Anne in her early thirties. Thomas Cameron lived until 1870, but he was dependent on his family throughout his adult life because of his intellectual disability.
Mildred escaped tuberculosis but she fell prey to an undiagnosed disease which left her partially paralyzed. She traveled to Philadelphia and New York to consult with doctors about a cure, but the doctors efforts were to no avail. Mildred remained an invalid throughout her adult life, with the burden of her care falling on her sister Margaret.
Margaret Bain Cameron lived at home, caring for her sick siblings and her ailing parents and managing the household until she was forty two. Then, in 1853, she married George W. Mordecai, president of the State Bank of North Carolina, who had succeeded Duncan Cameron when he resigned the post in 1849. Margaret and George Mordecai were childless, except for a stillbirth in 1854. Even after her marriage, Margaret Cameron Mordecai continued to care for her sister Mildred. She accompanied Mildred on the trips to Philadelphia and New York which took Margaret away from her husband for months at a time.
Duncan Cameron hoped that his son Paul would become a lawyer. Although Paul read law and passed the bar in 1832, he was not interested in law. He was interested in agriculture, and his ambition was to move to the Deep South and become a cotton planter. However, to please his father, he set up a law practice in Hillsborough, N.C. In 1832, he married Anne Ruffin, daughter of Thomas Ruffin, the noted jurist. At first the newlyweds lived in a house in Hillsborough called Burnside, built by Paul. In 1837, Paul resigned from the bar, and the young couple moved to Fairntosh so that Paul could take over the management of the Cameron plantations. By this time Fairntosh was unoccupied. Duncan Cameron moved to Raleigh permanently in 1836 following his appointment as president of the Bank of the State of North Carolina.
Paul and Anne Cameron lived at Fairntosh from 1837 until the late 1850s, when they moved back to Hillsborough. During the years at Fairntosh, Paul Cameron improved the Cameron lands and added to them. In the 1850s, he purchased a cotton plantation in Greene County, Ala., and another cotton plantation in Tunica County, Miss. Paul Cameron was known as an enthusiastic agricultural reformer, and he was a founding member of North Carolina's earliest agricultural society.
Cameron was also a strong advocate for railroads in North Carolina. In the early 1850s, he contracted to build a large section of the North Carolina Railroad. He also served on the board of directors of the North Carolina Railroad and was elected its president in 1861. Additionally, he was a director of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad and the Raleigh and Augusta Airline.
Although Paul Cameron was not as politically active as his father, he ran for a seat in the state senate in 1856, and was elected. However, he was defeated when he ran for a second term.
Paul Cameron did not serve in the Confederate Army. He was nonetheless excluded from the general amnesty granted most Southerners by the Union government because of his enormous wealth. He was forced to apply for a special pardon, which he received. Although Paul Cameron's fortune was greatly depleted when the hundreds of slaves he owned were emancipated, the family still owned enough land, stock, and bonds to support themselves through the lean years of Reconstruction. Most of the land was leased to tenant farmers and Paul began to concentrate on the railroads and cotton manufacturing for income.
After Reconstruction, Paul Cameron led the effort to repair and rebuild the University of North Carolina, which had suffered greatly during the Civil War and its chaotic aftermath. He was a member of the Board of Trustees and chairman of the Building Committee. Cameron himself donated the money for the building of the original Memorial Hall, as well as the maple trees that line Cameron Avenue, named in his honor.
Paul and Anne Cameron had a dozen children. Two were stillborn; two died in infancy; one, Mary Amis, died at age eleven. However, the remaining offspring, Rebecca, Anne, Margaret, Duncan, Pauline, Bennehan, and Mildred survived childhood, matured, and married.
Rebecca first married Walker Anderson in 1863, then John Graham in 1867. Anne married George P. Collins in 1860. After the Civil War, Anne and George Collins went to Mississippi to manage Paul Cameron's plantation in Tunica County. Margaret married Robert B. Peebles. Pauline married William Shepard and lived in Edenton. After Pauline's death, her sister Mildred Coles married William Shepard.
Duncan and Bennehan were too young to serve in the Confederate Army and were in school during the Civil War. Duncan was a rebellious child, constantly running away from school and from home. He spent some time in Mississippi living with his sister Anne Collins. Finally, he settled down, married Mary Short, and took over the management of Fairntosh. His untimely death in 1886 was a great blow to his father.
Bennehan Cameron was much more cooperative. He graduated from Virginia Military Institute in 1875. He then moved to Stagville and took over the management of the Plantation. He married Sally Mayo in 1891. After his brother's death, he moved to Fairntosh where he raised horses, for which he had a passion.
Paul Cameron died in 1891 leaving his vast fortune to his wife, his remaining son Bennehan, and his daughters.Back to Top
This collection documents many aspects of the personal lives and business affairs of the Cameron family, particularly of its patriarchs Richard Bennehan, Bennehan's son-in-law Duncan Cameron, and Duncan Cameron's son Paul Carrington Cameron. Although the papers date from 1757 to 1978, the bulk of the material pertains to the period 1800 to 1890. Material from the 18th century, while not plentiful, does provide documentation of Richard Bennehan's mercantile enterprises in Orange County, N.C. Material from the 20th century chiefly deals with the settlement of Paul Cameron's estate. The only significant gap in the papers that document the Cameron's activities from 1800 to 1890 is material dating from the Civil War. Material from the Civil War is sparse because Anne Ruffin Cameron and Bennehan Cameron burned Paul Cameron's papers for the period, apparently to destroy evidence of his support of the Confederacy.
The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence, financial and legal documents, and volumes. In addition there are speeches, writings, printed material, pictures, and miscellaneous other types of personal papers.
This collection is a rich source of information on a number of topics. Series 1 (Correspondence) provides many details about familial relationships and social behavior of a wealthy Southern planter family. There is significantly more information about Cameron men than about Cameron women, particularly in material from the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. However, after about 1830 the women are represented in correspondence more fully, particularly by Anne Ruffin Cameron and Margaret Cameron Mordecai. In addition to Bennehan Cameron family correspondence, there are also some Mordecai family letters and Nash family letters in Series 1.
Series 2 (Family Financial and Legal Papers) and Series 6 (Volumes) contain extensive information about the Stagville Plantation and Fairntosh Plantation, as well as plantations in Person County, Wake County, and Granville County, and in Mississippi and Alabama. These materials provide minute details about crops, stock, tools, buildings, and management of these lucrative enterprises. There is a wealth of information about the slave labor force on the plantations, their original owners, where they were bought, how much they cost, their names, their ages, where they worked, what they did, what they wore, and their illnesses. These papers also document the transportation and marketing of the agricultural products of the plantations.
Series 2 and Series 6 also provide a wealth of information about the Stagville Store, other stores, sawmills, grist mills, and blacksmith shops located on the Cameron lands.
Series 3 (Duncan Cameron's Legal Papers) provide extensive documentation of Duncan Cameron's legal career from 1797 until about 1817 as an attorney and superior court judge.
The papers also contain some information about the birth and development of important institutions in North Carolina: the State Bank, the University of North Carolina, the North Carolina State Militia, the Episcopal Church, railroads, and state government, in all of which the Camerons were actively involved.
Duncan Cameron's involvement in the State Bank of North Carolina, the Bank of the State of North Carolina, and other banks is documented extensively in Series 1 and Subseries 5.2 (Bank Material). Richard Bennehan, Duncan Cameron, and Paul Cameron all served on the Board of Trustees of the University of North Carolina. Letters from University presidents and other board members can be found in Series 1. Documentation of monetary contributions to the University are in Subseries 2.1 (Accounts). Duncan Cameron's service as a Major General in the North Carolina State Militia after the War of 1812 is documented in Subseries 5.3. The Camerons' involvement in the development of the Episcopal Church in North Carolina in the early nineteenth century is documented by letters from bishops and others in Series 1; by receipts, deeds, and other documents in Series 2; and by printed material in Subseries 5.4 (Church Material). Papers pertaining to the North Carolina Railroad and other railroads are found in Subseries 2.1 (Accounts) and Subseries 5.9 (Railroads). Correspondence pertaining to the railroads is in Series 1. Duncan Cameron's service in the House of Commons and State Senate representing Orange County is documented in Series 1 and in Subseries 5.8 (Politics).
The original order of this collection is unknown except for some material in an addition received in 1983. That material is now located in Subseries 2.6. (Estate Papers) and remains much as it arrived.Back to Top
Business and personal correspondence of the Cameron family, particularly of Richard Bennehan (1743-1825), Duncan Cameron (1777-1853), and Paul Cameron (1808-1891). There is some correspondence of Thomas Bennehan (1782-1847) and Margaret Cameron Mordecai (1811-1886). Some Nash family and Mordecai family correspondence is included among the Cameron letters.
The series is divided into eight subseries. The first six subseries divide the Cameron correspondence which spans 180 years into smaller time periods during which one or more of the Bennehan or Cameron men was dominant. The last two subseries contain undated letters: subseries 1.7 contains undated letters written by members of the Cameron family; subseries 1.8 contains letters written by non family members.
Business and personal correspondence of Richard Bennehan, his son Thomas Bennehan, his daughter Rebecca Bennehan, and his wife Mary Amis Bennehan. During the years covered by this subseries, Richard Bennehan was in business with William Johnston, and then in business for himself. The material in this subseries predates the arrival of Duncan Cameron in North Carolina.
The bulk of this material consists of business letters to Richard Bennehan from his partner William Johnston of Hillsborough, N.C., with whom Bennehan owned the Little River Store, and from Bennehan's factor and former employer Edward Stabler of Petersburg, Va. Among Bennehan's other business correspondents are merchants David Buchanan of Petersburg, Va., John Alston of Glasgow, Scotland, James Gibson of Suffolk, Va., and Andrew Miller of Halifax, N.C.
Letters chiefly focus on various aspects of the mercantile business, particularly on market conditions, transportation problems, counterfeit money, and prices for tobacco, sugar, rum, and salt. In these letters, there are some passing references made to the War of Regulation, the American Revolution, the Constitution, and the economy. A letter, dated 9 June 1771, from William Johnston anticipates Governor Tryon's arrival in Hillsborough after the Battle of Alamance. In a letter, dated 15 February 1776, Bennehan's participation in the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge is alluded to. William Johnston's death in 1785 is documented, as is Bennehan's subsequent purchase of the Stagville property and building of the Stagville Store in 1787.
Business letters to Richard Bennehan written after 1789 chiefly consist of letters from Ebenezer Stott of Petersburg, Va., who was Bennehan's primary factor during the 1790s. These letters frequently include statements of account, in addition to the usual discussions of market conditions and news.
Among Bennehan's other correspondents during this period are Jesse Benton, William Richardson Davie, Thomas Hart, Allen Jones, Nathaniel Rochester, and Samuel Ashe. A letter, dated 13 July 1796, from Ashe documents Bennehan's gift of books to the library at the University of North Carolina.
Thomas Bennehan's correspondence with his parents Richard and Mary Amis Bennehan and his sister Rebecca date from 1795, when Thomas left for Chapel Hill, N.C., to attend the preparatory school at the University, to 1801, when he graduated from UNC.
The letters between Thomas and Rebecca are particularly numerous. There is only one letter written by Mary Amis Bennehan to Thomas, but there are frequent exchanges between father and son. There are also several letters to Thomas from his classmates, including his cousin Thomas Gale Amis.
There are few letters written to Bennehan in Virginia before he moved to North Carolina in 1768. There are no letters from Bennehan's relatives except for letters from his wife's brother Thomas Amis of Halifax County, N.C.
For financial material pertaining to the Little River Store and the Stagville Store, see Subseries 2.1.1., 6.1., and 6.3. 6.7. For other documentation of Richard Bennehan's contributions to the University of North Carolina, see Subseries 2.1.1.
The bulk of material in this subseries is from the period when Duncan Cameron and Richard Bennehan were in business together. The earliest material in this subseries actually predates Duncan Cameron's marriage to Rebecca Bennehan and his business dealings with her father. The subseries ends with the death of Richard Bennehan.
Chiefly business letters to Richard Bennehan, with some business and personal letters of Duncan Cameron. Richard Bennehan corresponded frequently with his factor Ebenezer Stott of Petersburg, Va., during these years. There are also occasional letters from other merchants, as well as from Bennehan's friends, William Richardson Davie, Jesse Benton, and Samuel Ashe.
Throughout these years there are numerous letters between Richard Bennehan and his son Thomas who was studying at the University of North Carolina. There are also letters between Thomas Bennehan and his sister Rebecca, who remained at home. These letters both provide information about student life in the early days of the University, and suggest the character of the Bennehans' family ties.
