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Collection Number: 00133

Collection Title: Cameron Family Papers, 1757-1978

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This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the Duplication Policy section for more information.


Funding from the State Library of North Carolina supported the encoding of this finding aid. Funding from the Terry and Laurie Sanford Library Fund supported the digitization of this collection.

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Size 69.0 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 33,000 items)
Abstract The Orange County, Durham County, Person County, and Raleigh, N.C. plantations of the Cameron family were home to several generations of white Cameron and Bennehan family members and more than one thousand people enslaved by them. The Camerons also owned substantial plantations and enslaved people in Greene County, Ala., and Tunica County, Miss. North Carolina plantations and family houses included Belvin's Quarter, Bennehan Square, Bennehan Mill (later Red Mill), Bobbitt's, Brick House, Burnside, Eno Mill, Eno Quarters, Fairntosh (sometimes referred to as "Home House"), Fish Dam, Horton Grove, Hunt's Place, Jim Ray's, Jones's Quarter, Leathers, Little River, McKissack's, Mill Quarter (or Person's Mill), North Point, Peaksville Place, Person, Snow Hill, and Stagville. The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence, financial and legal documents, and account books that detail plantation management, as well as the relationships, social lives, and well-being of wealthy white men, their wives and children, and the community of enslaved people whose forced labor generated the family's wealth. Of note are materials that identify or document enslaved people, including plantation lists and ledgers that record names, ages, family relationships, labor, and provisioning; bills of sale; account records that show medical care, labor, and supplies; and legal case files that concern enslaved people claimed as property. There is extensive information about Richard Bennehan's store at Stagville, N.C., and the Stagville and Fairntosh plantations, including crop records. Other topics include Duncan Cameron's legal career, the State Bank of North Carolina and the banking industry, the education of the Cameron children at various schools, the development of the University of North Carolina, the state militia, the Episcopal Church, railroads, and state government. There are also speeches, writings, printed material, pictures, and miscellaneous other types of personal papers.
Creator Cameron (Family : Orange County, N.C.)
Curatorial Unit Southern Historical Collection
Language English
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Restrictions to Access
Volume 171 is closed to general use due to its fragile condition; researchers needing to use this volume should consult with a staff member.
Copyright Notice
Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the Cameron Family Papers #133, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Alternate Form of Material
Microfilm copy available: UPA Microfilm Series J, Part 1.
  • Reel 1: Series 1.1, 1768-1790
  • Reel 2: Series 1.1-1.2, 1791-1799
  • Reel 3: Series 1.2, 1800-1801
  • Reel 4: Series 1.2, 1802-180
  • Reel 5: Series 1.2, 1803-1803
  • Reel 6: Series 1.2, 1804-1804
  • Reel 7: Series 1.2, 1805-1806
  • Reel 8: Series 1.2, 1806-1807
  • Reel 9: Series 1.2, 1807-1809
  • Reel 10: Series 1.2, 1809-1811
  • Reel 11: Series 1.2, 1812-1813
  • Reel 12: Series 1.2, 1813-1814
  • Reel 13: Series 1.2, 1814-1816
  • Reel 14: Series 1.2, 1816-1818
  • Reel 15: Series 1.2, 1819-1821
  • Reel 16: Series 1.2, 1821-1823
  • Reel 17: Series 1.2, 1823-1825
  • Reel 18: Series 1.2-1.3, 1825-1826
  • Reel 19: Series 1.3, 1826-1828
  • Reel 20: Series 1.3, 1828-1830
  • Reel 21: Series 1.3, 1830-1832
  • Reel 22: Series 1.3, 1833-1834
  • Reel 23: Series 1.3, 1835-1837
  • Reel 24: Series 1.3, 1837-1839
  • Reel 25: Series 1.3, 1840-1841
  • Reel 26: Series 1.3, 1841-1843
  • Reel 27: Series 1.3, 1843-1845
  • Reel 28: Series 1.3, 1845-1846
  • Reel 29: Series 1.3, 1846-1847
  • Reel 30: Series 1.3, 1847-1848
  • Reel 31: Series 1.3, 1848-1850
  • Reel 32: Series 1.3, 1850-1852
  • Reel 33: Series 1.3-1.4, 1852-1853
  • Reel 34: Series 1.4, 1854-1855
  • Reel 35: Series 1.4, 1855-1857
  • Reel 36: Series 1.4, 1857-1860
  • Reel 37: Series 1.4, 1860-1863
  • Reel 38: Series 1.4, 1864-1865; Series 1.7, 1742-1768
  • Reel 39: Series 1.7, 1769-1797
  • Reel 40: Series 1.7, 1798-1821
  • Reel 41: Series 1.7, 1822-1844
  • Reel 42: Series 1.7-1.8, 1845-1872
  • Reel 43: Series 1.8, 1873-1897
  • Reel 44: Series 1.8-2.1, 1767-1794
  • Reel 45: Series 2.1, 1795-1806
  • Reel 46: Series 2.1, 1807-1818
  • Reel 47: Series 2.1, 1819-1827
  • Reel 48: Series 2.1, 1828-1836
  • Reel 49: Series 2.1, 1837-1844
  • Reel 50: Series 2.1, 1845-1852
  • Reel 51: Series 2.1, 1853-1861
  • Reel 52: Series 2.1, 1862-1942 and undated; Series 2.2, 1772-1799
  • Reel 53: Series 2.2-2.4, 1761-1908
  • Reel 54: Series 2.4-2.6, 1772-1941
  • Reel 55: Series 2.6-2.9, 1764-1890
  • Reel 56: Series 2.9, 1796-1941
  • Reel 57: Series 4.3-5.2, 1796-1895
  • Reel 58: Series 5.3-5.7, 1807-1889
  • Reel 59: Series 5.8-5.10, 1802-1890; Series 5.12, 1792-1853
  • Reel 60: Series 5.13-6.3, 1771-1896; Series 6.1-6.3, volumes 1-17
  • Reel 61: Series 6.3-6.4, 1785-1785, volumes 18-26
  • Reel 62: Series 6.4, 1785-1792, volumes 27-29, 31
  • Reel 63: Series 6.4, 1789-1796, volumes 32-44
  • Reel 64: Series 6.4.2, 1796-1807, volumes 45-55
  • Reel 65: Series 6.4, 1806-1810, volumes 56-62; Series 6.5, 1767-1798, volumes 67-71
  • Reel 66: Series 6.5, 1791-1834, volumes72-77; Series 6.6-6.7, 1768-1811, volumes 87-93
  • Reel 67: Series 6.7, 1773-1833, volumes 94-110
  • Reel 68: Series 6.7, 1822-1865, volumes 111-130, 143-11, 171-172, 177-180; Series 6.8-6.9, 1819-1925, volumes 143-151; Series 6.11, 1821-1840 and udnated, volumes 171-172, 177; Series 6.12, 1795-1825, volumes 178-180
  • Reel 69: Series 6.12-6.13, 1825-1871, volumes 181-203
Acquisitions Information
The collection was a gift of Sally Mayo Cameron of Raleigh, N.C., and her daughters Isabella Cameron van Lennep of Bridgewater, Conn., and Sally Cameron Labouisse of Richmond, Va.; over two-thirds of the material was received prior to 1941, with smaller additions from family sources made between 1945 and 1991. The 2000 addition was purchased from Charles Apfelbaum (Acc. 98788). An addition was purchased from L & T Respess Books in 2002 (Acc. 99379). An addition was purchased from Carmen Valentino in June 2004 (Acc. 99831) and added to Series 1.4. Additions were received in 2009 (Acc. 101135) and 2012 (Acc. 101750).
Sensitive Materials Statement
Manuscript collections and archival records may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations, the North Carolina Public Records Act (N.C.G.S. § 132 1 et seq.), and Article 7 of the North Carolina State Personnel Act (Privacy of State Employee Personnel Records, N.C.G.S. § 126-22 et seq.). Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill assumes no responsibility.
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Processed by: Marion Hirsch and Lisa Tolbert, June 1989

Encoded by: Peter Hymas, June 2005

Updated by: Kathryn Michaelis, May 2010; Jodi Berkowitz, April 2018

Conscious Editing by: Laura Hart, February 2020 (Updated terminology for intellectual disabilities); Nancy Kaiser and Davia Webb, August 2023 (Updated abstract, subject headings, biographical note, collection overview, contents list. The sub-subseries structure of contents list also was simplified and condensed to subseries. See series level processing notes for more information.)

Since August 2017, we have added ethnic and racial identities for individuals and families represented in collections. To determine identity, we rely on self-identification; other information supplied to the repository by collection creators or sources; public records, press accounts, and secondary sources; and contextual information in the collection materials. Omissions of ethnic and racial identities in finding aids created or updated after August 2017 are an indication of insufficient information to make an educated guess or an individual's preference for identity information to be excluded from description. When we have misidentified, please let us know at wilsonlibrary@unc.edu.

Funding from the State Library of North Carolina supported the encoding of this finding aid.

Funding from the Terry and Laurie Sanford Library Fund supported the digitization of this collection.

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The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.

Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.

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The white Cameron and Bennehan families were two of antebellum North Carolina's wealthiest families. On the eve of the Civil War, Paul C. Cameron and his siblings enslaved more than one thousand people and owned nearly thirty thousand acres of plantation land in Orange, Person, Granville, and Wake Counties, and additional plantations in Greene County, Ala., and Tunica County, Miss. North Carolina plantations and family houses included Belvin's Quarter, Bennehan Square, Bennehan Mill (later Red Mill), Bobbitt's, Brick House, Burnside, Eno Mill, Eno Quarters, Fairntosh (sometimes referred to as "Home House"), Fish Dam, Horton Grove, Hunt's Place, Jim Ray's, Jones's Quarter, Leathers, Little River, McKissack's, Mill Quarter (or Person's Mill), North Point, Peaksville Place, Person, Snow Hill, and Stagville. Enslaved people generated wealth for the Camerons and Bennehans from at least 1776.

The family originally migrated to the Piedmont of North Carolina from neighboring Virginia, beginning in the mid-eighteenth century. The first to arrive in North Carolina was Richard Bennehan, Paul C. Cameron's maternal grandfather.

Richard Bennehan was born 15 April 1743, near Warsaw in Richmond County, Va. He was the fifth child of Rachel and Dudley Bennehan, modest landowners of Irish descent. Dudley Bennehan died when Richard was only six, and did not leave any of his estate to Richard. Instead, Richard was apprenticed to a local merchant. In 1762, he moved to Petersburg, Va., where he was employed by Edward Stabler, a commission merchant. In 1768, William Johnston, a North Carolina back country merchant and landowner, offered Bennehan a one-third partnership in the Little River Store, located on Johnston's Snowhill Plantation near Hillsborough, N.C. Johnson had bought bought the land that would become Snow Hill plantation from James Rae (also spelled Rea, Ray and Wray). The store was on the heavily traveled Indian Trading Path that ran through the back country of North Carolina, Virginia, and Georgia.

Bennehan accepted the offer, and moved to North Carolina in late 1768 or early 1769. The business prospered under Bennehan and he began to invest the profits in enslaved people and land. In 1776, Bennehan purchase 1,200 acres of plantation land. In 1776 or 1777, he married Mary Amis of Northampton County, N.C., who also owned land and enslaved at least 5 people through an inheritance from her father. When her brother Thomas Amis Jr. gave up farming in Halifax County, N.C., he contributed an additional 20 enslaved people to the Bennehan holdings. Richard and Mary Bennehan's first home was at Brick House Plantation, formerly owned by Tyree Harris, the sheriff of Orange County, N.C.

When Bennehan's partner William Johnston died in 1785, Bennehan opened his own store. He bought property on the Trading Path from Judith Stagg, and opened what became the Stagville Store. Soon after, Bennehan built a modest plantation house near the store, and the family moved from Brick House to Stagville. By 1799, Bennehan owned almost 4,000 acres of land and over 44 enslaved people. In 1802, Bennehan bought more land and opened a Wake County store and plantation where Fish Dam Road crossed the Neuse River.

Bennehan's prosperity as a merchant, landowner, and enslaver translated to social power and influence in the civic life of North Carolina. He apparently had been an earnest patriot in the Revolution and was a close friend of William Richardson Davie, a Revolutionary War military officer and governor of the state (1798-1799). Through his association with Davie, Bennehan became an early supporter of the University of North Carolina, donating books and supplies, as well as serving on the University's Board of Visitors and Board of Trustees. Bennehan also served on the commission that planned the new state capitol building in Raleigh.

Richard and Mary Amis Bennehan had two children, Rebecca, born in 1778, and Thomas Dudley, born in 1782. Thomas was one of the first students to attend the University of North Carolina. He matriculated in 1795 as a student in the preparatory school. He received his degree in 1801, after which he returned to Stagville to help his father manage the store and plantation. Thomas D. Bennehan never married. After his father died in 1825, he inherited the Stagville land, and continued to live there, managing the plantation until his death in 1847. Although not as active in civic matters as his father had been, Thomas D. Bennehan served on the Board of Trustees of the University for 35 years, from 1812 until his death in 1847. After Thomas D. Bennehan's death, his nephew Paul C. Cameron and niece Rebecca Bennehan Cameron received large tracts of plantation land and dozens of enslaved people. Bennehan's estate impacted the enslaved community who were devised to different heirs or relocated to different plantations. Bennehan's will emancipated an enslaved servant, Virgil Bennehan, his wife Phoebe, and her niece and nephew, Maragaret and William, and provided funds for their passage to Liberia.

Thomas D. Bennehan's sister Rebecca was educated at home. When she married Duncan Cameron in 1803, her father gave the newlywed couple land adjoining the Stagville. This became the site of Fairntosh, a large plantation house, built starting in 1810. Her dowry also included 26 enslaved people once held by her maternal uncle Thomas Amis Jr.

Duncan Cameron was born on 15 December 1777, in Mecklenburg County, Va. His father John Cameron was an Anglican minister and a recent immigrant from Scotland. John Cameron's wife was Ann Owen Nash, the daughter of Colonel Thomas Nash, one of the King's Attorneys.

Duncan Cameron was educated by his father, who, in addition to being a minister, ran several academies in the various parishes he served in Virginia. After studying law under Paul Carrington, Duncan Cameron was licensed to practice in 1797. He immediately moved to North Carolina, first to Warrenton, then Martinsville, finally settling in Hillsborough in 1799. He brought with him from Virginia at least one enslaved person, Jim.