Letters written to Duncan Cameron are from members of his family in Virginia, and from clients and associates. There are letters from Duncan Cameron's father John Cameron, his brothers John and William, and his sisters Jean and Anna, all of whom lived in Lunenberg, Va. Duncan Cameron's sister, Mary Read Anderson, and her husband Daniel Anderson of Petersburg, Va., were frequent correspondents, as was Duncan Cameron's uncle Ewen Cameron of Franklin, Tenn. Among Duncan Cameron's other correspondents are William Richardson Davie, Archibald D. Murphey, James Turner, John Hogg, John Lenox, and Richard Henderson.
Some scattered correspondence between Frederick Nash, who was Cameron's cousin, and Nash's mother Mary Witherspoon is included. During this period Frederick Nash attended Princeton University and wrote to his mother in New Bern, N.C.
For further documentation of Duncan Cameron's legal practice see Series 3 and Subseries 6.10.
Chiefly letters to Richard Bennehan and Duncan Cameron, with some letters to Thomas Bennehan and Rebecca Bennehan Cameron. Included are drafts or copies of some of Duncan Cameron's outgoing letters.
Richard Bennehan's correspondents include his factors in Petersburg, Va., particularly Ebenezer Stott, and his friends and associates William Richardson Davie, Robert Williams, Joseph Caldwell, and Richard Henderson. There are no letters from Bennehan's Virginia relatives except for his nephew William Bennehan, who moved to North Carolina in the 1790s and worked at the Stagville Store and then at the store at Fishdam Ford until his death in 1806. There are several letters from members of the Amis family of Halifax and Northampton counties, N.C. The letters mostly pertain to breeding horses, which was of particular interest to the Amises because they owned Sir Archie, a stud horse who had been a star racing thoroughbred.
After Richard's daughter Rebecca married Duncan Cameron in 1803, there are many letters to Richard Bennehan from Cameron. Beginning in 1806, these letters document the lucrative partnership between Duncan Cameron and Richard and Thomas Bennehan, which combined their lands and stores into a thriving business.
Duncan Cameron's correspondents included clients from his legal practice, and friends, especially William Richardson Davie, James Webb, Joseph Gales, Archibald Murphey, and Willie P. Mangum. Cameron's family in Virginia were regular correspondents. There are many letters from his father John Cameron of Lunenberg, Va., and from his sisters Mary Read Anderson and Jean Syme of Petersburg, Va. These letters document Duncan Cameron's support of his younger brothers William and John Cameron who were sent to the University of North Carolina by Duncan and then employed by him in Hillsborough, N.C., as clerks in his law office and clerks in the store in Hillsborough run by Cameron's step nephew George Anderson. There are also letters regularly from Richard Bennehan and Thomas Bennehan.
In 1800 and 1801, there are letters from Thomas Bennehan to his parents and to sister Rebecca written while Thomas was at the University of North Carolina. Throughout the decade there are letters to Thomas Bennehan from his cousin Thomas Gale Amis who was an orphan and had been sent to the University with his cousin by Richard Bennehan. After Thomas Amis's graduation, he worked on merchant ships in the West Indies. According to Jean Anderson in her book Piedmont Plantation, Amis may have been sent away because he was in love with Rebecca. His letters to Thomas Bennehan richly describe Guadeloupe, Santo Domingo, and other Caribbean ports, and his perceptions of slavery and the slave rebellion in the West Indies.
Chiefly letters to Duncan Cameron from members of his family, business partners, clients, factors, and friends. There are a few of Duncan Cameron's outgoing letters to members of his family and scattered manuscript copies of outgoing business letters. Some correspondence of Richard Bennehan, Thomas Bennehan, and Rebecca Bennehan Cameron is also included. In addition, there are scattered letters to Duncan Cameron's cousin Frederick Nash from clients, letters to Nash's wife Mary from her sisters, and some correspondence between brothers Samuel and George W. Mordecai.
Duncan Cameron's most frequent correspondents during this period were his siblings, Mary Read Anderson of Petersburg, Va., William Cameron of Petersburg, John Adams Cameron of Fayetteville, N.C., and Jean Syme of Petersburg. Mary Read Anderson, always a diligent correspondent, wrote even more often during this period because her husband Daniel Anderson died, making Duncan Cameron the executor of his will and the guardian of his sons, William and Walker Anderson.
William Cameron and Samuel Snow, who were Duncan Cameron's partners in a mercantile business in Petersburg, wrote frequently to Duncan Cameron, keeping him abreast of market conditions. John Adams Cameron, who depended on his brother for financial aid after a debilitating wound in the War of 1812, was a frequent correspondent.
Duncan Cameron's brother Thomas Cameron of Pa., and his parents John and Mary Owen Cameron of Lunenberg, Va., wrote to Duncan occasionally. There are several letters from Duncan Cameron's cousin, or perhaps uncle, Ewen Cameron of Franklin, Tenn. Beginning in 1818, there are occasional letters from Duncan Cameron's nephew Walker Anderson who was attending The University of North Carolina. There are also several letters from Frederick Nash.
Rebecca Bennehan Cameron also received letters from Duncan's family. In 1817 and 1818, she also received regular letters from her daughter Mary Anne Cameron who attended Mordecai Female Seminary in Warrenton, N.C. Notes from Mary Anne's teachers about her deportment and scholastic progress often appear on the backs of Mary Anne's letters.
Duncan Cameron's legal practice and subsequent appointment to a Superior Court judgeship frequently took him away from home to county courts across North Carolina. There are many letters from Rebecca to Duncan during these absences keeping Duncan informed about the health of the family. Richard and Thomas Bennehan also wrote to Duncan when he was away, consulting with him about business matters involving their partnership.
Very little of Richard and Thomas Bennehan's correspondence is preserved for this period. There are a few letters exchanged between the two when one was away on business, or when, in 1813, Richard was taking a water cure in Warm Springs, Va. Richard Bennehan's nephew Richard Bennehan wrote occasionally from Richmond County, Va. Several members of the Amis family wrote to Bennehan, mostly concerning horse breeding, especially about the famous stud horse and thoroughbred racer Sir Archie. Thomas Bennehan and Rebecca Bennehan Cameron received some letters from their cousins Frances Goodwin Smith and Mary Phillips.
In addition to Duncan Cameron's voluminous family correspondence, there is also substantial correspondence dealing with his legal practice and his various business partnerships. There are many letters from mercantile businesses on the eastern seaboard that employed Cameron as lawyer primarily to collect debts on their behalf. There are also letters from merchants/factors from whom Duncan Cameron bought goods to stock stores he owned and to whom he supplied tobacco and wheat grown on the Bennehan Cameron lands or that he had accepted as payment at the Bennehan Cameron stores. The most frequent merchant correspondents for this period are Rogers and Winthrop of New York, Ebenezer Stott of Petersburg, Roger Lamberth of New York, Pattison Hartshorne of Philadelphia, McEwen, Hale, and Davidson of Philadelphia, John MacMillian of Fayetteville, John Hogg of Wilmington, N.C., Edward Lyde of New York, Robert Walker of Petersburg, W. Haxell of Petersburg, John Thompkins of Richmond, and John and James Dunlop of England. There are also letters from Sam Yarborough who ran the Stagville Store and from Sam Dickins, a plantation overseer.
There are also many letters from other clients for whom Duncan Cameron did legal work as well as from other lawyers with whom Cameron worked. Extensive correspondence concerns the settlement of the estate of Absolum Tatum of Nashville, Tenn. Cameron worked on this case with Abram Maury, a Nashville lawyer, and Samuel Goodwin, comptroller general of North Carolina.
Duncan Cameron was extensively involved in the establishment of the State Bank of North Carolina during this period. He corresponded regularly with bank officers and the officers of other North Carolina banks. Among his correspondents were William Polk, William H. Haywood, John Haywood, William Boylan, Peter Browne, and J. W. Wright.
Various North Carolina senators and representatives in the United States Congress wrote to Duncan Cameron periodically informing him of legislation dealing with trade, and giving him news about the embargo, the War of 1812, and the Treaty of Paris. There are letters to Cameron from a number of individuals in Washington including James Turner, Archibald McBryde, William Gaston, James Culpepper, and Richard Stanford.
During this period, Duncan Cameron was a representative in the North Carolina House of Commons and Senate. In 1819, when he became a senator, he became chairman of the influential Internal Improvement Committee originally led by Cameron's friend Archibald Murphey. Correspondence from this period, especially letters from Archibald Murphey, documents Cameron's involvement in state politics.
From 1814 to 1816, when Cameron served as a major general in the North Carolina Militia, he received letters from Robert Williams, the adjutant general, dealing with militia matters. Other correspondents include Richard Henderson, Paul Carrington, James Webb, John Devereaux, Thomas B. Littlejohn, Walter Alves, W. G. Grove, William Norwood, and Thomas Ruffin.
For more information on the State Bank of North Carolina, see Subseries 5.2. For more documentation relating to Duncan Cameron's service in the Militia see Subseries 5.3. For more material relating to Duncan Cameron's legal practice, see Series 3 and Subseries 6.10. For documentation of the Bennehans' and Camerons' financial relationships with their factors, see Subseries 2.1 and 2.9. For further documentation of Duncan Cameron's participation in the Committee for Internal Improvement, see Subseries 5.8.
Chiefly business and family letters written to Duncan Cameron, and some letters addressed to Richard Bennehan and to Thomas Bennehan. A few letters to Rebecca Bennehan Cameron and her daughter Mary Anne Cameron from family members are included. Correspondence between George W. Mordecai and his sister Mrs. Lazarus of Wilmington, N.C., is also included.
Duncan Cameron's siblings Mary Read Anderson, Jean Syme, John Adams Cameron, William Cameron, and Thomas Cameron wrote to him frequently, communicating family news and asking his advice. There are occasional letters from Cameron's mother Anne Owen Cameron, his uncle or cousin Ewen Cameron of Franklin, Tenn., his step nephew George Anderson, his nephew Walker Anderson, and his nephew William Anderson while he was attending the University of North Carolina from 1822 to 1826.
There are letters from Duncan Cameron's son Paul Cameron to Paul's sister Mary Anne and to his parents from the various schools he attended, including the University of North Carolina from which he was expelled in 1824, and Partridge's Academy (1825 and 1826). Included are letters from Paul's instructors concerning his progress in school and his deportment; from John Rudd who ran a school in Elizabethtown, Conn.; and from Captain Partridge concerning Paul's brother Thomas who had an intellectual disability.
Duncan Cameron's involvement in the Episcopal Church is well documented. He received regular correspondence from General Theological Seminary in New York on whose board of trustees he served. He corresponded with Bishop John Ravenscroft about various church matters. Ravenscroft and Cameron were also involved in business dealings together. Cameron was also a vice president of the American Bible Society and the American Sunday School Society during the 1820s and received regular correspondence from the two organizations.
During this period Duncan Cameron was involved in the State Bank of North Carolina. He corresponded with J. W. Wright of the Bank of Cape Fear, Samuel Haywood of the Bank of New Bern, William H. Haywood and Peter Browne of the State Bank, and John Brockenbrough and William Dandridge of the Bank of Virginia.
The Bennehans and Camerons corresponded with many merchants who served as their commission merchants and for whom Duncan Cameron collected debts. Among these merchant firms are Ebenezer Stott of Petersburg, Va., Robert Hamilton of Petersburg, James Davidson of Petersburg, Charles C. Watson of Philadelphia, Hamilton and Donaldson of New York, Duncan Thompson of Fayetteville, N.C., and John Taylor of Wilmington.
Other frequent correspondents of Duncan Cameron, Richard Bennehan, and Thomas Bennehan from the 1820s include Thomas Ruffin, Archibald Murphey, Richard Henderson, Dr. James Webb, Walter Alves, William Polk, William Boylan, Thomas B. Littlejohn, Joseph Gales, James Mebane, Joseph B. Skinner, William Norwood, Joseph Caldwell, Elisha Mitchell, Charles Manley, Samuel Yarborough, Thomas Devereaux, John Hogg, James Latta, Samuel Snow, and Dr. Lenco Mitchell. There is a letter in 1823 from Henry Clay recommending a Virginia lawyer to work in North Carolina.
For more documentation of the Bennehans' and Camerons' dealings with their factors, see Subseries 2.1. For more information on the schooling of the Cameron children see Subseries 4.3, 5.1, and 6.12. For further documentation of Duncan Cameron's involvement in the State Bank of North Carolina, see Subseries 5.2.
This subseries chiefly contains letters written to Duncan Cameron, with some letters to Thomas Bennehan and other family members. This material documents the period during which Duncan Cameron was the sole patriarch of the Cameron Family. The subseries ends with his death.
Chiefly business and family letters written to Duncan Cameron. There are some letters addressed to Thomas Bennehan. A few letters to Rebecca Bennehan Cameron and her daughter Mary Anne Cameron from family members are included. Correspondence between George W. Mordecai and his sister Mrs. Lazarus of Wilmington, N.C., is also included.
There are many letters from Duncan Cameron's siblings Mary Read Anderson, Jean Syme, John Adams Cameron, William Cameron, and Thomas Cameron who wrote to him frequently communicating family news and asking his advice. There are occasional letters from Cameron's uncle or cousin Ewen Cameron of Franklin, Tenn., his step nephew George Anderson, and his nephews Walker Anderson and William Anderson.
There are letters from Duncan Cameron's son Paul Cameron at Washington College (now Trinity College) in Hartford, Conn., from 1826 until Paul's graduation in 1829. Included are letters from Paul's instructors concerning his progress in school and his deportment. There are letters from Captain Partridge concerning Paul's brother Thomas who had an intellectual disability and attended Partridge's school.
Duncan Cameron's involvement in the Episcopal Church during the late 1820s is well documented. Correspondents include Bishop John Ravenscroft, Bishop Brownell, Rev. William Mercer Green, and Rev. Richard Mason. Duncan Cameron received regular correspondence from General Theological Seminary in New York on whose board of trustees he served. He was also a vice president of the American Bible Society and the American Sunday School Society throughout the 1820s and received regular correspondence from the two organizations.
In the late 1820s, Duncan Cameron became more deeply involved in the State Bank of North Carolina, and in 1829 he was made president of the bank. He corresponded frequently with other officers and stockholders in the State Bank, as well as with officials of other banks in North Carolina and Virginia. Correspondents included William Haywood, William Boylan, John Haywood, and Peter Browne of the State Bank. Cameron also corresponded with J. W. Wright of the Bank of Cape Fear, Samuel Haywood of the Bank of New Bern, and John Brockenbrough and William Dandridge of the Bank of Virginia.
Duncan Cameron and Thomas Bennehan corresponded with many merchants who served as their commission merchants and for whom Duncan Cameron collected debts. Among these merchant firms are Ebenezer Stott of Petersburg, Va., Thomas and Robert Dunn of Petersburg, Robert Hamilton of Petersburg, James Davidson of Petersburg, Charles C. Watson of Philadelphia, Hamilton and Donaldson of New York, Duncan Thompson of Fayetteville, N.C., John Huske of Fayetteville, and John Taylor of Wilmington.
Other frequent correspondents of Duncan Cameron, from 1826 to 1829, include Thomas Ruffin, William H. Haywood, Jr., Archibald Murphey, Richard Henderson, Dr. James Webb, Walter Alves, William Polk, William Boylan, John Haywood, Thomas B. Littlejohn, John Buford, Samuel Ashe, Joseph Gales, Dr. Joseph Umstead, W. P. Mangum, William Cain, James Mebane, William Kirkland, Joseph B. Skinner, John Hawkins, Gavin Hogg, William Norwood, Joseph Caldwell, Elisha Mitchell, Charles Manley, Samuel Yarborough, and Dr. Lenco Mitchell. There is a letter from Henry Clay in 1827, referring to an earlier recommendation he made in 1823.
For more documentation of the dealings of Thomas Bennehan and Duncan Cameron with their factors, see Subseries 2.1. For more information on the schooling of the Cameron children, see Subseries 4.3, 5.1, and 6.12. For further documentation of Duncan Cameron's involvement in the State Bank of North Carolina, see Subseries 5.2.
Acquisitions information: Accession 101135
Chiefly letters to Duncan Cameron from business associates, friends, and family. There are also some letters to Thomas Bennehan, some letters to Paul Cameron, some to Anne Ruffin Cameron, and letters to other Cameron women from aunts, cousins, and their governess Mary McLean Bryant.
Duncan Cameron's sisters and brother Mary Read Anderson and Jean Syme of Petersburg, Va., and John Adams Cameron of Fayetteville, N.C., wrote to Duncan often. John Adams Cameron also wrote from Vera Cruz, Mexico, where he was serving as United States consul. William and Walker Anderson, Duncan Cameron's nephews, also wrote to him frequently. During this period, Rebecca Bennehan Cameron and her daughters received frequent letters from Mary Read Anderson, Jean Syme, and many cousins relating family news. Included are a few of Paul Cameron's letters to Anne Ruffin Cameron before they married in 1832 and some of their correspondence after they married. There are letters to Anne Ruffin Cameron from her relatives, including Thomas Ruffin, Alice Ruffin, Catherine Roulhac, J. G. Roulhac, and members of the Kirkland family.
Family letters particularly document the following topics: Anne Ruffin Cameron's stillborn children in 1835 and 1836; Paul Cameron's dissatisfaction with law, his resignation from the bar, and his move to Fairntosh in 1837; Duncan Cameron's permanent move to Raleigh, N.C., in 1836; Duncan Cameron's daughters' struggles with tuberculosis and family trips made to various springs in search of a cure for the disease; the trip south to Charleston, S.C., and Florida in 1839 to try to cure Anne Owen Cameron; and, finally, the deaths of four of Duncan Cameron's daughters from tuberculosis.
During the 1830s Duncan Cameron was deeply involved in the Bank of the State of North Carolina. He was made president of the institution in 1834, prompting his move to Raleigh in 1836. He frequently corresponded with the officers, stockholders, and board members of the State Bank as well as with officers of other banks in North Carolina and Virginia. Among his correspondents were Charles Dewey, George Mordecai, Peter Browne, and E. P. Guion of the State Bank, Samuel Haywood of the Bank of New Bern, S. W. Wright of the Bank of Cape Fear, and an officer of the Bank of Virginia.
Duncan Cameron continued his active involvement in the Episcopal Church in North Carolina during the 1830s. His purchase of the defunct Episcopal Boys School of Raleigh, in 1833, is documented, as is the School's metamorphosis into Saint Mary's School for Girls in 1837. He continued to serve on the Board of the General Theological Seminary in New York and as vice president of the American Bible Society, receiving regular letters from these organizations. In 1831, his service as a lay delegate to the North Carolina Diocesan Convention is documented. During the 1830s, Cameron corresponded with Rev. William Mercer Green, Bishop Levi Silliman Ives, and Rev. George Freeman.
Throughout this period the plantation holdings of the Bennehans and Camerons continued to grow. There are many letters from the family's factors, particularly Keven and Hamilton of Petersburg, John Huske of Fayetteville, Hamilton and Company of New York, and Charles Watson of Philadelphia. There are letters from the millers and overseers whom the family employed to manage the slaves and operate the sawmills and grist mills on the rivers that ran across their land. These letters as well as the family letters document details about slavery, agriculture, the Stagville Store, and the post office at Stagville.
Other frequent correspondents of the Camerons and Bennehans include Dr. James Webb, Gavin Hogg, William Gaston, John Devereaux, Archibald Murphey, John D. Hawkins, W. P. Mangum, James Mebane, Joseph Gales, Thomas Littlejohn, William H. Haywood, William Boylan, William A. Graham, and John Kirkland.
For further information on banks, see Subseries 5.2. For documentation of the sale of the Episcopal Boys School in Raleigh to Duncan Cameron, in 1833, see Subseries 2.1. For other documentation of the family's involvement in the Episcopal Church, see Subseries 5.4. For documentation of the financial transactions between the Camerons and Bennehans and their factors see Subseries 2.1.
Chiefly business and family letters to Duncan Cameron, correspondence between Duncan Cameron and Paul Cameron, and letters from relatives to Anne Ruffin Cameron, Margaret Bain Cameron, and Mildred Coles Cameron.
In the 1840s, Duncan Cameron continued to correspond regularly with his sisters, Mary Read Anderson (until her death in 1844) and Jean Syme (until her death in 1846). Duncan Cameron also received regular correspondence from his nephews William Anderson of Wilmington, N.C., and Walker Anderson of Pensacola, Fla.
There are some letters addressed to Thomas Bennehan until his death in 1847. The Cameron women corresponded extensively with their extended family. Among their correspondents were Eliza Cameron, Anna Cameron, Frances Cameron, Mary Edmunds, Eliza Nash Anderson, Anna M., Kirkland, Alice Ruffin, Mary Jones, Emma Cameron, Molly Gale, and Isabelle Cameron. Margaret Cameron and Mildred Cameron also kept in regular contact with their old governess Mary McLean Bryant.
Duncan Cameron continued to be president of the Bank of the State of North Carolina throughout the 1840s until his resignation in 1849. He corresponded frequently with Charles Dewey and others in the banking community.
Duncan Cameron continued to serve on the Board of Trustees of General Theological Seminary in New York in the 1840s. He received letters from Rev. William Mercer Green, Bishop Otey, Rev. Richard Mason of Christ Church in Raleigh, N.C., and Rev. Aldert Smedes. There are several letters reflecting Cameron's presidency of the North Carolina Bible Society and involvement in the Scotch Relief Committee.
Paul Cameron and Thomas Bennehan managed the plantations in the 1840s. Their primary factors were Andrew Keven and Brothers of Petersburg, Va., and John Huske of Fayetteville, N.C. Paul Cameron's trips to Mississippi and Alabama in 1844 are documented. There are regular letters from Charles Lewellyn, the overseer on Paul Cameron's plantation in Greene County, Ala. There are also letters from the overseers of plantations in North Carolina including, William Piper, William Hams, and James Colman. In 1847, there is correspondence about a slave named Milton who ran away from the Greene County Plantation and was eventually apprehended. There are also two letters written from Liberia by Virgil Bennehan, Thomas Bennehan's mulatto slave who was freed in Thomas Bennehan's will.
Other frequent correspondents include William Cain, David L. Swain, Hugh Waddell, John Devereaux, William Norwood, C. P. Mallet, William A. Graham, Cad Jones, William Polk, George Haywood, W. P. Mangum, Dr. James Webb, George Badger, Joseph B. Skinner, and William Boylan.
See Subseries 2.1 for documentation of the financial dealings between Paul Cameron and his factors. See Subseries 5.2 for more information on banking.
Letters written to Duncan Cameron, Paul Cameron, and Margaret Bain Cameron. The family correspondence from this period documents the following: the death of Duncan Cameron in 1853, the marriage of Margaret Bain Cameron to George Mordecai in 1853; the mysterious and devastating illness suffered by Mildred and the long trip to Philadelphia by Margaret and Mildred to try a new doctor for Mildred; malaria epidemics at Fairntosh; and Paul Cameron's growing interest in purchasing land in the deep south and his subsequent purchase of land in Greene County, Ala.
Although Duncan Cameron relinquished the presidency of the Bank of the State of North Carolina in 1849, he continued to correspond regularly with officers of the bank until he was close to death in 1853. There are frequent letters from George W. Mordecai, the bank's new president, and letters from Charles Dewey, the secretary of the bank. There are also letters from various family members written to Duncan Cameron.
There are many letters to Paul Cameron from his commission merchants, Andrew Kevan of Petersburg, Va.; C. J. Haigh and Son of Fayetteville, N.C.; and Tartt, Stewart and Co. of Mobile, Ala. There are also letters from John Webster, overseer of the plantation in Greene County.
There are letters to Paul Cameron documenting his growing interest in building railroads in North Carolina, eventually leading to his signing a contract to build a section of the North Carolina Railroad.
Among Paul Cameron's frequent correspondents are David L. Swain, Cad Jones, William A. Graham, Charles Phillips, Joseph Wright, V. F. Caldwell, Charles Manly, J. W. Norwood, William Mercer Green, George Freeman, Ken Rayner, and Charles Fisher.
Paul and Margaret Cameron wrote to each other frequently and also corresponded with many other relatives including John W. Cameron, Walker Anderson, W. H. Ruffin, J. B. G. Roulhac, Lizzie Jones, Mary Edmunds, Fanny Roulhac, William Anderson, Robert Walker Anderson, Rowena Hines, Susan Hines, Thomas Ruffin, Sr., Mary Lucas, Anna Kirkland, Eliza Thompson, Margaret Devereux, and Ellen Mordecai. Margaret, called "Maggie," also received letters from Adelaide Montmollin and Louise DeEnde who were friends Margaret made while caring for Millie in Philadelphia; Mary McLean Bryant, who had been the Camerons' governess when Margaret and Mildred were young; and Charlotte Rice, Thomas Bennehan's housekeeper.
This subseries documents the activities of Paul Cameron and his family after the death of Duncan Cameron, until the end of Civil War.