As a lawyer, Cameron quickly gained wealth and social and political influence. From 1814 to 1816, he served as Superior Court Judge. He also served several terms in the North Carolina House, in 1806, 1807, 1812, and 1813. He then served three terms in the State Senate in 1819, 1822, and 1823. While in the Senate Cameron served as chairman of the influential Committee on Internal Improvement, which had been originally led by Cameron's friend, Archibald Murphey. In 1812, he was appointed Major General of the North Carolina Militia and served in that capacity until 1814. He, like Bennehan, served on the Board of Trustees from 1802 until 1853.

Cameron was instrumental in the development of the Episcopal Church in North Carolina in the 1820s. In 1833, he bought the defunct Episcopal School for Boys in Raleigh, reestablishing it with the Rev. Aldert Smedes as its director. In 1841, the school became Saint Mary's, an Episcopal girls' school, with Rev. Aldert Smedes again as director. The school remained in Cameron family hands until it was sold to the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina in 1897. Duncan Cameron also helped to establish Christ Church in Raleigh, and built Salem Chapel at Fairntosh, where the Cameron family and some enslaved people attended services.

When the State Bank of North Carolina was formed in 1811, Duncan Cameron was one of its first directors, and in 1829 he accepted its presidency. Later the bank was dissolved and reformed as the Bank of the State of North Carolina. Cameron served as president of the new bank from 1834 until his resignation in 1849.

After his 1803 marriage to Rebecca Bennehan, Duncan Cameron jointly invested with the Bennehan family in merchant partnerships and plantation slavery. He formed a number of partnerships with various family members to run stores in North Carolina and Virginia. The most important of these partnerships were with his father-in-law Richard Bennehan and brother-in-law Thomas D. Bennehan. The first was a limited partnership drawn up in 1806, giving Thomas D. Bennehan and Duncan Cameron a share in the management and profits of the store at Fishdam Ford on the Neuse River, opened by Richard Bennehan in 1802. The second partnership drawn up in 1807 was much more extensive. It combined the Bennehan and Cameron plantations, enslaved people, stores, and flour and sawmills into one powerful and profitable enterprise. The plantations and stores were managed by the Bennehans and overseers, while Duncan Cameron provided his legal and financial expertise to the business. Enslaved people planted and harvested wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, cotton, and tobacco and raised sheep and cattle. Enslaved people also labored as foremen (Luke, Solomon, Virgil, Ovid) waggoners (Jerry, "Whiskey George"), coachmen, tanners, carpenters, millers (Cyrus, Daniel, Matthew), blacksmiths (Lewis), shoemakers (Ben, Lewis Toe, Robbin, Streton, Walker), coopers, gardeners, weavers, doctors (Virgil), and nurses (Mary Walker, Minerva, Christiana, Moriah).

Beginning in 1809, Duncan Cameron purchased additional plantation land in Person County, N.C. In December 1818, he purchased at least 40 enslaved people in Amelia County, Va., many of whom were brought to this plantation. By 1828, Duncan Cameron controlled oever 5,000 acres of land there. By 1845, at least 88 individuals were enslaved on this Person County property.

Cameron was also involved in a partnership beginning in 1802 with his step nephew George Anderson, establishing a store in Hillsborough, N.C., which later moved to Martinsville, Va. In the 1810s, Cameron started a commission merchant firm in Petersburg, Va., with his brother William Cameron and Samuel Snow. These and other business ventures of Duncan Cameron were largely unsuccessful except for the lucrative partnership with Thomas and Richard Bennehan.

Rebecca and Duncan Cameron had eight children: Mary Anne (b. 1804), Thomas Amis Dudley (b. 1806), Paul Carrington (b. 1808), Margaret Bain (b. 1811), Rebecca Bennehan (b. 1813), Jean Syme (b. 1815), Anne Owen (b. 1817), and Mildred Coles (b. 1820).

The Cameron girls, except Mary Anne, were educated at home by governesses. Mary McLean Bryant, who was one of the governesses, corresponded with the girls long after she left the Cameron's employ; she returned many years later to tend the children of Paul C. Cameron. Mary Anne attended Jacob Mordecai's Seminary in Warrenton, N.C., for several years, leaving in 1818.

Paul and Thomas had a number of tutors, including W. P. Mangum, before they were sent away to school. Finding a school suitable for Thomas, who had an intellectual disability, proved difficult. In 1813, he was sent to Lunenberg, Va., to attend his grandfather John Cameron's school. He was then sent to John Rudd's School in Elizabethtown, N.J., and finally, in 1820, to Captain Partridge's school in Norwich, Vt.

Paul attended the Hillsborough Academy and started preparatory school at the University of North Carolina in 1824, but was expelled for fighting in 1825. He then transferred to Captain Partridge's school. Finally, he attended Washington College (now Trinity College) in Hartford, Conn., graduating in 1829.

Until Duncan Cameron moved the family to Raleigh in 1836, they were at risk of the same diseases that ravaged the enslaved population. Fevers and pneumonia from malaria and tuberculosis took the lives of many enslaved people, especially in the 1830s and 1840s when epidemics coincided with the clearing of more and more swampy "bottom" lands that had been purchased by the family.

Of the eight Cameron children, five experienced significant health problems. Mary Ann, Rebecca, Jean, and Anne contracted and died from tuberculosis. Rebecca, Jean, and Anne died in their twenties, and Mary Anne in her early thirties. During the same years, devastating outbreaks of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, impacted many enslaved people on Cameron property. Mildred escaped tuberculosis but contracted an undiagnosed disease which left her partially paralyzed. Mildred traveled to see doctors in search of a cure, but remained an invalid throughout her adult life, in the care of her sister Margaret and enslaved nurses. One enslaved nurse, Mary Walker, self-emancipated by running away while accompanying the Camerons on a medical trip to Philadelphia in 1848. Mary's son Francis, called Frank, also liberated himself when he escaped from the Camerons in 1852.

Thomas Cameron lived until 1870, but he was dependent on his family throughout his adult life because of his intellectual disability.

Margaret B. Cameron lived at home, caring for her sick siblings and her ailing parents and managing the household until she was forty-two. Then, in 1853, she married George W. Mordecai, president of the State Bank of North Carolina, who had succeeded Duncan Cameron when he resigned the post in 1849. After their marriage, Margaret and her husband resided at the Cameron mansion in Raleigh with about 20 enslaved domestic servants. Margaret inherited control over hundreds of enslaved people and vast acreage from the estates of her father and her uncle Thomas D. Bennehan. In accordance with a pre-nuptial agreement, ownership of the enslaved people remained in her name, although her husband, hired overseers, and her brother Paul C. Cameron effectively managed her property. In November 1859, at least 100 enslaved people were trafficked by sale from Mordecai-Cameron land, followed by a smaller sale of over 60 people in February 1861.

Margaret and George Mordecai were childless, except for a stillbirth in 1854. After her marriage, Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai continued to care for her sister Mildred. Margaret outlived her husband and died in 1886. Her assets and property were left to her brother, Paul C. Cameron.

Paul C. Cameron read law and passed the bar in 1832, but was not interested in being a lawyer. He was interested in agriculture, and his ambition was to move to the Deep South and manage a cotton plantation. Nevertheless, he set up a law practice in Hillsborough, N.C. In 1832, he married Anne Ruffin (1814-1897), daughter of the jurist Thomas Ruffin. At first Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron lived in a house in Hillsborough called Burnside. In December 1834, Duncan Cameron gifted 41 enslaved people to Paul C. Cameron. In 1837, Paul resigned from the bar, and the young couple moved to Fairntosh so that Paul could take over the management of the Cameron plantations alongside his uncle Thomas D. Bennehan. By this time Fairntosh was unoccupied. Duncan Cameron moved his family, as well as a small group of enslaved domestic servants, to Raleigh permanently in 1836 following his appointment as president of the Bank of the State of North Carolina.

Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron lived at Fairntosh from 1837 until 1856, when they repurchased Burnside and moved back to Hillsborough. During the years at Fairntosh, Paul C. Cameron ambitiously directed the expansion of the plantation land and enslaved labor. In 1844, he purchased a cotton plantation in Greene County, Ala., and in November 1856, land for another cotton plantation in Tunica County, Miss. Families and kin networks were separated when enslaved people were forced to migrate to these new cotton plantations. In November 1844, 114 people walked from the Cameron plantations in North Carolina to Greene County, Ala. In December 1856, 35 people were moved from Alabama to Tunica County, Miss. In January 1858, 40 people were sent from North Carolina to Tunica County, and in November 1869, 42 more people were sent on the same route. During the American Civil War, in the spring of 1864, many of these families were evacuated back to North Carolina.

Paul C. Cameron was known as an enthusiastic agricultural reformer, and he was a founding member of North Carolina's earliest agricultural society. He was also a strong advocate for railroads in North Carolina. In the early 1850s, he contracted to build a section of the North Carolina Railroad with enslaved labor from his plantations. He also served on the board of directors of the North Carolina Railroad and was elected its president in 1861. Additionally, he was a director of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad and the Raleigh and Augusta Air Line Railroad.

Although Paul C. Cameron was not as politically active as his father, he ran for a seat in the state senate in 1856 and was elected. He was defeated when he ran for a second term.

At the eve of the American Civil War the Cameron siblings enslaved over one thousand people on plantations across Orange, Person, Granville, and Wake Counties in North Carolina, Greene County, Ala., and Tunica County, Miss. Although the Bennehans and Camerons purchased enslaved people up until around 1842, many enslaved people were direct descendents of early families enslaved by the Bennehans. Among the original enslaved family surnames are Amis, Dickinson, Walker, Bennehan, and Umstead. By the start of Reconstruction, the surnames of formerly enslaved families found on Cameron tenant contracts include Alston, Bigelow, Cain, Dunham/Durham, Evins, Glass, Harriss, Hart, Haskins, Holdt, Justice, Kirkland, Lashley, Latta, Love, Lunsford, Meeks, Peaks, Ruffin, Sears, Sewell, Shaw, Strudwick, Tate, Taylor, Veasy, and Webb.

Paul C. Cameron did not serve in the Confederate Army. He was excluded from the general amnesty granted most Southerners by the Union government because of his wealth. He applied for a special pardon, which he received in 1865. Although the Cameron fortune could no longer include the profits from enslaved people's value and labor, the family still owned vast real estate, stock, and through Reconstruction. Land was leased to white tenants or farmed by sharecroppers on contracts and Paul began to concentrate on the railroads and cotton manufacturing for income. By 1875, Paul C. Cameron had sold sections of his Alabama plantation land to a number of formerly enslaved Black men, including Sandy Cameron, Jim Hargis, and Paul Hargis.

After Reconstruction, Paul C. Cameron led the effort to rebuild and reopen the University of North Carolina. He was a member of the Board of Trustees and chairman of the Building Committee. Cameron himself donated the money for the building of the original Memorial Hall, as well as the maple trees that line Cameron Avenue, named in his honor.

Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron had a dozen children. Two were stillborn; two died in infancy; one, Mary Amis, died at age eleven. The remaining offspring, Rebecca, Anne, Margaret, Duncan, Pauline, Bennehan, and Mildred survived to adulthood and married.

Rebecca first married Walker Anderson in 1863, then John Graham in 1867. Anne married George P. Collins in 1860. After the Civil War, Anne and George Collins went to Mississippi to manage Paul C. Cameron's plantation in Tunica County, and then returned to Durham, N.C. Margaret married Robert B. Peebles. Pauline married William Shepard and lived in Edenton. After Pauline's death, her sister Mildred Coles married the widower William Shepard.

Duncan and Bennehan were in school during the Civil War. Duncan spent some time in Mississippi living with his sister Anne Collins before settling down to marry Mary Short and take over the management of Fairntosh. His untimely death in 1886 was a great blow to his father.

Bennehan Cameron graduated from Virginia Military Institute in 1875. He then moved to Stagville and took over the management of the plantation. After his brother's death, he moved to Fairntosh. He married Sally Mayo in 1891.

Paul C. Cameron died in 1891 leaving his family's vast fortune to his wife, his remaining son Bennehan, and his daughters.

NOTE: This biographical note was revised in 2023 to include more information about the community of people enslaved by the Cameron, Bennehan, and Mordecai families. Vera Cecelski of Stagville State Historic Site contributed to the revision. See also:

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Scope and Content

This collection documents many aspects of the personal lives and business affairs of the white Cameron and Bennehan families, particularly of its patriarchs Richard Bennehan, Bennehan's son-in-law Duncan Cameron, and Duncan Cameron's son Paul C. Cameron.

Enslaved people, who made up the majority of the plantation population, are also documented extensively in this collection, although there are few records created by them. Information about members of the enslaved community must be gleaned from the perspective of white people. Enslaved people are found in tax lists, bills of sale, deeds, wills and estate papers, ledgers, and account records, and legal files, as well as in the correspondence of the white family members and overseers who wrote about their health and well-being, comportment, and work. Many of these records provide names, ages, family relationships, geographic locations, and scattered information about labor, medical care, and provisioning.

Although the papers date from 1757 to 1978, the bulk of the material pertains to the period 1800 to 1890. Material from the 18th century, while not plentiful, does provide documentation of Richard Bennehan's mercantile enterprises in Orange County, N.C., and of the beginning of the enslaved communities associated with Cameron and Bennehan plantations. Material from the 20th century chiefly deals with the settlement of Paul C. Cameron's estate. The only significant gap in the papers that document the Cameron's activities from 1800 to 1890 is material dating from the Civil War. Anne Ruffin Cameron and Bennehan Cameron burned Paul C. Cameron's papers for these years, apparently to destroy evidence of his support of the Confederacy.

The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence, financial and legal documents, and volumes. In addition there are speeches, writings, printed material, pictures, and miscellaneous other types of personal papers.