Chiefly family letters written to Paul Cameron and Margaret Cameron Mordecai. The family correspondence from this period documents the following: the continuing illness suffered by Mildred and several trips to Philadelphia and New York made by Margaret and Mildred to try new doctors and climates for Mildred; Anne and Paul Cameron's move to Hillsborough, N.C.; malaria epidemics at Fairntosh which finally prompted the move to town; and Paul Cameron's trips to his plantations in the deep South. A few document farm operations in the wartime economy.
Much of the family correspondence consists of letters between Paul and Margaret "Maggie" (Cameron) Mordecai, who wrote to each other frequently. There are also many letters from relatives of the Camerons, to whom Margaret wrote regularly, including Mollie Gales, Seaton Gales, John W. Cameron, Walker Anderson, W. H. Ruffin, J. B. G. Roulhac, Lizzie Jones, Mary Edmunds, Fanny Roulhac, William Anderson, Robert Walker Anderson, Rowena Hines, Susan Hines, Thomas Ruffin, Sr., Mary Lucas, Anna Kirkland, Maria Nash, Eliza Thompson, Isabelle Cameron, Margaret Devereux, Emma Mordecai, Ellen Mordecai, Catherine Roulhac, and Jane Ruffin. Margaret also continued to receive letters from Adelaide Montmollin and Louise DeEnde who were her friends in Philadelphia. There are also frequent letters from Mary McLean Bryant, who was the Cameron girls' old governess. During this period, there are letters received by Anne Ruffin Cameron from her Ruffin relatives. Also, there are letters between Anne Ruffin Cameron and her husband Paul, when he was away on trips.
Paul Cameron's investments in agriculture are reflected in the many letters from his commission merchants, who sold the products of the Cameron plantations overseas and in urban markets. The major merchants Cameron patronized were Andrew Kevan of Petersburg, Va.; C. J. Haigh and Son of Fayetteville, N.C.; Tartt, Stewart and Co. of Mobile, Ala.; and Rowland and Bro. of Norfolk, Va. There are also letters from John Webster, overseer of the plantation in Greene County, Ala., and, after 1857, from Wilson Oberry, who replaced him. Letters from James A. Jeter and William Lamb, overseers of the plantation in Tunica County, Miss., are included, as are letters from William and Samuel Piper, who were the overseers at Fairntosh.
Although Paul Cameron's vast land holdings were his first priority, he did contract to build a section of the North Carolina Railroad (NCRR) in the 1850s. There are letters dealing with the contract and other railroad business, particularly letters from Charles Fisher, an official of the NCRR. There are also some letters documenting Cameron's election to one term in the State Senate in 1856.
Paul Cameron's correspondents included David L. Swain, Cad Jones, William A. Graham, Charles Phillips, Joseph Wright, V. F. Caldwell, Charles Manly, J. W. Norwood, Rev. William Mercer Green, Rev. George Freeman, and Ken Rayner.
Chiefly family letters written to Paul Cameron and his sister Margaret Mordecai, called "Maggie." Some of Paul Cameron's correspondence with his wife Anne Ruffin Cameron is included.
From 1860 to 1861, there are numerous letters to Paul Cameron from his factors, friends, and business associates. However, during the Civil War, there is very little of Paul Cameron's correspondence. According to historian R.D.W. Connor, Anne Ruffin Cameron and Bennehan Cameron burned many of Paul Cameron's papers in order to protect him when he requested a pardon from the Union government for his support of the Confederacy. The remaining family letters do provide some documentation of the family's response to the war.
Prior to the war, there are business letters written to Paul Cameron concerning his plantations and the North Carolina Railroad of which he was president in 1861. Paul Cameron's letters from his factors are numerous. Among the factors are Tartt, Stewart, and Company in Mobile, Ala.; Battle, Nobel, and Company in New Orleans, La.; Andrew Keven and Brothers in Norfolk, Va.; Rowland and Brothers in Norfolk; and E. M. Apperson and Company in Memphis, Tenn. Paul Cameron also corresponded with his out of state overseers, William Lamb in Mississippi and Wilson Oberry in Alabama.
Other correspondents of Paul Cameron include Peter Hairston, Charles Pettigrew, William Halliburton, J. W. Norwood, Worth Daniel, Thomas Bragg, Hugh Waddell, William A. Graham, Bishop James Otey, Rev. William Mercer Green, Charles Dewey, David L. Swain, Kemp P. Battle, Charles Fisher, Rev. George Patterson, and Thomas Webb.
During the war, the bulk of the letters deal with domestic topics. There are letters from Paul and Anne Cameron's sons Duncan Cameron and Bennehan Cameron written from the schools they attended. There are also letters from their teachers and headmasters about the boys' deportment and academic progress. Duncan Cameron's several attempts to run away are documented. Some of George Mordecai's personal and business correspondence is also scattered among the Cameron family letters.
Margaret Cameron Mordecai (Maggie) continued her prolific correspondence with her extended family throughout the Civil War. Her invalid sister Mildred lived with the Mordecais during this period. Margaret also continued to receive letters from her friends in Philadelphia, Adelaide Montmollin and Louise DeEnde. Margaret corresponded with Emma Mordecai, Laurine Mordecai, Mary Jones, Phebe Hawks, Rebecca Anderson, Mary Lucas, and Robert Walker Anderson. In addition there are letters to Anne Ruffin Cameron from members of the Ruffin family, including Catherine Roulhac, and Thomas Ruffin, Jr.
For more documentation of the schooling of Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron's children, see Subseries 4.3 and 5.1. For documentation of Paul Cameron's service to the Confederacy, see Subseries 5.3. See Subseries 2.9 for Confederate Bonds. See Subseries 2.1 for documentation of financial transactions between Paul Cameron and his factors.
This subseries documents the post-Civil War activities of Paul Cameron, with some material relating to Margaret Mordecai and other family members.
Chiefly family letters written to Paul Cameron and his sister Margaret Mordecai, called "Maggie." Some of Paul Cameron's correspondence with his wife Anne Ruffin Cameron is included. There are also business letters written to Paul Cameron concerning his plantations and the North Carolina Railroad and other railroads in the state. Some of George Mordecai's personal and business correspondence is also scattered among the Cameron family letters.
After the Civil War, the correspondence relating to the management of the Camerons' vast land holdings changes. There are letters describing the aftermath of emancipation, including the looting of Fairntosh by former slaves and the Cameron's response to the chaotic circumstances. After emancipation Paul Cameron relinquished much of the direct control of his plantations to tenant farmers. Although he maintained contact with his antebellum factors Tartt, Stewart, and Company in Mobile, Ala., Battle, Nobel, and Company in New Orleans, La., Andrew Keven and Brothers in Norfolk, Va., and E. M. Apperson and Company in Memphis, Tenn., Cameron did not have as many agricultural products to sell as he did before the war.
Paul Cameron remained involved in the North Carolina Railroad after the Civil War, and began to become interested in investing in mills and other industrial ventures. His correspondents during these years included Peter Hairston, Charles Pettigrew, William Halliburton, J. W. Norwood, Worth Daniel, Thomas Bragg, Hugh Waddell, William A. Graham, Bishop James Otey, Rev. William Mercer Green, Charles Dewey, David L. Swain, Kemp P. Battle, Charles Fisher, Rev. George Patterson, and Thomas Webb.
During these years there are letters to Paul and Anne Cameron from their sons Duncan Cameron and Bennehan Cameron who were at school. There are also letters from their teachers and headmasters about the boys' deportment and academic progress. There are frequent letters from Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron's daughter Anne Cameron Collins (Annie), her husband George P. Collins, who moved to Tunica County, Miss., to run Paul Cameron's plantation there after the Civil War. There are also letters from another daughter, Rebecca Cameron Graham, and her husband John Graham.
Margaret Cameron Mordecai (Maggie) continued to care for her invalid sister Mildred. There are frequent exchanges between Paul Cameron and Margaret Mordecai about the health of Mildred, as well as other family business. Margaret continued to receive letters from her friends in Philadelphia, Adelaide Montmollin and Louise DeEnde. Margaret corresponded frequently with members of her extended family including, Emma Mordecai, Laurine Mordecai, Mary Jones, Phebe Hawks, Rebecca Anderson, Mary Lucas, and Robert Walker Anderson. Anne Ruffin Cameron's letters from the Ruffin and Roulhac families are also included.
For more documentation about the schooling of Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron's children, see Subseries 4.3 and 5.1. See Subseries 2.1 for documentation of financial transactions between Paul Cameron and his factors.
Chiefly family letters, particularly correspondence between Paul Cameron and his sister Margaret Mordecai ("Maggie"), between Paul Cameron and his wife Anne, and between Paul and Anne Cameron and their children. Also included are some letters to Paul Cameron from friends and business associates.
Family letters document the death of George Mordecai in 1871, Mildred Coles Cameron's declining health, the marriages of Paul Cameron's children, Margaret Mordecai's trip to Philadelphia for the centennial celebration in 1876, and Margaret Mordecai's involvement with Saint Mary's School in Raleigh, N.C.
Letters to Paul Cameron document his continued support of the North Carolina Railroad Company, other railroad companies, local banks, and local cotton manufacturing companies. Also well documented is Paul Cameron's leadership in the effort to reopen and rebuild the University of North Carolina which had closed during Reconstruction and fallen into disrepair. There are frequent letters from Kemp P. Battle, president of the University of North Carolina, and from Cornelia Phillips Spencer, Cameron's longtime friend and booster of the University. Paul Cameron also corresponded regularly with George W. Patterson, an Episcopal minister and family friend.
Paul Cameron continued to correspond with his factors, Andrew Keven in Petersburg, Va., and Rawland Brothers in Norfolk, Va., but the letters are much sparser than in past decades. There are letters from tenants and overseers, including, J. G. Piper, Samuel Rogers, and Wilson Oberry.
Paul Cameron's frequent correspondents include Bishop Thomas Atkinson, William A. Graham, Aldert Smedes, J. W. Norwood, Kemp P. Battle, John Kerr, George W. Thompson, Joseph B. Cheshire, John Devereaux, George Winston, William Mercer Green, Charles Dewey, and Cornelia Spencer.
This subseries consists of letters written to members of the Cameron family after the death of Paul Cameron.
Chiefly letters to Anne Cameron from her children and grandchildren. Anne Cameron also received occasional letters from Kemp P. Battle, Cornelia Phillips Spencer, and George W. Patterson. The bulk of the letters to her, however, are from family members concerning domestic matters.
Letters written to Bennehan Cameron, Paul C. Graham, and John W. Graham from lawyers and banks relating to the settlement of Paul C. Cameron's estate. From 1898 to 1914, the letters are written to Bennehan. A letter, dated 17 August 1901, deals extensively with Bennehan Square in Raleigh, N.C. After 1914, the letters are to Paul C. Graham and John W. Graham.
Arrangement: alphabetical by last name of writer.
Undated letters written by members of the Cameron family and their relatives.
Arrangement: alphabetical by last name of writer.
Undated letters from individuals (including members of the Mordecai family) who were not members of the Cameron family.
Emma [Graves?] Alderman (Mrs. Edwin A.). Elias Alexander. Amelia [Johnston] Alves. Walter Alves. B. H. Ancrum. Annie Ashe. Caroline B. Ashe. Meta Ashe. R. H. Ashe. Sam P. Ashe. R. W. Ashton. Robert Atkinson. S. P. Atkinson. EBA.
Mrs. George E. Badger. George E. Badger. M. C. Batchelor. Kemp P. Battle. Pattie (Mrs. Kemp P.) Battle. C. Bayley. Miss Beach. Fannie M. Beall. G. T. Bedell. Robert Bell. [C. J. Benton?]. Josh Blake. Tempe Blakely. Ellen Boylan. Annie E. T. Bradford. G. S. Bradshaw. George Brasfield. James Briggs. N. L. Brodnax. A. Brown. Aunt A. Brown. Peter Browne. Mrs. John H. Bryan. Mary McLean Bryant. Sarah M. Bryant. David Buchanan. Benjamin Bulloch. Miss Burgwyn. Burnett & Rigdon. Horace Burton. M. A. Burwell. S. H. Busbee. Jarvis Buxton.
E. Cain. Mary C. Cain. T. R. Cain. W. Cain. David E. Caldwell. Elias Caldwell. Helen (Hogg) Caldwell (Mrs. Joseph). R. A. Caldwell. Harriet A. Carter. Jesse Carter. Agnes Mayo Carter. Joseph Blount Cheshire. Frances Child. C. R. Childs. William Coggin. [W. Cooke?]. James Cothran. Will A. Crawford. C. P. Curtis. Mary DeRosset Curtis (Mrs. M. A.). Moses Ashley Curtis. Mary Curtis. L. Czarnowska.
M. C. Dancy. W. Dandridge. Janes Daniel. Allen Jones Davie. Anna Devereux. J. Devereux. Kate Devereux. Margaret Devereux. Meta Devereux. Thomas Pollock Devereux. C. Dewey. Jesse Dickens. Samuel Dickins. John H. [Du Cartintz?]. D[orothea] L. Dix.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/103|
Peter Early. [C. W.?] Edmonston. Franklin Felton. Hamilton Fulton. C. E. Gadsden. Joseph Gales. Mrs. Joseph Gales. L. S. Gales. Weston R. Gales. William Gaston. Andrew Gibson. James Gibson. Glass. S. W. (Mrs. William A.) Graham. Lucy A. Green. William Mercer Green.
E. J. Hale. George Haldane. James Hamilton (Granville County). Edward Hampton. J. Hawkins. W. J. Hawkins. Mrs. F. L. Hawks. John Haywood, treasurer. John Haywood, judge. Sherwood Haywood. William Haywood. W. H. Haywood. W. H. Haywood, Jr. Pleasant Henderson. Thomas Henderson. Mrs. Kate Henesse. E. Hill. E. H. Hill. Thomas B. Hill. W. F. Hilliard. C. Hines. Rowena Hines. Nellie Hinsdale. John Hogan. Gavin Hogg. James Hogg, Jr. M. W. Holt. W. Hooper. Helen Hughes. John Huske.
Mr. and Mrs. Iredell [James, Jr.?]. Lieutenant Johnson. William Johnston. Calvin Jones. Maggie Jones. Pride Jones. R. E. (Mrs. Cadwallader?) Jones. Robert H. Jones. Andrew Kevan & Bro.
F. S. Key. John N. Kirkland. Bryant Kittrell. Andrew Knox Lamb. Lawrence LeMay. [John Lenox?]. George Lightfoot. J. G. Lippett. J. Lippincott. J. R. Lloyd. F. Lock.
E. M. Ida M. W. P. Mangum. James Crew [McCaw?], Richmond, to Richard Bennehan. Benjamin McCulloch. M. McGehee. F. M. McKeithen. Cameron T. McRae. E. McMurtrie. Mary Mason. R. S. Mason. S. L. Manly. M. E. Manly. John Manning. Thomas C. Manning. Betty Marbury (34). H. H. Marbury. Juliet Marbury. Thomas Marshall to James Martin. M. Sue Marshall. W. Mebane. L. Mitchell to Thomas Bennehan. Mr. and Mrs. Miller. Ann Moore. Mary Moore. B. F. Moores. Adelaide Montmollin. Augusta Mordecai. Ellen Mordecai. Patty M[ordecai]. Henry Mordecai. M. Mordecai. John Motley Morehead (unimportant note). Martha Morse. H. Murfree. Carolina Myers.
J. W. Nicholson. Hezikiah Niles. James Norwood. W. Oberry. Robert Nash Ogden. Wm. W. Old. Alfred Palmer. James Parks. Parsons & Co. Lydia C. Partridge. George Patterson. Jeanie Patterson. Samuel F. Patterson. Dane [Pealh?] Mittie Peebles. P. F. Pescud. K. W. Petersilia. Annie S. Pettigrew. J. G. Piper. S. Piper overseer, many letters. W. Piper. Andrew J. Polk. F. A. Polk. Leonidas Polk. Sarah (Mrs. William) Polk. William Polk. Ann Pollok (fragment probably to Mrs. Richard Bennehan). William Potter to Richard Bennehan. H. [J?] Pride to Thomas D. Bennehan. Annie Quayle.
Mary D. Ramseur. John Ramsey. Susan S. (Mrs. Kenneth Rayner. J. Reid. John Grant Rencher. Crawford Riddell. Rowland. John C. Rudd about Thomas Cameron. Mary Ryan.
R. A. S. A[nna] H[ayes] (Mrs. Romulus M.) Saunders. Romulus M. Saunders. A. M. Scales. W. A. Sharpe. G[ottlieb] Shober. A. Smedes. Bennett Smedes. Sadie S. Smedes. James Smith, Jr. Jesse Smith. Richard Smith. Venal Smith. John Snow. J. Southerland. P. Southerland. W. W. Spear. Cornelia P. Spencer. Mary Stanford. Robert S. Steele. Charles Stewart. David W. Stone. Mrs. Stott. Eben[ezer] Stott. Bettie Strange. F. K. Strother. Bryant Strowd. S. Strudwick. William B. Sullivan.
E. L. T. A. Temple. C. Townsend. Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. (committee). D. & M. Trokes. Asa Turner. J. Turner. S. C. D. Turner. W. D. Turrentine. U. N. C. Dialectic Society. Z. B. Vance. W. F. Vestal.
S. H. W. Hugh Waddell. John Wadow. Robert Walker. E. Althea Warren. James Webb. R. Webb. John R. Whitaker. B. Williams. E. B. Eilleston. George T. Winston. J. Witherspoon. A. Wright. J. W. Wright. T. Wright.
Arrangement: by type and then chronological.
Accounts (Subseries 2.1), deeds and indentures (2.2), surveys and land plats (2.3), tax lists and receipts (2.4), promissory notes and bonds (2.5), estate papers (2.6), wills (2.7), insurance policies (2.8), and other papers (2.9) documenting the financial and legal affairs of members of the Cameron family and related families.
Accounts document income and expenses of members of the Cameron family and related families and their associates. Note that this subseries is divided chronologically into four periods: antebellum, Civil War, post-war, and undated. The bulk of these accounts is from the antebellum period.
See Subseries 6.2 6.7 for account books. See Subseries 2.6 for accounts relating to settlement of Cameron Family estates.
Records of income and expenses of Richard and Thomas Bennehan, their business partners William Johnston and Thomas Amis, Duncan and Paul Cameron, Margaret Mordecai, Mildred C. Cameron, and several wards supported by the Camerons. Shipping invoices, bills and receipts, various kinds of lists (for slaves (note undated folders 2044 and 2045 as well as dated), debts, tools, crops, livestock), household and store inventories, financial statements, and checks are among the types of accounts included.
The information contained on a single bill or receipt often combines personal and household expenses with plantation, store, legal, or other business expenses, demonstrating the fluidity with which the Camerons perceived their financial affairs: the private world and the world of business are not always clearly distinct in the Cameron accounts. Furthermore, different business interests are often mingled as well.
The accounts originate from diverse locations including Raleigh and Hillsborough, N.C.; New York and Philadelphia; Norfolk and Petersburg, Va.; Mobile, Ala.; and Memphis, Tenn. Some accounts span several years and are filed according to the date the account was settled or the date of the last entry.
These accounts document a myriad of services rendered or employed, and goods purchased or sold by the Camerons. Included are bills for textiles and clothing; food, liquor, and spices; tools for agriculture and carpentry; sewing and medical instruments; guns and ammunition; building supplies; household furnishings; plants and animals; music and musical instruments; books and subscriptions for newspapers and periodicals; travel expenses; tuition and school supplies; club memberships; medicines; land purchases and sales; personal items such as jewelry, eyeglasses, combs, and postage; and tombstones and coffins. Services documented include those offered by the Cameron Family such as horse breeding and Duncan Cameron's legal services, as well as services commissioned by the Camerons weaving, sewing, ditching, gardening, hauling, plastering, painting, building repairing (agricultural equipment, household furnishings, buildings), surveying, and slave hiring. Included are bills from doctors, midwives, merchants, factors, carpenters, coppersmiths, tailors, blacksmiths, seamstresses, cabinetmakers, undertakers, stonemasons, overseers, wheelwrights, jewelers, shoemakers, and many others.
Some topics of special interest which are documented by accounts include the capture of two deserters by Richard Bennehan, who was relieved of military service for this act (June 1781); subscription receipts for the Episcopal Schools of North Carolina in 1837 and subsequent bills for building and repairs at Saint Mary's seminary; beginning in the mid 1840s, receipts and slave lists showing expenses for the establishment of a plantation in Greene County, Ala.; in the early 1850s, several bills for labor and supplies used to build the North Carolina Railroad; and material concerning the University of North Carolina.
See Subseries 6.2-6.7. for account books. See Subseries 2.6 for accounts relating to the settlement of the estates of the Cameron family.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/93||
Account, 19 December 1769 #00133, Subseries: "2.1.1. Antebellum Accounts, 1767-March 1861 and undated." OP-133/93
Johnston and Bennehan with Buchanan and Cuniston.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/92||
Account, 31 August 1772 #00133, Subseries: "2.1.1. Antebellum Accounts, 1767-March 1861 and undated." OP-133/92
Johnston and Bennehan with Buchanan and Cunison.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/1|
|Oversize Paper OP-133/2|
|Oversize Paper OP-133/3|
|Oversize Paper OP-133/96|
These accounts document the income and expenses of Paul Cameron, Margaret Mordecai, Mildred C. Cameron, and others. Like the earlier accounts, these document a variety of goods and services purchased or provided by the Cameron family. In addition, they document Cameron support of the Confederacy, including receipts for fabric and merchandise associated with Margaret Mordecai's work with the Ladies Soldiers Aid Society of Raleigh (1861). See also Sub subseries 2.1.4, for undated accounts from the Civil War era.
These accounts document the income and expenses of Paul Cameron, Margaret Mordecai, Mildred C. Cameron, Thomas A. Cameron, and Bennehan Cameron. In addition to documenting a variety of goods and services purchased or provided by the Cameron family, these accounts also contain property lists and other information about the estates of Paul Cameron, Margaret Mordecai, and Mildred C. Cameron. Also included is material concerning the University of North Carolina, such as bills for construction of Memorial Hall (20 June 1885); see also an undated "estimate for completion of Swain Hall, Chapel Hill." Undated accounts from this era are in Sub subseries 2.1.4.
Arrangement: by recipient.
Undated accounts, excluding those of Richard Bennehan, Thomas Bennehan, and Duncan Cameron, and slave lists, all of which are filed in Subseries 2.1.1.
Deeds, indentures, and grants documenting the transfer of Cameron lands and slaves. The bulk of these papers represent transactions involving either Richard Bennehan or Duncan Cameron, and sometimes both. Some documents pertaining to transactions involving Thomas Bennehan, Paul Cameron, and other family members are also included. Subseries 3.1 (Duncan Cameron's Client Files) include deeds not involving the Cameron family.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/101||
Indenture, 24 January 1776 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/101
Between Tyree Harris and Richard Bennehan. In two pieces.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/63||
|Oversize Paper OP-133/100||
Indenture, 31 August 1786 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/100
Between James Freeland and Richard Bennehan.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/6||
Indenture, 27 February 1787 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/6
Between Judith Stag and Richard Bennehan.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/66||
Indenture, 10 July 1788 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/66
|Oversize Paper OP-133/69||
Indenture, 16 January 1795 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/69
|Oversize Paper OP-133/11||
Indenture, 28 November 1796 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/11
Trustees of the University of North Carolina and Richard Bennehan.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/7||
Indenture, 19 January 1798 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/7
Between Walter and Amelia Alves and Richard Bennehan for 266 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/8||
Indenture, 19 January 1798 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." XOP-133/8
Between Walter and Amelia Alves and Richard Bennehan for 266 acres in Orange County, N.C.; second copy.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/71|
|Oversize Paper OP-133/9||
Grant, 26 November 1799 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/9
From the state of North Carolina to Richard Bennehan for 247 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/10||
Indenture, 28 November 1799 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/10
Trustees of the University of North Carolina and Richard Bennehan.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/13||
Indenture, 16 April 1801 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/13
Between Anthony Richey and Richard Bennehan.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/72|
|Oversize Paper OP-133/12||
Indenture, 23 December 1801 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/12
Between John Bennehan and Richard Bennehan.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/14||
Indenture, 19 September 1812 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/14
Between Walter Alves and Richard Bennehan.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/15||
Indenture, 6 November 1812 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/15
Between Walter Alves and Thomas Bennehan.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/16||
Grant, 15 August 1822 #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." OP-133/16
State of North Carolina to Thomas Bennehan, with attached plat.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/102||
Indenture, undated #00133, Subseries: "2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated." XOP-133/102
Possibly from James Freeland to Richard Bennehan.