This collection is a rich source of information on a number of topics. Series 1. Correspondence provides many details about familial relationships and social behavior of a white Southern plantation family made wealthy by enslaved labor. The harsh conditions of plantation life, notably isolation and disease, especially the impact of the latter in the enslaved community, are also well documented. There is significantly more information about Cameron and Bennehan men than about Cameron and Bennehan women, particularly in material from the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. However, after about 1830 the women are represented in correspondence more fully, particularly by Anne Ruffin Cameron and Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai. In addition to Bennehan and Cameron family correspondence, there are also some Mordecai family letters and Nash family letters in Series 1. Enslaved people who were in close proximity to the white family members because of their household roles or skilled labor are often mentioned by name in the letters of family members; overseers' letters more frequently mention enslaved people working in the fields or with livestock. Almost all letters exchanged within the immediate families of Duncan and Rebecca Bennehan Cameron and Paul C. and Anne Ruffin Cameron include mention of enslaved people; only a fraction of these letters are highlighted in this finding aid.

Series 2. Family Financial and Legal Papers and Series 6. Volumes contain extensive information about the Stagville Plantation and Fairntosh Plantation (sometimes called "Home House"), as well as other plantations and family homes in Orange County, Person County, Wake County, and Granville County, and in Greene County, Miss., and Tunica County, Ala. These materials provide information about the enslaved people on the plantations, including their names, ages, the terms of their being trafficked between owners, where they worked, what labor they performed, what provisions they were given, and their medical care. There are also minute details about crops, stock, tools, buildings, and management of these lucrative enterprises. These papers also document the transportation and marketing of the agricultural products of the plantations.

Series 2 and Series 6 also provide much information about the Stagville Store, other stores, sawmills, grist mills, and blacksmith shops located on the Cameron lands.

Series 3. Duncan Cameron's Legal Papers provide extensive documentation of Duncan Cameron's legal career from 1797 until about 1817 as an attorney and superior court judge. Enslaved people are also found in these files where they are represented as claimed or contested property.

The papers also contain some information about the birth and development of important institutions in North Carolina: the State Bank, the University of North Carolina, the North Carolina State Militia, the Episcopal Church, railroads, and state government, in all of which the Camerons were actively involved.

Duncan Cameron's involvement in the State Bank of North Carolina, the Bank of the State of North Carolina, and other banks is documented extensively in Series 1 and Subseries 5.2. Bank Material. Richard Bennehan, Duncan Cameron, and Paul C. Cameron all served on the Board of Trustees of the University of North Carolina. Letters from University presidents and other board members can be found in Series 1. Documentation of monetary contributions to the University are in Subseries 2.1. Accounts. Duncan Cameron's service as a Major General in the North Carolina State Militia after the War of 1812 is documented in Subseries 5.3. The Camerons' involvement in the development of the Episcopal Church in North Carolina in the early nineteenth century is documented by letters from bishops and others in Series 1; by receipts, deeds, and other documents in Series 2; and by printed material in Subseries 5.4. Church Material. Papers pertaining to the North Carolina Railroad and other railroads are found in Subseries 2.1. Accounts and Subseries 5.9. Railroads. Correspondence pertaining to the railroads is in Series 1. Duncan Cameron's service in the House of Commons and State Senate representing Orange County is documented in Series 1 and in Subseries 5.8. Politics.

The original order of this collection is unknown except for some material in an addition received in 1983. That material is now located in Subseries 2.6. Estate Papers and remains much as it arrived.

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Contents list

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series Quick Links

1. Correspondence, 1757-1935 and undated.
1.1. Correspondence, 1757-1796 and undated.
1.2. Correspondence, 1797-1825.
1.3. Correspondence, 1826-1853.
1.4. Correspondence, 1854-April 1865.
1.5. Correspondence, May 1865-1889.
1.6. Correspondence, 1890-1935.
1.7. Outgoing Correspondence, undated.
1.8. Incoming Correspondence, undated.
2. Family Financial and Legal Papers, 1761-1942 and undated.
2.1. Accounts, 1767-1942 and undated.
2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated.
2.3. Surveys and Land Plats, 1761-1937 and undated.
2.4. Tax Lists and Receipts, 1770-1941 and undated.
2.5. Promissory Notes and Bonds, 1772-1889.
2.6. Estate Papers, 1804-1942.
2.7. Wills, 1764-1891.
2.8. Insurance, 1820-1889.
2.9. Other Family Financial and Legal Papers, 1769-1941.
3. Duncan Cameron's Legal Papers, 1797-1837 and undated.
3.1. Client Files, 1797-1830s.
3.2. Dockets and Memoranda, 1798-1837 and undated.
3.3. Blank Forms, undated.
4. Speeches and Writings, 1796-1892.
4.1. Speeches, 1796-1806 and undated.
4.2. Poetry, 1824-1883 and undated.
4.3. Compositions and Notes, 1796-1871 and undated.
4.4. Other Writings, 1892 and undated.
5. Other Papers, 1807-1961 and undated.
5.1. School Material, 1814-1890.
5.2. Bank Material, 1811-1890.
5.3. Military, 1807-1865.
5.4. Church Material, 1817-1889.
5.5. Stagville Post Office, 1824-1844.
5.6. Recipes and Instructions, 1816-1884 and undated.
5.7. Remedies and Prescriptions, 1809-1877 and undated.
5.8. Politics, 1806-1876 and undated.
5.9. Railroads, 1841-1878.
5.10. Printed Material, 1800-1890 and undated.
5.11. Invitations and Calling Cards, 1866-1896 and undated.
5.12. Buildings and Grounds, 1792-1853 and undated.
5.13. Family History, 1812-1961.
5.14. Notes and Fragments, undated.
6. Volumes, 1767-1978 and undated.
6.1. Letter Books, 1771-1803.
6.2. Bank Books, 1811-1891.
6.3. Cash Books, 1794-1805, 1889-1898.
6.4. Daybooks, 1773-1886.
6.5. Ledgers, 1767-1894.
6.6. Ready Money Sales, 1784-1811.
6.7. Other Account Books, 1768-1887.
6.8. Surveys, 1819-1890.
6.9. Estate Papers, 1785-1925.
6.10. Legal Volumes, 1793-1812.
6.11. Diaries, 1821-1889 and undated.
6.12. School, 1795-1831 and undated.
6.13. Other Volumes, 1800-1978 and undated.
7. Pictures, circa 1790-1973.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 1. Correspondence, 1757-1935 and undated.

About 27,500 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Business and personal correspondence of the Bennehan and Cameron families, particularly of Richard Bennehan (1743-1825), Duncan Cameron (1777-1853), and Paul C. Cameron (1808-1891). There is some correspondence of Thomas D. Bennehan (1782-1847), Rebecca Bennehan Cameron (1778-1843), Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai (1811-1886), and Anne Ruffin Cameron (1814-1897). Some Nash family and Mordecai family correspondence is included among the Cameron letters.

There are only a few letters written by enslaved people. Information about members of the enslaved community must largely be gleaned from the perspective of white family members and overseers who frequently wrote about the health and well-being, comportment, and work of enslaved people. Almost all letters exchanged within the immediate families of Duncan and Rebecca Bennehan Cameron and Paul C. and Anne Ruffin Cameron include mention of enslaved people; only a fraction of these letters are highlighted in this finding aid.

The series is divided into eight subseries. The first six subseries divide the Cameron correspondence which spans 180 years into smaller time periods during which one or more of the Bennehan or Cameron men were principle correspondents. The last two subseries contain undated letters: subseries 1.7 contains undated letters written by members of the Cameron family; subseries 1.8 contains letters written by non family members.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists revised correspondence series descriptions (1757-1866) to include more information about the community of people enslaved by the Cameron, Bennehan, and Mordecai families. Many of the individual letters highlighted as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction" in this series were identified by Jean Bradley Anderson in Piedmont Plantation: The Bennehan-Cameron Family and Lands in North Carolina (Durham, N.C.: Historic Preservation Commission of Durham, 1985) and by Sydney Nathans in To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2012). Many more records of enslavement exist throughout Series 1. Correspondence but have not yet been identified in this finding aid.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.1. Correspondence, 1757-1796 and undated.

About 1288 items.

Business and personal correspondence of Richard Bennehan, his son Thomas D. Bennehan, his daughter Rebecca Bennehan, and his wife Mary Amis Bennehan. During the years covered by this subseries, Richard Bennehan was in business with William Johnston, and then in business for himself. The material in this subseries predates the arrival of Duncan Cameron in North Carolina.

The bulk of this material consists of business letters to Richard Bennehan from his partner William Johnston of Hillsborough, N.C., with whom Bennehan owned the Little River Store, and from Bennehan's factor and former employer Edward Stabler of Petersburg, Va. Among Bennehan's other business correspondents are merchants David Buchanan of Petersburg, Va., John Alston of Glasgow, Scotland, James Gibson of Suffolk, Va., and Andrew Miller of Halifax, N.C.

Letters chiefly focus on various aspects of the mercantile business, particularly on market conditions, transportation problems, counterfeit money, and prices for tobacco, sugar, rum, and salt. In these letters, there are some passing references made to the War of Regulation, the American Revolution, the Constitution, and the economy. A letter, 9 June 1771, from William Johnston anticipates Governor Tryon's arrival in Hillsborough after the Battle of Alamance. A letter, 15 February 1776, alludes to Bennehan's participation in the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. William Johnston's death in 1785 is documented, as is Bennehan's subsequent purchase of the Stagville property and building of the Stagville Store in 1787.

Business letters to Richard Bennehan written after 1789 chiefly consist of letters from Ebenezer Stott of Petersburg, Va., who was Bennehan's primary factor during the 1790s. These letters frequently include statements of account, in addition to the usual discussions of market conditions and news.

Among Bennehan's other correspondents during this period are Jesse Benton, William Richardson Davie, Thomas Hart, Allen Jones, Nathaniel Rochester, and Samuel Ashe. A letter, 13 July 1796, from Ashe documents Bennehan's gift of books to the library at the University of North Carolina.

Thomas D. Bennehan's correspondence with his parents Richard and Mary Amis Bennehan and his sister Rebecca date from 1795, when Thomas left for Chapel Hill, N.C., to attend the preparatory school at the University, to 1801, when he graduated from UNC.

The letters between Thomas and Rebecca are particularly numerous. There is only one letter written by Mary Amis Bennehan to Thomas, but there are frequent exchanges between father and son. There are also several letters to Thomas from his classmates, including his cousin Thomas Gale Amis.

There are few letters written to Bennehan in Virginia before he moved to North Carolina in 1768. There are no letters from Bennehan's relatives except for letters from his wife's brother Thomas Amis of Halifax County, N.C.

For financial material pertaining to the Little River Store, the Stagville Store, and the enslaved labor and land that Bennehan purchased with his store profits, see Subseries 2.1., 2.9., 6.1., 6.3., and 6.7.

For other documentation of Richard Bennehan's contributions to the University of North Carolina, see Subseries 2.1.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists revised correspondence series descriptions (1757-1866) to include more information about the community of people enslaved by the Cameron, Bennehan, and Mordecai families. Many of the individual letters highlighted as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction" in this series were identified by Jean Bradley Anderson in Piedmont Plantation: The Bennehan-Cameron Family and Lands in North Carolina (Durham, N.C.: Historic Preservation Commission of Durham, 1985) and by Sydney Nathans in To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2012). Many more records of enslavement exist throughout Series 1. Correspondence but have not yet been identified in this finding aid.

Folder 1

Correspondence, 1757-1768

Folder 2

Correspondence, 1769

Folder 3-5

Folder 3

Folder 4

Folder 5

Correspondence, 1770

Folder 6-8

Folder 6

Folder 7

Folder 8

Correspondence, 1771

Folder 8: Records of enslavement:

  • 12 June 1771: Robert Reid, Harrisburg, to Richard Bennehan,Orange County, regarding delivery of Scrub, an enslaved child.
  • 9 June 1771: William Johnston, Hillsborough, to Richard Bennehan, mentioning Tom as the enslaved delivery person.
  • 8 September 1771: William Johnston, Hillsborough, to Richard Bennehan, Snow Hill, mentioning Tom as the enslaved delivery person and Jack, an enslaved person who asked John Douglass to purchase him so that Bennehan did not sell him further away.
  • 28 October 1771: William Johnston, Suffolk, to Richard Bennehan, Little River, mentioning Moses, an enslaved delivery person.
Folder 9-12

Folder 9

Folder 10

Folder 11

Folder 12

Correspondence, 1772

Folder 13-17

Folder 13

Folder 14

Folder 15

Folder 16

Folder 17

Correspondence, 1773

Folder 18-21

Folder 18

Folder 19

Folder 20

Folder 21

Correspondence, 1774

Folder 22-24

Folder 22

Folder 23

Folder 24

Correspondence, 1775

Folder 25

Correspondence, 1776

Records of enslavement:

  • 15 February 1776: Richard Bennehan to James Martin, Little River, mentioning Scrub and Tom, who were enslaved people.
Folder 26

Correspondence, 1777-1778

Folder 27

Correspondence, 1779

Folder 28

Correspondence, 1780-1781

Folder 29

Correspondence, 1782

Folder 30-31

Folder 30

Folder 31

Correspondence, 1783

Folder 32

Correspondence, 1784

Records of enslavement:

  • 20 October 1784: Thomas Amis, Halifax, to Richard Bennehan, Orange, regarding Scrub, an enslaved person who was rumored to be in Norfolk after he self-emancipated by running away. Amis mentioned that a person enslaved by Cain had been apprehended and provided that information. Amis wrote that he would take Jim, an enslaved person, to assist in apprehending Scrub.
Folder 33-35

Folder 33

Folder 34

Folder 35

Correspondence, 1785

Folder 36-37

Folder 36

Folder 37

Correspondence, 1786

Folder 38-40

Folder 38

Folder 39

Folder 40

Correspondence, 1787

Folder 41-43

Folder 41

Folder 42

Folder 43

Correspondence, 1788

Folder 44-46

Folder 44

Folder 45

Folder 46

Correspondence, 1789

Folder 47-49

Folder 47

Folder 48

Folder 49

Correspondence, 1790

Folder 50-51

Folder 50

Folder 51

Correspondence, 1791

Folder 52-54

Folder 52

Folder 53

Folder 54

Correspondence, 1792

Folder 55-56

Folder 55

Folder 56

Correspondence, 1793

Folder 57-58

Folder 57

Folder 58

Correspondence, 1794

Folder 59-61

Folder 59

Folder 60

Folder 61

Correspondence, 1795

Folder 62-64

Folder 62

Folder 63

Folder 64

Correspondence, 1796

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.2. Correspondence, 1797-1825.