Surveys and plats of Cameron lands. The bulk of these surveys and plats were commissioned by either Richard Bennehan or Duncan Cameron and date from 1761 to the 1820s. Later survey maps were commissioned by Paul Cameron or his estate. For other Cameron maps, see Subseries 2.6. For survey books, see Subseries 6.8.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/17||
Downtown Raleigh, "Union Square," with lots 140, 141, 156, and 157 marked "RB." Laminated.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/18|
|Oversize Paper OP-133/19|
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/24||
Survey map, 26 October 1824 #00133, Subseries: "2.3. Surveys and Land Plats, 1761-1937 and undated." XOP-133/24
Person County, for Duncan Cameron, hand-drawn by Phillips Moore.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/75||
Map and survey, 1852 #00133, Subseries: "2.3. Surveys and Land Plats, 1761-1937 and undated." OP-133/75
White Hall, Arnaudlia, and Lake Place Plantations. Concordia Parish, La. Printed.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/76||
Tract of land lying North of Chapel Hill, N.C. Survey by Professor R.H. Graves. Hand drawn. Encolsure dated 24 February 1883.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/77||
Map of land east of Chapel Hill, N.C., July 1882 #00133, Subseries: "2.3. Surveys and Land Plats, 1761-1937 and undated." OP-133/77
R.H. Graves, Surveyor. Enclosure dated 24 February 1883.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/20||
"Map of Honorable Paul C. Cameron's Land on Flat, Eno, and Neuse Rivers in Durham, Wake, and Granville Counties," March 1890 #00133, Subseries: "2.3. Surveys and Land Plats, 1761-1937 and undated." XOP-133/20
Survey of J.G. McDuffie, white on black.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/21||
Snowhill Plantation. Survey by Sno. K. Strange.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/22||
Map, December 1920 #00133, Subseries: "2.3. Surveys and Land Plats, 1761-1937 and undated." XOP-133/22
"Proposed Subdivision of Snowhill Plantation - Durham County, N.C." Drawn by Blair and Drane, Inc., Charlotte, N.C.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/23||
Map, October 1921 #00133, Subseries: "2.3. Surveys and Land Plats, 1761-1937 and undated." XOP-133/23
"Subdivisions of Snowhill Plantation, Durham County, N.C. - The Property of the Heirs of Annie R. Collins." Plat and areas by Blair and Drane, Inc.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/25||
"Showing in Part of Timbered Land, Fairntosh Plantation."
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/26||
Map, December 1946 #00133, Subseries: "2.3. Surveys and Land Plats, 1761-1937 and undated." XOP-133/26
Division line, Fairntosh Farm.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/27|
|Oversize Paper OP-133/28|
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/29||
Paul C. Cameron's land on Flat, Eno, and Neuse Rivers in Durham, Wake, and Granville Counties. See also XOP-133/30a-b.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/30A||
Map of Honorable Paul C. Cameron's land on Flat, Eno, and Neuse Rivers in Durham, Wake, and Granville Counties. Blueprint. See also XOP-133/29.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/30B||
Map of Honorable Paul C. Cameron's land on Flat, Eno, and Neuse Rivers in Durham, Wake, and Granville Counties. Second Copy. See also XOP-133/29.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/31||
Tracts on Flat and Little Rivers, hand-drawn, laminated.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/32||
Plan of sundry tracts of land on Little River, undated #00133, Subseries: "2.3. Surveys and Land Plats, 1761-1937 and undated." XOP-133/32
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/33||
Land survey, undated #00133, Subseries: "2.3. Surveys and Land Plats, 1761-1937 and undated." XOP-133/33
A large area in Durham County, N.C. Tracts marked I-VIII. No legend.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/34||
Tract of land belonging to Richard Bennehan on Flat River.
Tax lists and receipts documenting county, town, city, and federal property taxes paid by various members of the Cameron family over a period of 150 years. The bulk of the material relates to Orange County, N.C., taxes, with some material relating to Hillsborough, N.C., town taxes and Raleigh, N.C., city taxes. There are a few tax lists for federal direct taxes, as well as for "in kind" taxes levied by the Confederacy during the Civil War. Also included are a few receipts and lists documenting taxes paid on Cameron property in Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. Manuscript copies of Orange County tax lists submitted chiefly by Richard and Thomas Bennehan from 1770 through the 1830s list slaves by name, age, and sex. The tax lists also enumerate land holdings, livestock, and farm equipment. Duncan and Paul Cameron's tax records include some detailed lists but primarily consist of receipts documenting only the amount of tax paid.
See Subseries 2.1, 2.6, 2.7, and 2.9 for more information on Cameron slave holdings.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/88|
|Oversize Paper OP-133/89|
|Oversize Paper OP-133/104||
Tax list, 25 July 1780 #00133, Subseries: "2.4. Tax Lists and Receipts, 1770-1941 and undated." OP-133/104
Descriptive list of Richard Bennehan's taxable property, given by him to James Covington.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/105||
Tax list, August 1782 #00133, Subseries: "2.4. Tax Lists and Receipts, 1770-1941 and undated." OP-133/105
Descriptive list of Richard Bennehan's taxable property, given by him to James Covington.
Promissory notes and bonds documenting money lent by members of the Cameron family to each other and to overseers, craftsmen, neighbors, friends, and relatives. Also included are notes and bonds documenting loans made to the Cameron family.
Arrangement: alphabetical by name.
Receipts, bills, statements, maps, slave lists, correspondence, and other materials relating to the settlement of the estates of members of the Cameron family. The arrangement of this subseries reflects the arrangement of these papers when they arrived at the Southern Historical Collection. The papers pertaining to each estate were in labeled bundles or envelopes. Each set of papers presumably was collected by the family member who was the executor of the estate. The estate papers of Thomas Bennehan and Duncan Cameron are especially complete.
Also included in this subseries are the estate papers of William Johnston, collected by Richard Bennehan who was Johnston's business partner and the executor of his estate. See Subseries 6.9 for volumes relating to Cameron estates. See Subseries 2.7 for wills made by members of the Cameron family.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/35|
Arrangement: alphabetical by name.
Chiefly manuscript copies of wills of members of the Cameron family, and a typescript copy of Paul Cameron's will. Also included are wills of more distant relatives, Thomas Amis, Daniel Anderson, and several members of the Ruffin family. The will of Elizabeth Laws who left her slaves to Thomas Bennehan, is also included in this subseries.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/91|
Chiefly policies for fire insurance on buildings owned by the Cameron family, with a few statements and advertising cards from various insurance companies. Included are fire insurance policies for Saint Mary's School in Raleigh, N.C. See Series 1 for correspondence dealing with Saint Mary's School. Also see Subseries 2.1 and 5.1 for other material about Saint Mary's School.
Arrangement: alphabetical by type of item, then chronological.
Advertisements, agreements, appointments, appraisals, certifications, Confederate bonds, court papers, licenses, a marriage settlement, memoranda, a presidential pardon, powers of attorney, releases, stock certificates, stockholder lists, and writs.
Advertisements chiefly consist of broadsides advertising the services of Cameron stud horses, including the renowned race horse Sir Archie. Also advertised is the sale of Cameron livestock and the availability of Cameron lands for lease to tenant farmers.
Legal agreements between members of the Cameron family and those with whom they did business include contracts, covenants, leases, and articles of agreement. Of particular note are agreements formalizing Duncan Cameron's business partnerships, especially the ones with Richard and Thomas Bennehan. Other agreements include contracts to sell land and slaves; Duncan Cameron's contract to write a book summarizing cases decided by the Court of Conference, to be published by Joseph Gales; Paul Cameron's agreement with Horner and Graves to rent them land in Hillsborough, N.C., for a high school; a lease for Saint Mary's School and a heating contract for Saint Mary's; and Paul Cameron's contracts with former slaves, who became tenants on Cameron land.
There are appraisals of slaves and livestock that the Camerons either owned or were trying to buy, as well as the bills of sale for slaves and livestock. Also included are certifications of horses' pedigrees and of proofs of distilled liquor, and an 1838 document certifying that Duncan Cameron paid off a debt on behalf of "the Episcopal School in Raleigh" (the Episcopal School of North Carolina).
Manuscript copies of official court documents pertaining to court cases or legal actions involving the Camerons are included.
There are a few licenses giving the Camerons permission to distill spirits as well as a license allowing George Mordecai to have two gates across a highway on his land.
The marriage settlement between Margaret Bennehan Cameron and George Mordecai is included, as is Paul Cameron's presidential pardon absolving him of his support for the Confederacy.
There are also a number of routine legal documents filed in this subseries: powers of attorney, chiefly granting out of state lawyers power to handle matters concerning Cameron lands; memoranda; releases freeing members of the Cameron family from financial obligations; and writs demanding payment of debt.
Stock and bond certificates and stockholder lists document the family's extensive financial holdings. Included among the stock and bond certificates are Confederate bonds purchased by Paul Cameron with Aldert and Bennet Smedes, directors of Saint Mary's School. The bulk of the Cameron's stock holdings was in banks, railroads, and insurance companies. For other stock lists, see Volumes 195-197. For more information about the Camerons involvement in banks and railroads in North Carolina, see Subseries 5.2 and 5.9.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/87|
|Oversize Paper OP-133/36||
Advertisement by Thomas D. Bennehan for Young Sir Archie, a stud horse, 10 March 1830 #00133, Subseries: "2.9. Other Family Financial and Legal Papers, 1769-1941." OP-133/36
|Oversize Paper OP-133/37||
Advertisement by Thomas D. Bennehan for Character, a stud horse, 18 March 1832 #00133, Subseries: "2.9. Other Family Financial and Legal Papers, 1769-1941." OP-133/37
|Oversize Paper OP-133/38||
Advertisement by Thomas D. Bennehan, on behalf of John Ray, for Conqueror, a stud horse, 12 March 1833 #00133, Subseries: "2.9. Other Family Financial and Legal Papers, 1769-1941." OP-133/38
|Oversize Paper OP-133/39|
Case and client files, dockets, correspondence, and forms documenting Duncan Cameron's legal practice. See Series 1 for correspondence from clients and Subseries 6.10 for other documentation of Duncan Cameron's legal practice.
Arrangement: alphabetical by client.
Deeds, depositions, case notes, statements, receipts, and other legal papers which do not pertain to members of the Cameron family. The bulk of this material was generated by Duncan Cameron in his law practice and documents services rendered to clients. Some material may relate to cases Cameron heard as a Superior Court judge. Other items may have come into the family's possession in the course of land transactions.
The arrangement of this subseries and the appellation "client files" are artificial and were imposed during processing. Papers are filed under the name of the person or company with which the documents are primarily concerned, i.e. the "client". There are exceptions: when the papers pertain to a court case, the documents are filed under the defendant's name. When a document mentions two parties, as with a deed, the document is filed under the first party's name.
Duncan Cameron's legal work on behalf of clients represented in these papers includes debt collection, drawing up legal documents such as wills and deeds, administering and settling estates, and representing clients in court. Cameron collected debts for North Carolina and Virginia merchants. Materials relating to Watson and Ebenezer Stott Company, Gracie Anderson Company, and Buchanan Dunlop Company are particularly numerous.
Many of Cameron's friends, neighbors, and employees also turned to him for legal aid, including Joseph Gales, Bishop John Ravenscroft, Young Dortch, Richard Henderson, Walter Alves and many others. The settlement of the estate of Absolum Tatum, a Tennessee resident, is the most completely documented of Duncan Cameron's accounts in this subseries. Cameron worked on the account with two other North Carolina lawyers, Abram Maury and Samuel Goodwin.
For letters from clients and other lawyers, as well as for occasional manuscript copies of Duncan Cameron's outgoing correspondence relating to his legal business, see Series 1. For documentation of fees paid Cameron, see Subseries 2.1. For volumes relating to Duncan Cameron's legal practice, see Series 6.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/70||
Between Lodwick Alford and David Malone.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/73||
Between Walter and Amelia Alves and Richard Henderson, 5075 acres in Orange County, N.C. Encapsulated.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/74||
Between Walter Alves and Richard Henderson, 5075 acres in Orange County, N.C. Second copy. Encapsulated.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/40||
Between Patrick Bogan and John Ray, 225 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/46||
Between Margaret Boggan and James Boggan.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/48||
Between Patrick Bogan and John Ray.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/49||
Between James Bogan and Olsson Martin.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/54||
Between William Cothrell and McCall Elliot, probably Orange County, N.C. land. Laminated.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/68||
Between Robert Dickins and John Commons, 319 acres in Caswell County.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/56||
Between William Fletcher and McCall Elliot, 400 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/64||
Between James Freeland and Edward Harris.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/41||
Indenture with attached plat, 26 April 1753 #00133, Subseries: "3.1. Client Files, 1797-1830s." OP-133/41
Between Earl Granville and John Dunnagen, 640 acres in Granville County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/42||
Indenture with attached plat, 8 May 1756 #00133, Subseries: "3.1. Client Files, 1797-1830s." OP-133/42
Between Earl Granville and Osborne Jeffreys, 302 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/43||
Indenture with attached plat, 12 May 1755 #00133, Subseries: "3.1. Client Files, 1797-1830s." OP-133/43
Between Earl Granville and Osborne Jeffreys, 126 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/57||
Between John Garrand and James Harris, 200 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/59||
Between Earl Granville and Osborne Jeffreys, 65 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/45||
Between Thomas Harris and Tyree Harris, 200 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/51||
Between Nathaniel Harris and Tyree Harris, 300 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/60||
Between James Harris and William Wallace, 129 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/67||
Between Osborne Jefferies and John Commen, 115 acres in Caswell County.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/47||
Between Henry McCulloh and John Banks.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/55||
Between Gannaway Martin, Olsson Martin, and James Martin. In two pieces.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/86||
Between Rebecca McClemen and Ray Ray.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/53||
Between John Ray and William Ray.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/58||
Between William Ray and James Martin.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/65||
Between William Ray and Judith Stagg, 65 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/44||
Between Thomas Stagg and Thomas Harris, 100 acres in Orange County.
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/95||
|Oversize Paper OP-133/50||
Between Thomas Webb and James Harris, 135 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/52||
Between Thomas Webb and Tyree Harris.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/61||
Between William Wallace and James Harris, 179 acres in Orange County, N.C.
|Oversize Paper OP-133/62||
Possibly an indenture, circa 1 February 1779
|Oversize Paper OP-133/78|
|Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/94|
Court dockets and memoranda listing the trials in which Duncan Cameron was involved as a lawyer or as a judge. The terms docket and memorandum were sometimes used interchangeably but usually docket is used to refer to a formal document which lists all the cases between being heard at a particular court and memorandum refers to an informal list which includes only the cases involving a particular lawyer.
Dockets and memoranda dating from 1798 to 1813 document Duncan Cameron's service as a lawyer to clients whose cases were being heard at various courts in Piedmont North Carolina, including the Salisbury, Guilford, Caswell, and Orange county courts. Dockets from 1814 to 1816 document cases that Duncan Cameron presided over as a superior court judge in eastern North Carolina. During this period he heard cases in Chowan, Bertie, Halifax, and other coastal counties. Also included are a few dockets from other courts. A single docket from 1837 lists Paul Cameron as a lawyer. A few dockets appear to have been drawn up for William Norwood and for Frederick Nash, Duncan Cameron's nephew, both whom were also lawyers. See Subseries 6.10 for bound dockets.
Blank forms used for summons, indentures, and bonds. These forms were found among the material now in Subseries 3.1; they were probably used in Duncan Cameron's law office.
Speeches, poetry, compositions, and other writings by members of the Cameron family and some by family friends.
Speeches given by John A. Cameron (Duncan Cameron's nephew), Paul Cameron, and William Webb, who was a family friend. Speeches by John Cameron and William Webb were written to be read at meetings of the Dialectic Society, the debating society to which they belonged while they were students at the University of North Carolina. Paul Cameron's speeches include two lengthy undated addresses: one was presented to the Franklin Society and the other to the University of North Carolina Normal School. This subseries also includes a few unidentified and undated talks, probably drafted by Paul Cameron.
Arrangement: roughly by author, then chronological.
Verses attributed to members of the Cameron family, with some poems written by family friends. The bulk of the poetry is unattributed and undated. Some of the unattributed poetry may have been copied from newspapers, magazines, or books.
Arrangement: by type, then chronological.
Compositions and notes written by Cameron youth for school or for tutors. Compositions deal with religious, moral, and historical subjects. There are several compositions by John A. Cameron and William Webb, a family friend, while they were students at the University of North Carolina between 1796 and 1805. Topics include dueling, public education, slavery, government, classical history, and current events. Also included is an undated composition by Duncan Cameron entitled "The Just Proportion of Punishment to Crimes," probably written early in his legal career.
School notes pertain to history, religion, weights and measures, and arithmetic. Many notes are undated and unattributed.
For other material relating to the schooling of the Cameron children see Subseries 5.1. For financial papers documenting tuition, room, and board, see Subseries 2.1. See Series 1 for correspondence between parents and teachers, relating to the schooling of the Cameron children. For bound school notes see Subseries 6.12.
An article, an essay, and a report. The article, entitled "The Late Honorable Paul C. Cameron," was written by J. D. Cameron and appeared in the North Carolina University Magazine sometime after Paul Cameron's death, probably in 1892. Paul Cameron's essay, "A Peep Into the Old Dominion," is undated. Also included is a report made by Paul Cameron to the Committee on the Best Farming in North Carolina (perhaps of the State Agricultural Society).
Material relating to schools (Subseries 5.1), banks (5.2), military affairs (5.3), churches (5.4), the Stagville Post Office (5.5), politics, (5.8), railroads (5.9), buildings and grounds (5.12), and family history (5.13), and collections of recipes and instructions (5.6), remedies and prescriptions (5.7), invitations and calling cards (5.11), and miscellaneous printed items (5.10) and notes and fragments (5.14).
Arrangement: grade reports (alphabetical by student), followed by printed material (alphabetical by school).
Grade reports and printed material from schools attended by Cameron youth. The grade reports are chiefly those of immediate family members, including children of Duncan and Paul Cameron and children of Rebecca Cameron Graham and Anne Cameron Collins. There are also grade reports for other relatives, Allen Ruffin, S. F. Mordecai, and Altona Gales. Printed material consists of pamphlets, invitations to commencements and dances, and circular letters from schools attended by members of the Cameron family and schools, like Saint Mary's, in which the family had a continuing interest.
See Series 1 for letters from Cameron children at boarding schools and for correspondence dealing with the administration of Saint Mary's School. See Subseries 2.1 for financial material relating to tuition, room, and board for Cameron children, and to improvements made at Saint Mary's. Subseries 4.3 contains compositions and notes written by Cameron children. See Subseries 6.12 for volumes containing school material.
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From Washington College, Hartford, Conn.
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Thomas Bennehan from the Dialectic Society at the University of North Carolina.
Arrangement: alphabetical by bank.
Minutes, proxy letters, powers of attorney, statements of earnings, reports, and circular letters to stockholders of various banks in North Carolina and Virginia. Duncan or Paul Cameron was a stockholder or an official in each of these banks. See Series 1 for correspondence pertaining to the Camerons' involvement in various banks, especially the State Bank of North Carolina. Subseries 2.1 and 6.2 contain material documenting personal accounts in these banks.
Chiefly troop returns sent to Duncan Cameron when he was a colonel in the North Carolina Militia in 1812, and after his subsequent promotion to major general in 1813. Troop returns, also called statements, list the officers, enlisted men, staff, arms, and supplies of the companies and regiments of infantry and cavalry of the 6th and 16th brigade which made up the 3rd division of the North Carolina Militia. This division consisted of regiments representing Person, Orange, Granville, Caswell, and Chatham Counties.
Also included is John A. Cameron's letter of appointment which named him adjutant of the Hillsborough District Regiment of Cavalry of the North Carolina Militia in 1807. There is also some material documenting Paul Cameron's appointment in 1863 as an agent of Orange County to purchase corn for families of soldiers serving in the Confederate Army. See Subseries 6.1 for volumes relating to military affairs. See Subseries 2.9 for Paul Cameron's presidential pardon for his support of the Confederacy.
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State of North Carolina appointment of Duncan Cameron to rank of Colonel of the Militia of the State. Encapsulated.
Circular letters, lists, and other printed material documenting the involvement of the Cameron family in the Episcopal church and in various interdenominational charities and organizations.
This material is divided into three categories, papers relating to Christ Episcopal Church in Raleigh, N.C., papers relating to the Episcopal church in general, and papers relating to interdenominational charities and organizations.
Papers relating to Christ Church include an 1851 diagram advertising pews for sale. The diagram records the location and prices of the pews, with the name of some purchasers written in by hand. Jacob Mordecai's 1861 certificate entitling him to ownership and use of a Christ Church pew is included. There are several documents dealing with the finances of Christ Church. There is an undated list of pledge assessments and church expenses. There also are several circular letters requesting money to help pay church debts and explaining how these debts were incurred.
The bulk of the material relating to the Episcopal Church consists of circular letters from parishes in North Carolina and other southern states requesting funds. Also included is the 1817 Constitution of the Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church of North Carolina, naming Duncan Cameron president.
Other material in this subseries provides scattered documentation of the Cameron family's participation in interdenominational organizations. Included are the memberships of Mildred Cameron and Pauline Cameron Shephard in the Order of the King's Daughters and Sons, a list of books to be procured at the American Sunday School Union Depository, a statement from the Ladies Relief Society of Raleigh in 1872 referring to the Society's soup kitchen, and a statement from the orphanage in Oxford, N.C. Also included is a pamphlet from the Oakwood Cemetery Association of which George Mordecai was president.
See Series 1 for correspondence about the Episcopal Church and other religious and charitable organizations. See Subseries 2.1 for receipts for contributions and receipts documenting building projects at Saint Mary's.
Receipts, accounts, and statements documenting the operation of the Stagville Post Office. The bulk of the accounts and statements are manuscript copies of originals sent to the General Post Office in Washington, D.C. Receipts document the transfer of funds from Stagville to Washington. The Stagville Post Office was located at the Stagville Store, and the store manager usually doubled as the postmaster. Although the Stagville Post Office opened in 1807, and continued operation into the 1850s, these papers only document the period from 1824 to 1844.
From 1824 to 1829, John Wilkins was postmaster. Thomas Cameron, Duncan Cameron's oldest son, assumed the duties of postmaster in 1830, and continued to serve until 1838 when he was relieved of his position, apparently because of mismanagement. He was replaced by his brother Paul, who served as postmaster through 1844.
Chiefly recipes for preparing such foods as bread, cake, pudding, wine, preserves, pickles, and dressings. Other sets of instructions, also called "recipes," consist of directions for making whitewash, dye, shoeblack, fertilizer, and liquor. Included are instructions for killing bedbugs, tanning, bleaching, knitting, sewing, and "unpacking the organ." The bulk of the recipes and instructions are undated and unattributed, but most seem to have been generated by Cameron women except for road bills, which are in Richard Bennehan's hand. Road bills give directions and mileages (mostly for North Carolina and Virginia locations) for travelers; most are undated but those by Richard Bennehan must predate 1825. For other recipes and instructions, see Subseries 6.13.
Includes a recipe for lemon cake.
Includes recipes for coconut pudding, waffles, and buns.
Includes a recipe for oyster soup.
Includes a recipe for gumbo.
Includes recipes for baked coconut custard and blackberry dumpling.
Includes a recipe for black cake.
Includes recipes for blackberry wine and gingerbread.
Home remedies and doctors' prescriptions used by the Cameron household for a variety of ailments of both people and livestock, including sore throat, dropsy, "yellow water," diphtheria, and rheumatism. The bulk of these remedies are undated. See Subseries 2.1 for doctors' bills and Subseries 1.2 and 1.3 for letters from Cameron doctors, especially James Webb.
Arrangement: alphabetical by type of material.
Bills, published letters, petitions, memorials, voting tallies, reports, and other miscellaneous printed material primarily documenting Duncan Cameron's involvement in North Carolina state politics, but including Paul Cameron's tickets to the 1876 Democratic Convention in Saint Louis at which he served as chairman of the state delegation. There is some material pertaining to Duncan Cameron's service on the Committee on Internal Improvement in the North Carolina Senate, particularly reports from the Neuse River Navigation Company and the Roanoke Navigation Company. See Subseries 1.2 and 1.3 for letters from Archibald Murphey concerning internal improvements.
Arrangement: by type of material.
Chiefly railroad passes issued to Paul Cameron. Because of his service as director of both the North Carolina Railroad Company and the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Company, Cameron was entitled to free passes to travel on the trains. See Subseries 2.1.1 for documentation of Paul Cameron's involvement in building a section of the North Carolina Railroad. See Series 1 for correspondence about railroads in North Carolina.
Also included are several miscellaneous items, including reports, an invitation to a railroad gala, various legal documents, Paul Cameron's commission from the governor to serve as director of the North Carolina Railroad Company, and other printed items which illustrate Paul Cameron's commitment to the development of railroads in North Carolina.
Price lists, advertisements, newspaper clippings, circular letters, and other printed material accumulated by the Cameron family. The bulk of this material consists of price lists from Duncan and Paul Cameron's factors in Mobile, Ala., Norfolk, Va., Baltimore, Md., and Richmond, Va., communicating the current prices for tobacco, cotton, wheat, and other agricultural products. These lists are particularly numerous from the 1840s through the 1870s. Much of the remaining material consists of advertisements and circular letters offering a variety of products from local and out of state merchants. Also included are newspaper clippings, chiefly of poetry, and religious tracts. There is a flyer dated 1824 that lists thirteen toasts for the 4th of July.
Also included are programs from the Centennial celebration in Philadelphia in 1876, and an 1876 Christmas poem from the carrier of the Raleigh Daily News to his patrons.