About 10,300 items.

The bulk of material in this subseries is from the period when Duncan Cameron and Richard Bennehan were in business together. The earliest material in this subseries actually predates Duncan Cameron's marriage to Rebecca Bennehan and his business dealings with her father. The subseries ends with the death of Richard Bennehan.

1797-1799

Chiefly business letters to Richard Bennehan, with some business and personal letters of Duncan Cameron. Richard Bennehan corresponded frequently with his factor Ebenezer Stott of Petersburg, Va., during these years. There are also occasional letters from other merchants, as well as from Bennehan's friends, William Richardson Davie, Jesse Benton, and Samuel Ashe.

Throughout these years there are numerous letters between Richard Bennehan and his son Thomas who was studying at the University of North Carolina. There are also letters between Thomas D. Bennehan and his sister Rebecca, who remained at home. These letters both provide information about student life in the early days of the University, and suggest the character of the Bennehans' family ties.

Letters written to Duncan Cameron are from members of his family in Virginia, and from clients and associates. There are letters from Duncan Cameron's father John Cameron, his brothers John and William, and his sisters Jean and Anna, all of whom lived in Lunenberg, Va. Duncan Cameron's sister, Mary Read Anderson, and her husband Daniel Anderson of Petersburg, Va., were frequent correspondents, as was Duncan Cameron's uncle Ewen Cameron of Franklin, Tenn. Among Duncan Cameron's other correspondents are William Richardson Davie, Archibald D. Murphey, James Turner, John Hogg, John Lenox, and Richard Henderson.

Some scattered correspondence between Frederick Nash, who was Cameron's cousin, and Nash's mother Mary Witherspoon is included. During this period Frederick Nash attended Princeton University and wrote to his mother in New Bern, N.C.

For further documentation of Duncan Cameron's legal practice see Series 3 and Subseries 6.10.

1800-1809

Chiefly letters to Richard Bennehan and Duncan Cameron, with some letters of Thomas D. Bennehan and Rebecca Bennehan Cameron. Included are drafts or copies of some of Duncan Cameron's outgoing letters.

Richard Bennehan's correspondents include his factors in Petersburg, Va., particularly Ebenezer Stott, and his friends and associates William Richardson Davie, Robert Williams, Joseph Caldwell, and Richard Henderson. There are no letters from Bennehan's Virginia relatives except for his nephew William Bennehan, who moved to North Carolina in the 1790s and worked at the Stagville Store and then at the store at Fishdam Ford until his death in 1806. There are several letters from members of the Amis family of Halifax and Northampton counties, N.C. The Camerons had received 25 enslaved people from the Amis family. Their letters, however, mostly pertain to breeding horses, which was of particular interest to the Amises because they owned Sir Archie, a stud horse who had been a star racing thoroughbred.

After Richard's daughter Rebecca married Duncan Cameron in 1803, there are many letters to Richard Bennehan from Cameron. Beginning in 1806, these letters document the lucrative partnership between Duncan Cameron and his father-in-law Richard Bennehan and brother-in-law Thomas D. Bennehan, which combined their lands and stores into a thriving business. Rebecca's letters to her husband Duncan frequently mention enslaved people by name and the general health of the enslaved community. Rebecca was most likely to report on enslaved people who worked at the house or who had special proximity to the white family as delivery drivers, messengers, and foreman.

Duncan Cameron's correspondents included clients from his legal practice, and friends, especially William Richardson Davie, James Webb, Joseph Gales, Archibald Murphey, and Willie P. Mangum. Cameron's family in Virginia were regular correspondents. There are many letters from his father John Cameron of Lunenberg, Va., and from his sisters Mary Read Anderson and Jean Syme of Petersburg, Va. These letters document Duncan Cameron's support of his younger brothers William and John Cameron who were sent to the University of North Carolina by Duncan and then employed by him in Hillsborough, N.C., as clerks in his law office and clerks in the store in Hillsborough run by Cameron's stepnephew George Anderson. There are also letters regularly from Richard Bennehan and Thomas D. Bennehan.

In 1800 and 1801, there are letters from Thomas D. Bennehan to his parents and to sister Rebecca written while Thomas was at the University of North Carolina. Throughout the decade there are letters to Thomas D. Bennehan from his cousin Thomas Gale Amis who was an orphan and had been sent to the University with his cousin by Richard Bennehan. After Thomas Gale Amis's graduation, he worked on merchant ships in the West Indies. According to Jean Anderson in her book Piedmont Plantation: The Bennehan-Cameron Family and Lands in North Carolina (1985), Amis may have been sent away because he was in love with Rebecca. His letters to Thomas D. Bennehan richly describe Guadeloupe, Santo Domingo, and other Caribbean ports, and his perceptions of slavery and the rebellion of enslaved people in the West Indies.

1810-1819

Chiefly letters to Duncan Cameron from members of his family, business partners, clients, factors, and friends. There are a few of Duncan Cameron's outgoing letters to members of his family and scattered manuscript copies of outgoing business letters. Some correspondence of Richard Bennehan, Thomas D. Bennehan, and Rebecca Bennehan Cameron is also included. In addition, there are scattered letters to Duncan Cameron's cousin Frederick Nash from clients, letters to Nash's wife Mary from her sisters, and some correspondence between brothers Samuel Mordecai and George W. Mordecai.

Duncan Cameron's most frequent correspondents during this period were his siblings, Mary Read Anderson of Petersburg, Va., William Cameron of Petersburg, John Adams Cameron of Fayetteville, N.C., and Jean Syme of Petersburg. Mary Read Anderson wrote even more often during this period because her husband Daniel Anderson died, making Duncan Cameron the executor of his will and the guardian of his sons, William and Walker Anderson.

William Cameron and Samuel Snow, who were Duncan Cameron's partners in a mercantile business in Petersburg, wrote frequently to Duncan Cameron, keeping him abreast of market conditions. John Adams Cameron, who depended on his brother for financial aid after a debilitating wound in the War of 1812, was a frequent correspondent.

Duncan Cameron's brother Thomas Cameron of Pennsylvania, and his parents John and Mary Owen Cameron of Lunenberg, Va., wrote to Duncan occasionally. There are several letters from Duncan Cameron's cousin, or perhaps uncle, Ewen Cameron of Franklin, Tenn. Beginning in 1818, there are occasional letters from Duncan Cameron's nephew Walker Anderson who was attending The University of North Carolina. There are also several letters from Frederick Nash.

Rebecca Bennehan Cameron also received letters from Duncan's family. In 1817 and 1818, she also received regular letters from her daughter Mary Anne Ruffin Cameron who attended Mordecai Female Seminary in Warrenton, N.C. Notes from Mary Anne's teachers about her deportment and scholastic progress often appear on the backs of Mary Anne's letters.

Duncan Cameron's legal practice and subsequent appointment to a Superior Court judgeship frequently took him away from home to county courts across North Carolina. Richard and Thomas D. Bennehan wrote to Duncan when he was away, consulting with him about business matters involving their partnership. There are many letters from Rebecca to Duncan during these absences keeping her husband informed about the health of the family and of the enslaved community at Stagville where disease could quickly overtake many people. The enslaved people Rebecca mentioned by name most likely worked at the house or had special proximity to the white family as delivery drivers, messengers, and foremen.

Very little of Richard and Thomas D. Bennehan's correspondence is preserved for this period. There are a few letters exchanged between the two when one was away on business, or when, in 1813, Richard was taking a water cure in Warm Springs, Va. Richard Bennehan's nephew Richard Bennehan wrote occasionally from Richmond County, Va. Several members of the Amis family wrote to Bennehan, mostly concerning horse breeding, especially about the famous stud horse and thoroughbred racer Sir Archie. Thomas D. Bennehan and Rebecca Bennehan Cameron received some letters from their cousins Frances Goodwin Smith and Mary Phillips.

In addition to Duncan Cameron's voluminous family correspondence, there is also substantial correspondence dealing with his legal practice and his various business partnerships. There are many letters from mercantile businesses on the eastern seaboard that employed Cameron as lawyer primarily to collect debts on their behalf. There are also letters from merchants/factors from whom Duncan Cameron bought goods to stock stores he owned and to whom he supplied tobacco and wheat grown on the Bennehan Cameron lands or that he had accepted as payment at the Bennehan Cameron stores. The most frequent merchant correspondents for this period are Rogers and Winthrop of New York, Ebenezer Stott of Petersburg, Roger Lamberth of New York, Pattison Hartshorne of Philadelphia, McEwen, Hale, and Davidson of Philadelphia, John MacMillian of Fayetteville, John Hogg of Wilmington, N.C., Edward Lyde of New York, Robert Walker of Petersburg, W. Haxell of Petersburg, John Thompkins of Richmond, and John and James Dunlop of England. There are also letters from Sam Yarborough who ran the Stagville Store and from Sam Dickins, a plantation overseer.

There are also many letters from other clients for whom Duncan Cameron did legal work, as well as from other lawyers with whom Cameron worked. Extensive correspondence concerns the settlement of the estate of Absolum Tatum of Nashville, Tenn. Cameron worked on this case with Abram Maury, a Nashville lawyer, and Samuel Goodwin, comptroller general of North Carolina.

Duncan Cameron was extensively involved in the establishment of the State Bank of North Carolina during this period. He corresponded regularly with bank officers and the officers of other North Carolina banks. Among his correspondents were William Polk, William H. Haywood, John Haywood, William Boylan, Peter Browne, and J. W. Wright.

Various North Carolina senators and representatives in the United States Congress wrote to Duncan Cameron periodically informing him of legislation dealing with trade, and giving him news about the embargo, the War of 1812, and the Treaty of Paris. There are letters to Cameron from a number of individuals in Washington, including James Turner, Archibald McBryde, William Gaston, James Culpepper, and Richard Stanford.

During this period, Duncan Cameron was a representative in the North Carolina House of Commons and Senate. In 1819, when he became a senator, he became chairman of the influential Internal Improvement Committee originally led by Cameron's friend Archibald Murphey. Correspondence from this period, especially letters from Archibald Murphey, documents Cameron's involvement in state politics.

From 1814 to 1816, when Cameron served as a major general in the North Carolina Militia, he received letters from Robert Williams, the adjutant general, dealing with militia matters. Other correspondents include Richard Henderson, Paul Carrington, James Webb, John Devereaux, Thomas B. Littlejohn, Walter Alves, W. G. Grove, William Norwood, and Thomas Ruffin.

For more information on the State Bank of North Carolina, see Subseries 5.2.

For more documentation relating to Duncan Cameron's service in the Militia see Subseries 5.3.

For more material relating to Duncan Cameron's legal practice, see Series 3 and Subseries 6.10.

For documentation of the Bennehans' and Camerons' financial relationships with their factors, see Subseries 2.1 and 2.9.

For further documentation of Duncan Cameron's participation in the Committee for Internal Improvement, see Subseries 5.8.

1820-1825

Chiefly business and family letters written to Duncan Cameron, and some letters addressed to Richard Bennehan and to Thomas D. Bennehan. A few letters to Rebecca Bennehan Cameron and her daughter Mary Anne Ruffin Cameron from family members are included. Correspondence between George W. Mordecai and his sister Rachel Mordecai Lazarus of Wilmington, N.C., is also included.

Duncan Cameron's siblings Mary Read Anderson, Jean Syme, John Adams Cameron, William Cameron, and Thomas Cameron wrote to him frequently, communicating family news and asking his advice. There are occasional letters from Cameron's mother Anne Owen Cameron, his uncle or cousin Ewen Cameron of Franklin, Tenn., his stepnephew George Anderson, his nephew Walker Anderson, and his nephew William Anderson while he was attending the University of North Carolina from 1822 to 1826.

There are letters from Duncan Cameron's son Paul C. Cameron to Paul's sister Mary Anne and to his parents from the various schools he attended, including the University of North Carolina from which he was expelled in 1824, and Partridge's Academy (1825 and 1826). Included are letters from Paul's instructors concerning his progress in school and his deportment; from John Rudd who ran a school in Elizabethtown, Conn.; and from Captain Partridge concerning Paul's brother Thomas who had an intellectual disability.

Duncan Cameron's involvement in the Episcopal Church is well documented. He received regular correspondence from General Theological Seminary in New York on whose board of trustees he served. He corresponded with Bishop John Ravenscroft about various church matters. Ravenscroft and Cameron were also involved in business dealings together. Cameron was also a vice president of the American Bible Society and the American Sunday School Society during the 1820s and received regular correspondence from the two organizations.

During this period Duncan Cameron was involved in the State Bank of North Carolina. He corresponded with J. W. Wright of the Bank of Cape Fear, Samuel Haywood of the Bank of New Bern, William H. Haywood and Peter Browne of the State Bank, and John Brockenbrough and William Dandridge of the Bank of Virginia.

The Bennehans and Camerons corresponded with many merchants who served as their commission merchants and for whom Duncan Cameron collected debts. Among these merchant firms are Ebenezer Stott of Petersburg, Va., Robert Hamilton of Petersburg, James Davidson of Petersburg, Charles C. Watson of Philadelphia, Hamilton and Donaldson of New York, Duncan Thompson of Fayetteville, N.C., and John Taylor of Wilmington.

Other frequent correspondents of Duncan Cameron, Richard Bennehan, and Thomas D. Bennehan from the 1820s include Thomas Ruffin, Archibald Murphey, Richard Henderson, Dr. James Webb, Walter Alves, William Polk, William Boylan, Thomas B. Littlejohn, Joseph Gales, James Mebane, Joseph B. Skinner, William Norwood, Joseph Caldwell, Elisha Mitchell, Charles Manley, Samuel Yarborough, Thomas Devereaux, John Hogg, James Latta, Samuel Snow, and Dr. Lenco Mitchell. There is a letter in 1823 from Henry Clay recommending a Virginia lawyer to work in North Carolina.

For more documentation of the Bennehans' and Camerons' dealings with their factors, see Subseries 2.1.

For more information on the schooling of the Cameron children see Subseries 4.3, 5.1, and 6.12.

For further documentation of Duncan Cameron's involvement in the State Bank of North Carolina, see Subseries 5.2.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists revised correspondence series descriptions (1757-1866) to include more information about the community of people enslaved by the Cameron, Bennehan, and Mordecai families. Many of the individual letters highlighted as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction" in this series were identified by Jean Bradley Anderson in Piedmont Plantation: The Bennehan-Cameron Family and Lands in North Carolina (Durham, N.C.: Historic Preservation Commission of Durham, 1985) and by Sydney Nathans in To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2012). Many more records of enslavement exist throughout Series 1. Correspondence but have not yet been identified in this finding aid.

Folder 65-67

Folder 65

Folder 66

Folder 67

Correspondence, 1797

Folder 68-72

Folder 68

Folder 69

Folder 70

Folder 71

Folder 72

Correspondence, 1798

Folder 73-83

Folder 73

Folder 74

Folder 75

Folder 76

Folder 77

Folder 78

Folder 79

Folder 80

Folder 81

Folder 82

Folder 83

Correspondence, 1799

Folder 84-97

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Correspondence, 1800

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Correspondence, 1801

Folder 120: Records of enslavement:

  • 4 December 1801: letter from George Anderson, Hillsboro, to Duncan Cameron, Petersburg, reporting on his use of violence against Jim, who was an enslaved person.
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Correspondence, 1802

Folder 128: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 April 1802: letter from John Cameron and Anna Cameron to Duncan Cameron, mentioning [Dinah?] and Jim, who were enslaved people.
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Correspondence, 1803

Folder 159: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 June 1803: George Anderson, Hillsborough, to Duncan Cameron, Stagville, reporting on the death and funeral of Walter, an enslaved person; the health of Nancy, an enslaved person. He also mentioned Lucy, an enslaved nurse who was caring for Nancy.
  • 3 June 1803: George Anderson, Hillsborough, to Duncan Cameron, Stagville, mentioning Pauny, an enslaved waggoner, and the health of Nancy, an enslaved person.

Folder 161: Records of enslavement:

  • 3 July 1803: Richard Bennehan, Stagville, to Duncan Cameron, reporting the death of Esther, an enslaved woman who was married to Phill, who died after delivering stillborn twins. He also mentioned that Nancy, an enslaved person, had recovered, and that other enslaved people at the plantation were well.
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Correspondence, 1803

Folder 175: Records of enslavement:

  • 21 February 1803: Rebecca Bennehan Cameron, Stagville, to Duncan Cameron, Martinsville, mentioning Abram, an enslaved delivery person, and Sukey, who was very sick, along with several others in the enslaved community who had sore throats.

Folder 185: Records of enslavement:

  • 14 June 1803: Rebecca Bennehan Cameron, Stagville, to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning the mental health of Agga, an enslaved person who worked in the house.

Folder 186: Records of enslavement:

  • 25 June 1803: Rebecca Bennehan Cameron, Stagville, to Duncan Cameron, Hillsborough, mentioning the mental health of Agga, an enslaved person who worked in the house; work done by Nancy, who may have been an enslaved seamstress; and the expectation of the enslaved people that they would soon receive their provisions.
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Correspondence, 1805

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Correspondence, 1806

Folder 232: Records of enslavement:

  • 22 January 1806: Thomas D. Bennehan to Rebecca Bennehan Cameron, Hillsborough, reporting that the health of the enslaved people at Stagville was improved and that Alfred, an enslaved person, had a bad burn on his arm.
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Correspondence, 1807

Folder 262: Records of enslavement:

  • 22 February 1807: Thomas D. Bennehan to Thomas Amis Jr., Charleston, S.C., mentioning an unidentified young enslaved person who had been claimed as property by Amis and left in the care of Captain Jenkins in New Bern, who then bound him out to someone else for training as a carpenter.

Folder 263: Records of enslavement:

  • 28 March 1807: letter from Anna Cameron to Duncan Cameron, Hillsborough, reporting on a rumored threat on the life of their father John Cameron. Jack and another enslaved person had been accused of plotting to poison John Cameron. Anna Cameron also mentioned a previous fire at a Cameron house that allegedly was started by enslaved people.
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Correspondence, 1808

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Correspondence, 1809

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Correspondence, 1810

Folder 306: Records of enslavement:

  • 17 May 1810: letter from Thomas D. Bennehan, Stagville, to Duncan Cameron, Petersburg, mentioning Jerry, an enslaved waggoner.
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Correspondence, 1811

Folder 324: Records of enslavement:

  • 8 July 1811: Thomas D. Bennehan, Stagville, to Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, mentioning Luke, an enslaved foreman at Stagville, and Ferguson, who may have been an enslaved person.
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Correspondence, 1812

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Correspondence, 1813

Folder 366: Records of enslavement:

  • 3 October 1813: Rebecca Cameron to Duncan Cameron, Fayetteville, mentioning that Luke, who was an enslaved foreman at Stagville, had been sent as a messenger.
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Correspondence, 1814

Folder 378: Records of enslavement:

  • 21 February 1814: letter from M. R. Anderson to Duncan Cameron, Stagville, mentioning Fred, and enslaved person who had been bound out to Mr. Hubbard, a shoemaker; Mary Ann and John are also mentioned with regard to their recovery from measles.

Folder 393: Records of enslavement:

  • 5 October 1814: Richard Bennehan, Stagville, to Duncan Cameron, Winton, N.C., mentioning Luke, an enslaved foreman at Stagville, and Solomon.

Folder 394: Records of enslavement:

  • 19 October 1814: Rebecca Cameron to Duncan Cameron, mentioning the general health of enslaved people at Stagville who were suffering from agues and fevers but not bilious fevers, and in Person County where the health of enslaved people had improved. Jerry, who was an enslaved waggoner, and Solomon are also mentioned as having been away from Stagville.
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Correspondence, 1815

Folder 406: Records of enslavement:

  • 26 April 1815: Rebecca Bennehan Cameron to Duncan Cameron, Fayetteville, mentioning sickness among the enslaved people at Stagville, especially the death of Jim, the severity of Charity's illness, and Claricy who left Brick House to attend to her sick brother and then became ill herself.
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Correspondence, 1816

Folder 421: Records of enslavement:

  • 27 March 1816: Rebecca Bennehan Cameron, Stagville, to Duncan Cameron, Asheville, describing sickness in and general news about the enslaved community. "Little Ben," [Silla?], Jerry the enslaved waggoner, George, "Old Frank," and Jim are mentioned.
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Correspondence, 1817

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Correspondence, 1818

Folder 459: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 November 1818: letter from Thomas D. Bennehan, Stagville, to Richard Bennehan, Raleigh, mentioning Jerry, who was an enslaved waggoner. Thomas D. Bennehan also reported on a fire in the blacksmith's building.
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Correspondence, 1819

Folder 473: Records of enslavement:

  • 20 November 1819: letter from Thomas D. Bennehan, Stagville, to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning the health of John, Jude, and [Robin?].

Folder 474: Records of enslavement:

  • 26 November 1819: letter from Duncan Cameron to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, mentioning Jim, an enslaved distiller, and Lewis, who also was an enslaved person.
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Correspondence, 1820

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Correspondence, 1821

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Correspondence, 1822

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Correspondence, 1823

Folder 533: Records of enslavement:

  • 14 July 1823: William Kirkland, Airmount, to Duncan Cameron, Stagville, mentioning an unidentified enslaved person sent to retrieve a mare who had been taken to Stagville for breeding.
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Correspondence, 1824

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Correspondence, 1825

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.3. Correspondence, 1826-1853.

About 1,090 items.

This subseries chiefly contains letters written to Duncan Cameron, with some letters to Thomas D. Bennehan and other family members. The subseries ends with Duncan Cameron's death.

1826-1829

Chiefly business and family letters written to Duncan Cameron. There are some letters addressed to Thomas D. Bennehan. A few letters to Rebecca Bennehan Cameron and her daughter Mary Anne Ruffin Cameron from family members are included. Correspondence between George W. Mordecai and his sister Rachel Mordecai Lazarus of Wilmington, N.C., is also included.

There are many letters from Duncan Cameron's siblings Mary Read Anderson, Jean Syme, John Adams Cameron, William Cameron, and Thomas Cameron who wrote to him frequently communicating family news and asking his advice. There are occasional letters from Cameron's uncle or cousin Ewen Cameron of Franklin, Tenn., his step nephew George Anderson, and his nephews Walker Anderson and William Anderson.

There are letters from Duncan Cameron's son Paul C. Cameron at Washington College (now Trinity College) in Hartford, Conn., from 1826 until Paul's graduation in 1829. Included are letters from Paul's instructors concerning his progress in school and his deportment. There are letters from Captain Partridge concerning Paul's brother Thomas who had an intellectual disability and attended Partridge's school.

Duncan Cameron's involvement in the Episcopal Church during the late 1820s is well documented. Correspondents include Bishop John Ravenscroft, Bishop Brownell, Rev. William Mercer Green, and Rev. Richard Mason. Duncan Cameron received regular correspondence from General Theological Seminary in New York on whose board of trustees he served. He was also a vice president of the American Bible Society and the American Sunday School Society throughout the 1820s and received regular correspondence from the two organizations.

In the late 1820s, Duncan Cameron became more deeply involved in the State Bank of North Carolina, and in 1829 he was made president of the bank. He corresponded frequently with other officers and stockholders in the State Bank, as well as with officials of other banks in North Carolina and Virginia. Correspondents included William Haywood, William Boylan, John Haywood, and Peter Browne of the State Bank. Cameron also corresponded with J. W. Wright of the Bank of Cape Fear, Samuel Haywood of the Bank of New Bern, and John Brockenbrough and William Dandridge of the Bank of Virginia.

Duncan Cameron and Thomas D. Bennehan corresponded with many merchants who served as their commission merchants and for whom Duncan Cameron collected debts. Among these merchant firms are Ebenezer Stott of Petersburg, Va., Thomas and Robert Dunn of Petersburg, Robert Hamilton of Petersburg, James Davidson of Petersburg, Charles C. Watson of Philadelphia, Hamilton and Donaldson of New York, Duncan Thompson of Fayetteville, N.C., John Huske of Fayetteville, and John Taylor of Wilmington.

Other frequent correspondents of Duncan Cameron, from 1826 to 1829, include Thomas Ruffin, William H. Haywood Jr., Archibald Murphey, Richard Henderson, Dr. James Webb, Walter Alves, William Polk, William Boylan, John Haywood, Thomas B. Littlejohn, John Buford, Samuel Ashe, Joseph Gales, Dr. Joseph Umstead, W. P. Mangum, William Cain, James Mebane, William Kirkland, Joseph B. Skinner, John Hawkins, Gavin Hogg, William Norwood, Joseph Caldwell, Elisha Mitchell, Charles Manley, Samuel Yarborough, and Dr. Lenco Mitchell. There is a letter from Henry Clay in 1827, referring to an earlier recommendation he made in 1823.

For more documentation of the dealings of Thomas D. Bennehan and Duncan Cameron with their factors, see Subseries 2.1.

For more information on the schooling of the Cameron children, see Subseries 4.3, 5.1, and 6.12.

For further documentation of Duncan Cameron's involvement in the State Bank of North Carolina, see Subseries 5.2.

1830-1839

Chiefly letters to Duncan Cameron from business associates, friends, and family. There are also some letters to Thomas D. Bennehan, some letters to Paul C. Cameron, some to Anne Ruffin Cameron, and letters to other Cameron women from aunts, cousins, and their governess Mary McLean Bryant. Almost all letters exchanged within the immediate families of Duncan Cameron and Paul C. and Anne Ruffin Cameron include mention of enslaved people who are identified by name. Only a fraction of these letters are highlighted in this finding aid.

Duncan Cameron's sisters Mary Read Anderson and Jean Syme of Petersburg, Va., and brother John Adams Cameron of Fayetteville, N.C., wrote to Duncan often. John Adams Cameron also wrote from Vera Cruz, Mexico, where he was serving as United States consul. William and Walker Anderson, Duncan Cameron's nephews, also wrote to him frequently. During this period, Rebecca Bennehan Cameron and her daughters received frequent letters from Mary Read Anderson, Jean Syme, and many cousins relating family news. Included are a few of Paul C. Cameron's letters to Anne Ruffin Cameron before they married in 1832 and some of their correspondence after they married. There are letters to Anne Ruffin Cameron from her relatives, including Thomas Ruffin, Alice Ruffin, Catherine Roulhac, J. G. Roulhac, and members of the Kirkland family.

Family letters particularly document the following topics: cycles of sickness and disease that caused suffering and death in the enslaved communities between 1830 and 1835; Anne Ruffin Cameron's stillborn children in 1835 and 1836; Paul C. Cameron's dissatisfaction with law, his resignation from the bar, and his move to Fairntosh in 1837; Duncan Cameron's permanent move to Raleigh, N.C., in 1836; Duncan Cameron's daughters' struggles with tuberculosis and family trips made to various springs in search of a cure for the disease; the trip south to Charleston, S.C., and Florida in 1839 to try to cure Anne Owen Cameron; and, finally, the deaths of four of Duncan Cameron's daughters from tuberculosis.

During the 1830s Duncan Cameron was deeply involved in the Bank of the State of North Carolina. He was made president of the institution in 1834, prompting his move to Raleigh in 1836. He frequently corresponded with the officers, stockholders, and board members of the State Bank as well as with officers of other banks in North Carolina and Virginia. Among his correspondents were Charles Dewey, George Mordecai, Peter Browne, and E. P. Guion of the State Bank, Samuel Haywood of the Bank of New Bern, S. W. Wright of the Bank of Cape Fear, and an officer of the Bank of Virginia.

Duncan Cameron continued his active involvement in the Episcopal Church in North Carolina during the 1830s. His purchase of the defunct Episcopal Boys School of Raleigh, in 1833, is documented, as is the School's metamorphosis into Saint Mary's School for Girls in 1837. He continued to serve on the Board of the General Theological Seminary in New York and as vice president of the American Bible Society, receiving regular letters from these organizations. In 1831, his service as a lay delegate to the North Carolina Diocesan Convention is documented. During the 1830s, Cameron corresponded with Rev. William Mercer Green, Bishop Levi Silliman Ives, and Rev. George Freeman.

Throughout this period the plantation holdings of the Bennehans and Camerons continued to grow. There are many letters from the family's factors, particularly Keven and Hamilton of Petersburg, John Huske of Fayetteville, Hamilton and Company of New York, and Charles Watson of Philadelphia. There are letters from the millers and overseers whom the family employed to manage the enslaved people and operate the sawmills and grist mills on the rivers that ran across their land. These letters, as well as the family letters, document details about slavery, agriculture, the Stagville Store, and the post office at Stagville.