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Advertisement for Contract, a stud horse, 1 May 1832 #00133, Subseries: "5.10. Printed Material, 1800-1890 and undated." OP-133/80
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Advertisement for Contract, a stud horse, 26 January 1835 #00133, Subseries: "5.10. Printed Material, 1800-1890 and undated." XOP-133/81
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Advertisement for Toby, a stud horse, March 1849 #00133, Subseries: "5.10. Printed Material, 1800-1890 and undated." OP-133/82
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Advertisement for New Garden Agricultural Club Fair, 5 October 1872 #00133, Subseries: "5.10. Printed Material, 1800-1890 and undated." OP-133/83
Invitations to balls, weddings, "hops," picnics, fairs, receptions, church gatherings, and "at homes," issued to members of the Cameron family. Also included are calling cards of friends and acquaintances, with a few Cameron family calling cards.
Arrangement: alphabetical by type of material.
Architectural drawings, a blueprint, building specifications, plant lists, gardening instructions, and drawings documenting the design, construction, and maintenance of Cameron buildings and grounds, Saint Mary's School in Raleigh, N.C., Saint Matthew's Church in Hillsborough, N.C., and the State House in Raleigh.
Drawings are chiefly of details such as columns and capitals. There is a blueprint for a structure labelled "flower pit" at Hillsborough.
Building specifications describe the workmanship and materials to be used in the construction of three Cameron and/or Bennehan supported building projects the State House in Raleigh, circa 1792, a brick building at Saint Mary's School in Raleigh, and materials and labor for repairing Saint Matthews Church in Hillsborough. Also included is a "memorandum of Mr. Bennehan's houses," listing buildings with their measurements and brief descriptions.
There are three types of documents that provide information about Cameron grounds and gardens plant lists, gardening instructions, and drawings. The plant lists are undated and list the types of plants used in the Camerons' flower and kitchen gardens. The instructions include information about how "to cultivate celery;" "directions for making up hotbed;" how to make fertilizer for grass, Indian corn, Irish potatoes, beets, cabbage, and strawberries; and directions "for curing diseases... of all kind of fruit and forrest trees." The drawings document garden design and placement of plants, as well as overall ground plans which show the locations of gardens and buildings.
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Arrangement: alphabetical by type of material.
Obituaries, memorials, epitaphs, newspaper clippings, certificates of membership, and notes on genealogy.
Obituaries consist of newspaper clippings of death notices of some members of the Cameron family. There are handwritten memorials honoring John Cameron, Paul Cameron, Pauline Cameron Shephard, and George Mordecai. These memorials were drafted by the organizations and churches to which the deceased belonged. There are also handwritten drafts and copies of the epitaphs to be put on Cameron tombstones, with some drawings of tombstone designs included.
There are two undated newspaper clippings mentioning Bennehan Cameron, and a 1961 article about Fairntosh. Also included are lists of births, deaths, and marriages.
Certificates document the involvement of members of the Cameron family in various organizations and on commissions. There is a certificate naming Duncan Cameron to serve on the commission which settled the border dispute between North Carolina and South Carolina in 1812. There is a certificate appointing Paul Cameron to serve as a representative of North Carolina at the Yorktown Celebration in 1879. There are several certificates documenting the membership of Paul Cameron, George Mordecai, and several members of the Ruffin family in the North Carolina Agricultural Society.
Scattered notes and fragments of writings.
Arrangement: by type, then chronological.
Handwritten copies of outgoing letters (Subseries 6.1: 3 volumes), financial data (6.2 6.7: 142 total volumes), land surveys (6.8: 3 volumes), estate papers (6.9: 6 volumes), volumes documenting Duncan Cameron's law practice (6.10: 19 volumes), farm and travel diaries (6.11: 7 volumes), school notebooks (6.12: 10 volumes), and miscellaneous other bound manuscript volumes (6.13: 18 volumes).
The financial volumes have been further categorized by type: bank books (Subseries 6.2), cash books (6.3), daybooks 6.4), ledgers (6.5), ready money sales (6.6), and other account books (6.7). They thoroughly document Cameron family financial interests and transactions, and are rich sources of information about goods and services available in central North Carolina in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
The information in this series complements that found in the various series of loose papers in this collection: appropriate cross references have been included. Also note that many of these volumes served secondary purposes in addition to their main functions, and that appropriate "see also" references are therefore included for each subseries.
Handwritten copies of business correspondence concerning store, plantation, and legal interests of Richard Bennehan and Duncan Cameron. (See also Series 1. Correspondence; and Volume 185.)
Johnston/Bennehan. Chiefly handwritten copies of letters to merchants about store business. Also included is "Scheme of Goods for Johnston & Bennehan, ..." (14 January 1771; 1 March 1772; 27 February 1773; 10 March 1774; and 1 May 1775) inventories of goods ordered for the store, including a list of book titles and "Invoice of Goods Shipt . . . .", undated, by John Alston, merchant at Glasgow via Edward Stabler, merchant at Petersburg. 58 pages.
Volume 2: 18 February 1801-1 December 1803 #00133, Subseries: "6.1. Letter Books, 1771-1803." Folder 3562
"Duncan Cameron's Letter Book Commencing in the Year 1801," with index. Copies of letters sent by Cameron in his capacity as lawyer. 140 pages.
Volume 3: November 1801-November 1803 #00133, Subseries: "6.1. Letter Books, 1771-1803." Folder 3563
Richard Bennehan. "Copies of Letters written by Richard Bennehan Commencing November 1801." This letter book is chiefly business related, but personal references often appear in store and plantation correspondence. 85 pages.
Summaries of the personal bank accounts of Duncan, Paul, Mildred, and Anne Cameron, and of George Mordecai. Accounts are chiefly with the State Bank of North Carolina, but some with the Bank of Newbern, the National Bank of Raleigh, and the Raleigh Bank and Trust Company. The bank books show deposits, withdrawals, interest on notes, and Duncan Cameron's salary as president of the State Bank of North Carolina. (See also Series 2.1. Accounts; and Volumes 108, 113, 114, 141, 149, 150, 151, 195, and 196).
Duncan Cameron. State Bank of North Carolina. Note: badly damaged; some pages illegible.
Duncan Cameron. "Bank of Newbern Raleigh Office in accot. with Duncan Cameron." Note: badly damaged; some pages illegible.
Duncan Cameron. State Bank of North Carolina. Note: badly damaged; some pages illegible.
Duncan Cameron. State Bank of North Carolina. 47 pages.
Volume 8: 1 September 1836-30 December 1843 #00133, Subseries: "6.2. Bank Books, 1811-1891." Folder 3568
Duncan Cameron. State Bank of North Carolina. 111 pages.
Volume 9: 5 December 1843-23 September 1859 #00133, Subseries: "6.2. Bank Books, 1811-1891." Folder 3569
Paul C. Cameron. "Paul C. Cameron A/C Bank of the State of N.C." 38 pages.
Volume 10: 31 December 1845-30 June 1848 #00133, Subseries: "6.2. Bank Books, 1811-1891." Folder 3570
Duncan Cameron. State Bank of North Carolina. 46 pages.
Duncan Cameron. State Bank of North Carolina. Also contains loose checks, 1851.
Volume 12: 1 January 1853-31 October 1860 #00133, Subseries: "6.2. Bank Books, 1811-1891." Folder 3572
Mildred Coles Cameron. "M. C. Cameron in Acct. Bank of the State of No. Ca." 28 pages.
Volume 13: 31 October 1859-12 November 1864 #00133, Subseries: "6.2. Bank Books, 1811-1891." Folder 3573
Mildred Coles Cameron. "Miss M. C. Cameron in Account with Bank of North Carolina." 28 pages.
George W. Mordecai. Summary of Mordecai's account with Bank of North Carolina, containing a list of pork killed in 1865 and 1866. 44 pages.
Anne Cameron. "Mrs. Anne Cameron in Account with The National Bank of Raleigh, Raleigh, NC." Contains brief bank summary, but primarily used for genealogical notes on the Nash, Read, and Cameron families. Contains marriages and names of children with births and deaths listed, but includes few dates. 17 pages.
Month by month summaries of incoming and outgoing cash. Each book lists names of individuals involved and amounts of cash received or expended, and includes a combination of plantation, business (store), and personal expenses of the Cameron family for loans, services, trips, etc. (See also Series 2.1. Accounts.)
Books chiefly documenting the income of the Stagville Store.
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Volume 16: January 1794-December 1797 #00133, Subseries: "6.3.1. Antebellum Cash Books, 1794-1805." SV-133/16
"Cash Book Commencing January 1794." 88 pages.
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Volume 17: January 1798-November 1801 #00133, Subseries: "6.3.1. Antebellum Cash Books, 1794-1805." SV-133/17
"Cash Book Commencing January 1798." 94 pages.
Formerly folder 3576.
Volume 18: March 1798-May 1802 #00133, Subseries: "6.3.1. Antebellum Cash Books, 1794-1805." Folder 3577
Primarily a record of cash received, this volume also contains "A List of Bonds, Notes, etc. in the hands of Duncan Cameron" (1790s). 160 pages.
Volume 19: November 1798-April 1803 #00133, Subseries: "6.3.1. Antebellum Cash Books, 1794-1805." Folder 3578
"Acct. Messrs. Amis & Rhymes with Jesse Rhymes." Shows cash or goods expended, with entries typically including brief reasons for expenses: examples are clothing or textiles "for Negroes," "taxes for the year 1798," and expenses for building a milk house. Also included is a separate list of cash received, often recorded as payment in part or in full. Organization is chronological by date of payment. 30 pages.
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Volume 20: December 1801-November 1805 #00133, Subseries: "6.3.1. Antebellum Cash Books, 1794-1805." SV-133/20
"Cash Book Commencing December 1801." 93 pages.
See also Volumes S-25, 40, 62, 67, 70, S-76, 84, 85, and 147.
Volume 21: January 1889-December 1898 #00133, Subseries: "6.3.2. Post-Civil War Cash Book, 1889-1898." Folder 3579
Cash Book. 57 pages used in 71 page volume.
Journals of original entry chiefly reflecting the day to day business transactions of the Snowhill, Stagville, Hillsborough, and other Bennehan/Cameron owned North Carolina stores. Sometimes labelled "blotters," "journals," or "memorandum books," as well as daybooks, these volumes all show the daily purchases and payments made at various stores. Many of these volumes indicate that original daybook entries have been transferred to ledgers, which show all the charges and payments made on a single account over an extended period of time. Some of these ledgers are in Subseries 6.5.
These daybooks reflect the variety of goods (food and liquor, household supplies, agricultural equipment, books, clothing, and textiles) available from the late eighteenth century through the nineteenth century at the Cameron stores, and reveal the diverse population of craftsmen, slaves, planters, and others who purchased them through cash, tobacco, or service. Although chiefly generated by store business, the daybooks also document other Cameron family financial transactions, including personal, household, and plantation expenses. (See also Series 2.1. Accounts.)
Journals of original entry, chiefly for the store at Snowhill, owned by William Johnston and Richard Bennehan.
Volume 22: 1 March 1773-28 February 1777 #00133, Subseries: "6.4.1. Johnston-Bennehan Daybooks, 1773-1785." Folder 3580
Johnston-Bennehan. "Journal No. C." Snowhill. 237 pages.
Volume 23: 1 March 1774-28 February 1775, 1 November 1792-30 May 1795 #00133, Subseries: "6.4.1. Johnston-Bennehan Daybooks, 1773-1785." Folder 3581
1774-1775, Snowhill, pages 1-156; and 1792-1795, Stagville, pages 1-111. [Paginated in two separate sections.] Johnston-Bennehan. "Day Book 1774 No. F."
Volume 24: 1 March 1775-March 1787 #00133, Subseries: "6.4.1. Johnston-Bennehan Daybooks, 1773-1785." Folder 3582
Johnston-Bennehan. "Daybook 1775 No. G." Snowhill. Gaps exist during the 1780s. 85 pages.
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Volume 25: 6 November 1784-16 February 1785 #00133, Subseries: "6.4.1. Johnston-Bennehan Daybooks, 1773-1785." SV-133/25
Johnston-Bennehan. "Daybook Novemr. 1784 A." Snowhill. Recorded after the death of William Johnston, each month in the daybook begins with a cash account. This volume also contains an "Account of Crop; Tobacco received from October 1793," which shows from whom the tobacco was received, warehouse, and disposition. 35 pages.
Journals of original entry for the Snowhill and Stagville stores owned by Richard Bennehan.
Volume 26: 19 February 1785-May 1787 with gaps #00133, Subseries: "6.4.2. Richard Bennehan Daybooks, 1785-1810." Folder 3583
"Blotter." Snowhill. 19 pages, numbered 23-41.
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