Other frequent correspondents of the Camerons and Bennehans include Dr. James Webb, Gavin Hogg, William Gaston, John Devereaux, Archibald Murphey, John D. Hawkins, W. P. Mangum, James Mebane, Joseph Gales, Thomas Littlejohn, William H. Haywood, William Boylan, William A. Graham, and John Kirkland.

For further information on banks, see Subseries 5.2.

For documentation of the sale of the Episcopal Boys School in Raleigh to Duncan Cameron, in 1833, see Subseries 2.1.

For other documentation of the family's involvement in the Episcopal Church, see Subseries 5.4.

For documentation of the financial transactions between the Camerons and Bennehans and their factors see Subseries 2.1.

1840-1849

Chiefly business and family letters to Duncan Cameron, correspondence between Duncan Cameron and Paul C. Cameron, and letters from relatives to Anne Ruffin Cameron, Margaret B. Cameron, and Mildred C. Cameron. Almost all letters exchanged within the immediate families of Duncan Cameron and Paul C. and Anne Ruffin Cameron include mention of enslaved people who are identified by name. Only a fraction of these letters are highlighted in this finding aid.

In the 1840s, Duncan Cameron continued to correspond regularly with his sisters, Mary Read Anderson (until her death in 1844) and Jean Syme (until her death in 1846). Duncan Cameron also received regular correspondence from his nephews William Anderson of Wilmington, N.C., and Walker Anderson of Pensacola, Fla.

There are some letters addressed to Thomas D. Bennehan until his death in 1847. The Cameron women corresponded extensively with their extended family. Among their correspondents were Eliza Cameron, Anna Cameron, Frances Cameron, Mary Edmunds, Eliza Nash Anderson, Anna M., Kirkland, Alice Ruffin, Mary Jones, Emma Cameron, Molly Gale, and Isabelle Cameron. Margaret B. Cameron and Mildred C. Cameron also kept in regular contact with their old governess Mary McLean Bryant.

Among the family letters are reports on the mysterious illness of Mildred Cameron and trips by her and Margaret B. Cameron to Philadelphia to seek new doctors and cures. These letters also reported on the health of both the white family and the enslaved people back at the plantation and include Cameron family members' reaction and response to the self-emancipation of Mary Walker, an enslaved nurse who accompanied the sisters on trips to Philadelphia until she escaped while there in the summer of 1848.

Duncan Cameron continued to be president of the Bank of the State of North Carolina throughout the 1840s until his resignation in 1849. He corresponded frequently with Charles Dewey and others in the banking community.

Duncan Cameron continued to serve on the Board of Trustees of General Theological Seminary in New York in the 1840s. He received letters from Rev. William Mercer Green, Bishop Otey, Rev. Richard Mason of Christ Church in Raleigh, N.C., and Rev. Aldert Smedes. There are several letters reflecting Cameron's presidency of the North Carolina Bible Society and involvement in the Scotch Relief Committee.

Paul C. Cameron and Thomas D. Bennehan managed the plantations in the 1840s. Their primary factors were Andrew Keven and Brothers of Petersburg, Va., and John Huske of Fayetteville, N.C. Paul C. Cameron's trips to Greene County, Ala., in 1844 to relocate more than 100 enslaved people to the new plantation are documented. There are regular letters from Charles Llewellyn, the overseer on the plantation in Greene County, Ala., that discuss the work he and the enslaved people, who sometimes are identified by name, had accomplished. In 1847, there is correspondence about Milton, an enslaved person who self-emancipated by running away from the Greene County plantation and was eventually apprehended. There are also letters from the overseers of plantations in North Carolina including, William Piper, William Hams, and James Colman. Overseer letters sometimes include the names of enslaved people. There are two letters written from Liberia by Virgil Bennehan, the enslaved foreman and doctor who was emancipated by Thomas D. Bennehan's will.

Other frequent correspondents include William Cain, David L. Swain, Hugh Waddell, John Devereaux, William Norwood, C. P. Mallet, William A. Graham, Cad Jones, William Polk, George Haywood, W. P. Mangum, Dr. James Webb, George Badger, Joseph B. Skinner, and William Boylan.

For documentation of the financial dealings between Paul C. Cameron and his factors see Subseries 2.1.

For more information on banking see Subseries 5.2.

1850-1853

Letters written to Duncan Cameron, Paul C. Cameron, and Margaret B. Cameron. The family correspondence from this period documents the following: the death of Duncan Cameron in 1853, the marriage of Margaret B. Cameron to George Mordecai in 1853; the mysterious and devastating illness suffered by Mildred and the long trips to Philadelphia by Margaret, Mildred, and Harriet, an enslaved nurse sent with them; malaria epidemics in the enslaved community at Fairntosh; and Paul C. Cameron's growing interest in expanding his land holdings in the deep South and his subsequent purchase of land in Tunica County, Miss.

Although Duncan Cameron relinquished the presidency of the Bank of the State of North Carolina in 1849, he continued to correspond regularly with officers of the bank until he was close to death in 1853. There are frequent letters from George W. Mordecai, the bank's new president, and letters from Charles Dewey, the secretary of the bank. There are also letters from various family members written to Duncan Cameron. Letters from his son Paul C. Cameron frequently report on plantation matters and nearly always mention enslaved people by name.

There are many letters to Paul C. Cameron from his commission merchants, Andrew Kevan of Petersburg, Va.; C. J. Haigh and Son of Fayetteville, N.C.; and Tartt, Stewart and Co. of Mobile, Ala. There are also letters from John Webster, overseer of the plantation in Greene County, Ala. Webster often identified enslaved people by name in his letters.

There are letters to Paul C. Cameron documenting his growing interest in building railroads in North Carolina, eventually leading to his signing a contract to build a section of the North Carolina Railroad.

Among Paul C. Cameron's frequent correspondents are David L. Swain, Cad Jones, William A. Graham, Charles Phillips, Joseph Wright, V. F. Caldwell, Charles Manly, J. W. Norwood, William Mercer Green, George Freeman, Ken Rayner, and Charles Fisher.

Siblings Paul and Margaret Cameron wrote to each other frequently, giving news of family and of the enslaved community, and also corresponded with many other relatives including John W. Cameron, Walker Anderson, W. H. Ruffin, J. B. G. Roulhac, Lizzie Jones, Mary Edmunds, Fanny Roulhac, William Anderson, Robert Walker Anderson, Rowena Hines, Susan Hines, Thomas Ruffin Sr., Mary Lucas, Anna Kirkland, Eliza Thompson, Margaret Devereux, and Ellen Mordecai. Margaret, called "Maggie," also received letters from Adelaide Montmollin and Louise DeEnde who were friends Margaret made while caring for her sister Mildred "Millie" in Philadelphia; Mary McLean Bryant, who had been the Camerons' governess when Margaret and Mildred were young; and Charlotte "Lotty" Rice, who formerly was the housekeeper of Thomas D. Bennehan.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists revised correspondence series descriptions (1757-1866) to include more information about the community of people enslaved by the Cameron, Bennehan, and Mordecai families. Many of the individual letters highlighted as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction" in this series were identified by Jean Bradley Anderson in Piedmont Plantation: The Bennehan-Cameron Family and Lands in North Carolina (Durham, N.C.: Historic Preservation Commission of Durham, 1985) and by Sydney Nathans in To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2012). Many more records of enslavement exist throughout Series 1. Correspondence but have not yet been identified in this finding aid.

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Correspondence, 1826

Folder 3747

Letter to Mary Anne Ruffin Cameron, 1826

Acquisitions information: Accession 101135

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Correspondence, 1827

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Correspondence, 1828

Folder 617: Records of enslavement:

  • 5 February 1828: Fabius J. Haywood, Raleigh, to Duncan Cameron, Stagville, requesting that Cameron consider purchasing an enslaved family of 5 brothers, including a skilled carpenter and farmer/overseer. Haywood, who was administering to his deceased father's estate, sought to keep this family intact and out of the hands of speculators engaged in the trafficking of enslaved people. Duncan Cameron was known for intentionally keeping enslaved families together to instill loyalty and for having the financial capital to purchase a family of 5 young men.

Folder 633: Records of enslavement:

  • 12 December 1828: William Anderson to Duncan Cameron, Fairntosh, explaining his intention to be an enslaver of only a few people.
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Correspondence, 1829

Folder 636: Records of enslavement:

  • 17 February 1829: Paul C. Cameron, Washington College, Hartford, to Thomas A. Cameron, Stagville, mentioning Luke, who was an enslaved foreman.
Folder 648-665

Folder 648

Folder 649

Folder 650

Folder 651

Folder 652

Folder 653

Folder 654

Folder 655

Folder 656

Folder 657

Folder 658

Folder 659

Folder 660

Folder 661

Folder 662

Folder 663

Folder 664

Folder 665

Correspondence, 1830

Folder 648: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 January 1830: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning Pompey, an enslaved waggoner; Agnes; [York?]; and Jerry, an enslaved waggoner.
  • 2 January 1830: letter from John Huske, Fayetteville, to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C., mentioning Joe, an enslaved person who carried the letter and delivered goods.

Folder 652: Records of enslavement:

  • 4 March 1830: letter from Sandy Harris, Oxford, to Duncan Cameron, Stagville, reporting that Pompey, an enslaved waggoner, may have been making additional deliveries for profit.

Folder 651: Records of enslavement:

  • 13 February 1830: Thomas D. Bennehan, Stagville, to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning Phillip and Ned, enslaved people who were both sick.
  • 13 February 1830: Rebecca Bennehan Cameron to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning Daniel, a messenger, and commenting on the general health of the enslaved community at Stagville.

Folder 659: Records of enslavement:

  • 7 August 1830: Thomas D. Bennehan to Margaret B. Cameron, commenting on the general health of the enslaved community at Stagville and Fairntosh.
Folder 666-684

Folder 666

Folder 667

Folder 668

Folder 669

Folder 670

Folder 671

Folder 672

Folder 673

Folder 674

Folder 675

Folder 676

Folder 677

Folder 678

Folder 679

Folder 680

Folder 681

Folder 682

Folder 683

Folder 684

Correspondence, 1831

Folder 670: Records of enslavement:

  • 10 March 1831: J. G. Stanly, New Bern, to George E. Badger, Raleigh, discussing plans to traffic approximately 100 people who had been enslaved by his brother. Stanly reported his partially successful attempts to keep enslaved families together and in the same neighborhood against the demands of the Bank.
Folder 685-704

Folder 685

Folder 686

Folder 687

Folder 688

Folder 689

Folder 690

Folder 691

Folder 692

Folder 693

Folder 694

Folder 695

Folder 696

Folder 697

Folder 698

Folder 699

Folder 700

Folder 701

Folder 702

Folder 703

Folder 704

Correspondence, 1832

Folder 705-723

Folder 705

Folder 706

Folder 707

Folder 708

Folder 709

Folder 710

Folder 711

Folder 712

Folder 713

Folder 714

Folder 715

Folder 716

Folder 717

Folder 718

Folder 719

Folder 720

Folder 721

Folder 722

Folder 723

Correspondence, 1833

Folder 716: Records of enslavement:

  • 24 July 1833: Thomas Ruffin, Raleigh, to Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, sending a message to his daughter Anne that he was not aware of any recent deaths among the people he enslaved.
Folder 724-741

Folder 724

Folder 725

Folder 726

Folder 727

Folder 728

Folder 729

Folder 730

Folder 731

Folder 732

Folder 733

Folder 734

Folder 735

Folder 736

Folder 737

Folder 738

Folder 739

Folder 740

Folder 741

Correspondence, 1834

Folder 742-760

Folder 742

Folder 743

Folder 744

Folder 745

Folder 746

Folder 747

Folder 748

Folder 749

Folder 750

Folder 751

Folder 752

Folder 753

Folder 754

Folder 755

Folder 756

Folder 757

Folder 758

Folder 759

Folder 760

Correspondence, 1835

Folder 742: Records of enslavement:

  • 12 January 1835: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, reporting on measles at the Person County plantations. He also mentioned Cyrus, an enslaved miller.

Folder 748: Records of enslavement:

  • 26 April 1835: letter from Rebecca Cameron to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, reporting on a violent attack on Jim, who was enslaved, by Mr. Nichol. Joe, an enslaved person, was sent to Hillsborough to get Dr. Webb, who trepanned Jim.

Folder 752: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 July 1835: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning Luke, the enslaved foreman; Lewis, an enslaved waggoner who may have been selling some of the Cameron's corn for his own profit; and Jerry, an enslaved waggoner for the Bennehans.
Folder 761-779

Folder 761

Folder 762

Folder 763

Folder 764

Folder 765

Folder 766

Folder 767

Folder 768

Folder 769

Folder 770

Folder 771

Folder 772

Folder 773

Folder 774

Folder 775

Folder 776

Folder 777

Folder 778

Folder 779

Correspondence, 1836

Folder 766: Records of enslavement:

  • 5 April 1836: letter from Thomas D. Bennehan, Stagville, to Paul C. Cameron, Hillsborough, mentioning Virgil, who was an enslaved foreman, doctor, and the carrier of this letter.
  • 7 April 1836: letter from Thomas D. Bennehan, Stagville, to Paul C. Cameron, Hillsborough, mentioning Virgil, an enslaved foreman, doctor, and the carrier of a letter to him and news from neighbors, and Ned, an enslaved person with expertise in breeding horses; he also reported that Phillip, Lewis, and Ephraim were sick, and that Jerry the waggoner had gone to Petersburg.

Folder 768: Records of enslavement:

  • 21 May 1836: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Hillsboro, to Rebecca Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning that [Strephon?], who was enslaved, was sick. He also reported a conversation with Jim Ray, who also was enslaved.
Folder 780-788

Folder 780

Folder 781

Folder 782

Folder 783

Folder 784

Folder 785

Folder 786

Folder 787

Folder 788

Correspondence, 1837

Folder 789-803

Folder 789

Folder 790

Folder 791

Folder 792

Folder 793

Folder 794

Folder 795

Folder 796

Folder 797

Folder 798

Folder 799

Folder 800

Folder 801

Folder 802

Folder 803

Correspondence, 1838

Folder 803-820

Folder 803

Folder 804

Folder 805

Folder 806

Folder 807

Folder 808

Folder 809

Folder 810

Folder 811

Folder 812

Folder 813

Folder 814

Folder 815

Folder 816

Folder 817

Folder 818

Folder 819

Folder 820

Correspondence, 1839

Folder 817: Records of enslavement:

  • 25 November 1839: Rebecca Cameron, Charleston, to Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, sending greetings to Esther, who was enslaved; Silla, who was an enslaved maid; and Luke, the enslaved foreman, and reporting that John and Mary Walker, who were enslaved, had been good servants on the trip.
Folder 821-844

Folder 821

Folder 822

Folder 823

Folder 824

Folder 825

Folder 826

Folder 827

Folder 828

Folder 829

Folder 830

Folder 831

Folder 832

Folder 833

Folder 834

Folder 835

Folder 836

Folder 837

Folder 838

Folder 839

Folder 840

Folder 841

Folder 842

Folder 843

Folder 844

Correspondence, 1840

Folder 845-868

Folder 845

Folder 846

Folder 847

Folder 848

Folder 849

Folder 850

Folder 851

Folder 852

Folder 853

Folder 854

Folder 855

Folder 856

Folder 857

Folder 858

Folder 859

Folder 860

Folder 861

Folder 862

Folder 863

Folder 864

Folder 865

Folder 866

Folder 867

Folder 868

Correspondence, 1841

Folder 847: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 February 1841: letter from Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, to Paul C. Cameron, Orange County, N.C., mentioning Ben, an enslaved person who delivered goods.

Folder 863: Records of enslavement:

  • 5 October 1841: Joseph B. Hunner, Stagville, to Thomas D. Bennehan, mentioning Virgil, who was an enslaved foreman, doctor, and the carrier of this message.
Folder 869-892

Folder 869

Folder 870

Folder 871

Folder 872

Folder 873

Folder 874

Folder 875

Folder 876

Folder 877

Folder 878

Folder 879

Folder 880

Folder 881

Folder 882

Folder 883

Folder 884

Folder 885

Folder 886

Folder 887

Folder 888

Folder 889

Folder 890

Folder 891

Folder 892

Correspondence, 1842

Folder 871: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 February 1842: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning Davey and Daniel, who were enslaved waggoners; Allan and Georgina, who were sick; and Cyrus, who was an enslaved miller.

Folder 892: Records of enslavement:

  • 29 December 1842: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning Luke, an enslaved foreman; Daniel who had been moved with his family to be a miller at Person County; Cyrus an enslaved miller; and Abner, who was an enlsaved person.
Folder 893-916

Folder 893

Folder 894

Folder 895

Folder 896

Folder 897

Folder 898

Folder 899

Folder 900

Folder 901

Folder 902

Folder 903

Folder 904

Folder 905

Folder 906

Folder 907

Folder 908

Folder 909

Folder 910

Folder 911

Folder 912

Folder 913

Folder 914

Folder 915

Folder 916

Correspondence, 1843

Folder 917-940

Folder 917

Folder 918

Folder 919

Folder 920

Folder 921

Folder 922

Folder 923

Folder 924

Folder 925

Folder 926

Folder 927

Folder 928

Folder 929

Folder 930

Folder 931

Folder 932

Folder 933

Folder 934

Folder 935

Folder 936

Folder 937

Folder 938

Folder 939

Folder 940

Correspondence, 1844

folder 924: Records of enslavement:

  • 22 April 1844: letter from Anne Ruffin Cameron, Hermitage, Haw River, to Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, mentioning Minerva, an enslaved nurse, and Demps, an enslaved gardener.

Folder 936: Records of enslavement:

  • 25 October 1844: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Hillsboro, to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, reporting the plan to relocate enslaved people to Greene County, Ala.; he also mentioned Squire, an enslaved person who would assist him.
Folder 941-975

Folder 941

Folder 942

Folder 943

Folder 944

Folder 945

Folder 946

Folder 947

Folder 948

Folder 949

Folder 950

Folder 951

Folder 952

Folder 953

Folder 954

Folder 955

Folder 956

Folder 957

Folder 958

Folder 959

Folder 960

Folder 961

Folder 962

Folder 963

Folder 964

Folder 965

Folder 966

Folder 967

Folder 968

Folder 969

Folder 970

Folder 971

Folder 972

Folder 973

Folder 974

Folder 975

Correspondence, 1845

Folder 941: Records of enslavement:

  • 10 January 1845: letter from Anne Ruffin Cameron, Fairntosh, to Paul C. Cameron, Macon, Marengo City, Ala., mentioning Jenny, who was sick with tuberculosis; the death of Jenny's brother Edmund on arrival in Greene County, Ala.; and Jim Ray, who was an enslaved person.

Folder 942: Records of enslavement:

  • 18 January 1845: letter from Mildred C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Paul C. Cameron, Marengo City, Ala., mentioning the death of Edmund, the poor health of Jenny, and Jem and Demps, who were enslaved gardeners.

Folder 951: Records of enslavement:

  • 27 April 1845: Mildred Cameron, Raleigh, to Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, mentioning "Old Squire," Scilla an enslaved maid, and Dempsey, an enslaved cook.

Folder 971: Records of enslavement:

  • 18 November 1845: Paul C. Cameron, Greene County, Ala., to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning "Little Joe," Sandy, and Henderson. Also includes a list of enslaved people at Greene County, Ala., and the amount of cotton picked by each person on a single day.

Folder 973: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 December 1845: Paul C. Cameron, Greene County, Ala., to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning Henderson, "Little Joe," Sandy, York, Simon, and Lewis. Paul C. Cameron also described Toney's self-emancipation by running away and subsequent capture.
Folder 976-999

Folder 976

Folder 977

Folder 978

Folder 979

Folder 980

Folder 981

Folder 982

Folder 983

Folder 984

Folder 985

Folder 986

Folder 987

Folder 988

Folder 989

Folder 990

Folder 991

Folder 992

Folder 993

Folder 994

Folder 995

Folder 996

Folder 997

Folder 998

Folder 999

Correspondence, 1846

Folder 990: Records of enslavement:

  • 7 August 1846: letter from Charles Llewellyn, Greene County, Ala., to Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, mentioning Eaton, Lewis, Martin, Orrin, Charles, Lizzy, Molly, and Polly, who were all enslaved people.
  • 10 August 1846: letter from Thomas D. Bennehan, [? Springs], to Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, mentioning Matthew, an enslaved miller, and Virgil, an enslaved foreman and doctor.

Folder 993: Records of enslavement:

  • 25 September 1846: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, mentioning Virgil, an enslaved foreman and doctor who had delivered a letter and was traveling about caring for the sick; an Simeon, an enslaved person who was sick.

Folder 994: Records of enslavement:

  • 4 October 1846: letter from John Sears, Raleigh, to Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, reporting on the health of Lizzy's children Amy and Sarah, "Little John," Frank and Edward who were the children of Mary Walker, Milly, and Molly. Sears, an enslaved person, also mentioned Sam and Davy and asked that Cameron give a message to Lizzy.
Folder 1000-1023

Folder 1000

Folder 1001

Folder 1002

Folder 1003

Folder 1004

Folder 1005

Folder 1006

Folder 1007

Folder 1008

Folder 1009

Folder 1010

Folder 1011

Folder 1012

Folder 1013

Folder 1014

Folder 1015

Folder 1016

Folder 1017

Folder 1018

Folder 1019

Folder 1020

Folder 1021

Folder 1022

Folder 1023

Correspondence, 1847

Folder 1002: Records of enslavement:

  • 5 February 1847: letter from Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, to Paul C. Cameron, Orange County, mentioning George and Davy, who were enslaved people.
  • 5 February 1847: letter from W. F. Wade, Macon County, Ala., to Charles Llewellyn, Green County, Ala., regarding Milton, an enslaved person who had self-emancipated by running away.
  • 8 February 1847: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning George, Squire, Henderson, Amey at Eno, Agey at Bobbitt's, and Cyrus, an enslaved miller.
  • 9 February 1847: letter from Charles Llewellyn, Greene County, Ala., to Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, mentioning Sandy, Delphy, and Peggy, who were enslaved people.

Folder 1009: Records of enslavement:

  • 30 May 1847: letter from Charles Llewellyn, Greene County, Ala., to Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, mentioning Eaton, Caroline, Liddy, and Fanny, who were enslaved people.

Folder 1013: Records of enslavement:

  • 25 July 1847: letter from Margaret B. Cameron, Cape May, N.J., to Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, mentioning Mary Walker, an enslaved nurse, and Henry, an enslaved person.

Folder 1014: Records of enslavement:

  • 10 August 1847: letter from George W. Mordecai, Raleigh, to [Duncan Cameron?], mentioning Davy, who was an enslaved person.
  • 10 August 1847: letter from C. [L.?] Hinton, Raleigh, to [Duncan Cameron?], mentioning Davy, who was an enslaved person.
  • 19 August 1847: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, reporting that Virgil, who was an enslaved foreman and doctor, had been traveling about the plantations administering to the sick; and in Person County, "Old Hannah," the mother of Davy, was sick.

Folder 1022: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 December 1847: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Margaret B. Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning Squire as the letter carrier, and reporting that Abner at Stagville was recovering from sickness, and that Luke, the enslaved foreman, was unlikely to recover. Lotty, the former housekeeper of Thomas D. Bennehan, also was sick.
Folder 1024-1037

Folder 1024

Folder 1025

Folder 1026

Folder 1027

Folder 1028

Folder 1029

Folder 1030

Folder 1031

Folder 1032

Folder 1033

Folder 1034

Folder 1035

Folder 1036

Folder 1037

Correspondence, 1848

Folder 1024: Records of enslavement:

  • 8 January 1848: letter from Anne Ruffin Cameron, Stagville, to Paul C. Cameron, New Orleans, mentioning Davey, Abner at Stagville, Gabriel at Person, the death of Bill Green's infant, "Old Uncle Joe," and Jenny, all of whom were enslaved people.

Folder 1031: Records of enslavement:

  • 19 April 1848: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning Virgil, Squire, Jim, and Luke, who were all enslaved, as well as Virgil Bennehan, who was emancipated by Thomas D. Bennehan's will and moved with his family to Liberia.

Folder 1033: Records of enslavement:

  • 29 May 1848: Virgil P. M. Bennehan, Grand Bassa, Liberia, to Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, reporting of his family's arrival and sending individual greetings to many enslaved people.

Folder 1035: Records of enslavement:

  • 30 June 1848: letter from Duncan Cameron to Paul C. Cameron, concerning Thomas D. Bennehan's will and the enslaved Umsteads and Duncan Cameron's proposed purchase of [William?], who was the son of Harriet, from Dr. Webb.

Folder 1037: Records of enslavement:

  • 25 July 1848: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Anne Ruffin Cameron, Raleigh, reporting the death of Ben Sears, an enslaved tanner, and Fife, an enslaved child; and sickness of Romana and Simeon at Snow Hill, Jack and Henderson at Little River, and Gabriel at Person County; and George and Ben Umstead as the letter carriers.
  • 28 July 1848: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, reporting the death of Ben Sears, an enslaved tanner, and Fife, the child of [Lem?]; Daniel Watson, who checked on Ben while he was sick; the poor health of Phill, who was one of Minerva's twins at Bobbitt's; the extent of sickness across their plantations; Ben [Umstead?] as carrier of a letter; and plans for cleaning of quarters of enslaved people.

Folder 1024: Records of enslavement:

  • 8 August 1848: letter from Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, to Paul C. Cameron, giving departure date as August 9 for leaving Philadelphia. Mary Walker, an enslaved nurse, self-emancipated from the sisters around this time.
  • 31 August 1848: letter from Anne Ruffin Cameron, Fairntosh, to Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning Virgil, an enslaved person who delivered the letter, and reporting on the enslaved people who were sick and in the care of Ben Umstead, who was also enslaved, and on Wilson, an enslaved person who was the son of Daniel at Stagville, who also was sick.
Folder 1038-1071

Folder 1038

Folder 1039

Folder 1040

Folder 1041

Folder 1042

Folder 1043

Folder 1044

Folder 1045

Folder 1046

Folder 1047

Folder 1048

Folder 1049

Folder 1050

Folder 1051

Folder 1052

Folder 1053

Folder 1054

Folder 1055

Folder 1056

Folder 1057

Folder 1058

Folder 1059

Folder 1060

Folder 1061

Folder 1062

Folder 1063

Folder 1064

Folder 1065

Folder 1066

Folder 1067

Folder 1068

Folder 1069

Folder 1070

Folder 1071

Correspondence, 1849

Folder 1068: Records of enslavement:

  • 6 November 1849: Anne Ruffin Cameron, Raleigh, to Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, mentioning Jim, Sarah, and Davey's daughter Annie, all of whom were enslaved.

Folder 1069: Records of enslavement:

  • 25 November 1849: Paul C. Cameron, Raleigh, to [Margaret B. Cameron and Mildred C. Cameron], remarking on the attractiveness of the enslaved maid of Coles; Simeon and Sarah, who also were enslaved, are also mentioned.
Folder 1072-1083

Folder 1072

Folder 1073

Folder 1074

Folder 1075

Folder 1076

Folder 1077

Folder 1078

Folder 1079

Folder 1080

Folder 1081

Folder 1082

Folder 1083

Correspondence, 1850

Includes description of a wedding in Fayetteville (8 February 1850).

Folder 1073: Records of enslavement:

  • 5 February 1850: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, Orange County, N.C., to Margaret B. Cameron, Philadelphia, mentioning the failing health of William, the son of [Oly?], who was enslaved and at Bobbitt's, and Aunt Patty, who was enslaved and at Stagville. He also mentioned Harriet, who was an enslaved nurse travelling with the Cameron sisters in Philadelphia; Jim, who was enslaved and may have been the husband of Harriet; and Harriet's mother, who was enslaved and in Hillsboro.
  • 13 February 1850: letter from John P. Webster, Greene County, Ala., to Paul C. Cameron, Stagville, Orange County, N.C., mentioning Molly, York, and Peggy, all of whom were enslaved people.
  • 20 February 1850: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Raleigh, N.C., to Margaret B. Cameron, Philadelphia, mentioning household maintenance performed by [Oberly?], John, Stanley, and Allan, all of whom were enslaved.
  • 28 February 1850: Annie Cameron, Raleigh, N.C., to Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, mentioning Patty and Mary, who were enslaved people at Hillsboro and Hard Scrabble, as sources of news.

Folder 1076: Records of enslavement:

  • 18 May 1850: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Raleigh, to Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, commenting on the health of unidentified enslaved people and mentioning Luke, who was an enslaved person.
  • 28 May 1850: letter from Margaret B. Cameron to Anne Ruffin Cameron, mentioning Harriet, who was an enslaved nurse.
  • 29 May 1850: letter from Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning Harriet, who was an enslaved nurse.

Folder 1079: Records of enslavement:

  • 27 August 1850: letter from Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, to Paul C. Cameron, commenting on acts of resistance by John Sears, who was an enslaved person.

Folder 1081: Records of enslavement:

  • 11 October 1850: letter from Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning Virgil, who was an enslaved person.
  • 15 October 1850: letter from Paul C. Cameron to Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, reporting the death of Sarah, who was an enslaved person and the wife of Daniel.

Folder 1082: Records of enslavement:

  • 14 November 1850: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Raleigh, to Duncan Cameron, Philadelphia, mentioning Lizzy, who was an enslaved person.

Folder 1083: Records of enslavement:

  • December 1850: letter from Anne Ruffin Cameron, Raleigh, to Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, mentioning Ben, who was an enslaved person, as the letter carrier.
  • December 1850: letter from Duncan Cameron, Raleigh, to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning Ben, who was an enslaved person, as the letter carrier and arranger of a trip; directions to be given to Sarah and Simeon, who were enslaved people at the Cameron house, for preparing the house for guests; expectations for appearances of Everline, Nanny, and Stanly, all of whom were enslaved; a wardrobe made by Dandridge, an enslaved furniture maker; and giving something to Zilpha, who was an enslaved person.
Folder 1084-1095

Folder 1084

Folder 1085

Folder 1086

Folder 1087

Folder 1088

Folder 1089

Folder 1090

Folder 1091

Folder 1092

Folder 1093

Folder 1094

Folder 1095

Correspondence, 1851

Folder 1088: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 May 1851: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Duncan Cameron, mentioning Abner, Jim D., and [Belvin?], all of whom were enslaved people.
Folder 1096-1107

Folder 1096

Folder 1097

Folder 1098

Folder 1099

Folder 1100

Folder 1101

Folder 1102

Folder 1103

Folder 1104

Folder 1105

Folder 1106

Folder 1107

Correspondence, 1852

Folder 1098: Records of enslavement:

  • 18 March 1852: letter from Phebe Bennehan, Baltimore, to her daughter Anna Bell, Raleigh, lamenting her separation from her enslaved family in North Carolina. She also mentioned William and Peggy, who had been emancipated by Thomas D. Bennehan's will, along with her and Virgil Bennehan.
Folder 1108-1124

Folder 1108

Folder 1109

Folder 1110

Folder 1111

Folder 1112

Folder 1113

Folder 1114

Folder 1115

Folder 1116

Folder 1117

Folder 1118

Folder 1119

Folder 1120

Folder 1121

Folder 1122

Folder 1123

Folder 1124

Correspondence, 1853

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.4. Correspondence, 1854-April 1865.

About 3200 items.

This subseries documents the activities of Paul C. Cameron and his family after the death of Duncan Cameron, until the end of Civil War.

1854-1859

Chiefly family letters written to Paul C. Cameron and Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai. The family correspondence from this period documents the following: the continuing illness of Mildred and several trips to Philadelphia and New York made by Margaret and Mildred, as well as the enslaved people who assisted them, to try new doctors and climates for Mildred; Anne and Paul C. Cameron's move to Hillsborough, N.C.; malaria epidemics at Fairntosh which caused sickness and suffering in the enslaved community; and Paul C. Cameron's trips to his plantations in Greene County, Ala., and Tunica County, Miss. A few letters document farm operations in the wartime economy.

Much of the family correspondence consists of letters between Paul and Margaret "Maggie" (Cameron) Mordecai, who wrote to each other frequently. Many of these letters mention enslaved people by name. There are also many letters from relatives of the Camerons, to whom Margaret wrote regularly, including Mollie Gales, Seaton Gales, John W. Cameron, Walker Anderson, W. H. Ruffin, J. B. G. Roulhac, Lizzie Jones, Mary Edmunds, Fanny Roulhac, William Anderson, Robert Walker Anderson, Rowena Hines, Susan Hines, Thomas Ruffin, Sr., Mary Lucas, Anna Kirkland, Maria Nash, Eliza Thompson, Isabelle Cameron, Margaret Devereux, Emma Mordecai, Ellen Mordecai, Catherine Roulhac, and Jane Ruffin. Margaret also continued to receive letters from Adelaide Montmollin and Louise DeEnde who were her friends in Philadelphia. There are also frequent letters from Mary McLean Bryant, who was the Cameron girls' governess when they were young. During this period, there are letters received by Anne Ruffin Cameron from her Ruffin relatives. Also, there are letters between Anne Ruffin Cameron and her husband Paul, when he was away on trips.

Paul C. Cameron's investments in agriculture are reflected in the many letters from his commission merchants, who sold the products of the Cameron plantations overseas and in urban markets. The major merchants Cameron patronized were Andrew Kevan of Petersburg, Va.; C. J. Haigh and Son of Fayetteville, N.C.; Tartt, Stewart and Co. of Mobile, Ala.; and Rowland and Bro. of Norfolk, Va. There are also letters from John Webster, overseer of the plantation in Greene County, Ala., and, after 1857, from Wilson Oberry, who replaced him. Letters from James A. Jeter and William Lamb, overseers of the plantation in Tunica County, Miss., are included, as are letters from William and Samuel Piper, who were the overseers at Fairntosh. Overseer letters often report on the labor, health, and deportment of enslaved people who are sometimes identified by name.

Although Paul C. Cameron's vast land holdings were his first priority, he did contract in the 1850s to build a section of the North Carolina Railroad (NCRR) with enslaved labor from his plantations. There are letters dealing with the contract and other railroad business, particularly letters from Charles Fisher, an official of the NCRR. There are also some letters documenting Cameron's election to one term in the State Senate in 1856.

Paul C. Cameron's correspondents included David L. Swain, Cad Jones, William A. Graham, Charles Phillips, Joseph Wright, V. F. Caldwell, Charles Manly, J. W. Norwood, Rev. William Mercer Green, Rev. George Freeman, and Ken Rayner.

1860-April 1865

Chiefly family letters written to Paul C. Cameron and his sister Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai ("Maggie"). Some of Paul C. Cameron's correspondence with his wife Anne Ruffin Cameron is included. Family letters frequently give news about the enslaved community and mention enslaved people by name.

From 1860 to 1861, there are numerous letters to Paul C. Cameron from his factors, friends, and business associates. However, during the Civil War, there is very little of Paul C. Cameron's correspondence. According to historian R. D. W. Connor, Anne Ruffin Cameron and her son Bennehan Cameron burned many of Paul C. Cameron's papers in order to protect him when he requested a pardon from the Union government for his support of the Confederacy. The remaining family letters do provide some documentation of the family's response to the war.

Prior to the war, there are business letters written to Paul C. Cameron concerning his plantations and the North Carolina Railroad of which he was president in 1861. Paul C. Cameron's letters from his factors are numerous. Among the factors are Tartt, Stewart, and Company in Mobile, Ala.; Battle, Nobel, and Company in New Orleans, La.; Andrew Keven and Brothers in Norfolk, Va.; Rowland and Brothers in Norfolk; and E. M. Apperson and Company in Memphis, Tenn. Paul C. Cameron also corresponded with his out-of-state overseers, William Lamb in Mississippi and Wilson Oberry in Alabama. Overseer letters often report on the labor, health, and deportment of enslaved people who are sometimes identified by name.

Other correspondents of Paul C. Cameron include Peter Hairston, Charles Pettigrew, William Halliburton, J. W. Norwood, Worth Daniel, Thomas Bragg, Hugh Waddell, William A. Graham, Bishop James Otey, Rev. William Mercer Green, Charles Dewey, David L. Swain, Kemp P. Battle, Charles Fisher, Rev. George Patterson, and Thomas Webb.

During the war, the bulk of the letters deal with domestic topics. There are letters from Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron's sons Duncan Cameron and Bennehan Cameron, written from the schools they attended. There are also letters from their teachers and headmasters about the boys' deportment and academic progress. Duncan Cameron's several attempts to run away are documented. Some of George Mordecai's personal and business correspondence is also scattered among the Cameron family letters.

Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai (Maggie) continued her prolific correspondence with her extended family throughout the Civil War. Her sister Mildred, who was disabled by a mysterious illness, lived with the Mordecais during this period. Margaret also continued to receive letters from her friends in Philadelphia, Adelaide Montmollin and Louise DeEnde. Margaret corresponded with Emma Mordecai, Laurine Mordecai, Mary Jones, Phebe Hawks, Rebecca Anderson, Mary Lucas, and Robert Walker Anderson. In addition there are letters to Anne Ruffin Cameron from members of the Ruffin family, including Catherine Roulhac, and Thomas Ruffin Jr.

For more documentation of the schooling of Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron's children, see Subseries 4.3 and 5.1.

For documentation of Paul C. Cameron's service to the Confederacy, see Subseries 5.3.

See Subseries 2.9 for Confederate Bonds.

See Subseries 2.1 for documentation of financial transactions between Paul C. Cameron and his factors.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists revised correspondence series descriptions (1757-1866) to include more information about the community of people enslaved by the Cameron, Bennehan, and Mordecai families. Many of the individual letters highlighted as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction" in this series were identified by Jean Bradley Anderson in Piedmont Plantation: The Bennehan-Cameron Family and Lands in North Carolina (Durham, N.C.: Historic Preservation Commission of Durham, 1985) and by Sydney Nathans in To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2012). Many more records of enslavement exist throughout Series 1. Correspondence but have not yet been identified in this finding aid.

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Correspondence, 1854

Folder 1130: Records of enslavement:

  • 10 June 1854: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Fairntosh, to Mildred C. Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning poor health of Miss Lotty, who formerly had been the housekeeper of Thomas D. Bennehan; Nancy, an enslaved person who was the "old" house servant; and Lewis, who was an enslaved blacksmith.
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Correspondence, 1855

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Correspondence, 1856

Folder 1153: Records of enslavement:

  • 4 February 1856: letter from George Mordecai, Raleigh, to Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai, mentioning getting the right kind of cotton for Sylla, who was an enslaved seamstress.

Folder 1160: Records of enslavement:

  • 12 August 1856: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Hillsboro, to Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai, Red Sweet Springs, Va., mentioning a visit to Miss Lotty, who was formerly the housekeeper of Thomas D. Bennehan, and reporting the death of Moriah, an enslaved nurse.
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Correspondence, 1857

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Correspondence, 1858

Folder 1178: Records of enslavement:

  • 7 February 1858: letter from Anne Ruffin Cameron, Fairntosh, to Paul C. Cameron, reporting on "Whiskey George," an enslaved person who broke his leg while on an errand to fetch a doctor and then required an operation; George Sowell and Jane, Minna's daughter, who were enslaved people who were sick at Mr. Belvin's, and Horace, an enslaved person who was staying with Mr. Bobbitt, a white overseer who was sick.
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Correspondence, 1859

Folder 1197: Records of enslavement:

  • 4 September 1859: letter from J. P. Lesley in Philadelphia to Mildred C. Cameron in Raleigh, regarding Mary Walker, a formerly enslaved nurse who had self-emancipated from the Cameron family in 1848 by running away during a trip to Philadelphia for medical treatment of Mildred. Lesley wrote on behalf of Walker, who desired to be reunited with her children, Agnes and Bryant, who were enslaved by the Camerons. Her son Frank had self-emancipated from the Camerons by running away in 1852.
  • 6 September 1859: letter from Samuel Piper at "Home" to Paul C. Cameron, reporting the number of enslaved people at Stagville, Home, Eno, Person, and Hillsboro locations.
  • 15 September 1859: letter from W. J. Lamb in Tunica County, Miss., to Paul C. Cameron, reporting that [Kissie?] and [Benty?] had been sick with bilious fever, and that other unidentified enslaved people, approximately 6 to 8 per day, suffered milder symptoms.
  • 23 September 1859: letter from Lizzie Jones to "My Dear Cousin" in Hillsboro, mentioning that travel by boat or railroad with enslaved people required a bond.
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Correspondence, 1860

Folder 1203: Records of enslavement:

  • 4 February 1860: letter from W. J. Lamb to Paul C. Cameron, reporting on Len, an enslaved person who had previously self-emancipated by running away.
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Correspondence, 1861

Folder 1224: Records of enslavement:

  • 7 November 1861: George Mordecai to Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai, reporting on his investigation of a break-in to the house that resulted in theft of white sugar, coffee, and liquor. Abner, John, and Philip, all of whom were enslaved people, were interviewed by Mordecai about the break-in.
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Correspondence, 1864

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Correspondence, 1865: January-April

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.5. Correspondence, May 1865-1889.

About 9,300 items.

This subseries documents the post-Civil War activities of Paul C. Cameron, with some material relating to Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai and other family members, as well as the freed people who were formerly enslaved by the Camerons.

May 1865-1869

Family letters written to Paul C. Cameron and his sister Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai ("Maggie"). Some of Paul C. Cameron's correspondence with his wife Anne Ruffin Cameron is included. There are also business letters written to Paul C. Cameron concerning his plantations and the North Carolina Railroad and other railroads in the state. Some of George Mordecai's personal and business correspondence is also scattered among the Cameron family letters. Of particular note are the letters from overseers Wilson Oberry in Greene County, Ala., and Samuel Piper in Orange and Durham counties, N.C. Their letters provide some insight into the lived experiences of freed people from the perspective of white people who sought to continue control of the movements of the Black population.

After the Civil War, correspondents described the aftermath of emancipation, often with frustration and fear, and a lack of empathy and imagination for how freed people experienced the abrupt change in their status. Financial uncertainty was a fact of life for nearly everyone, Black peole and white people alike, immediately after the war, but white people were enraged that freed people did not seem to be as stressed by the threat of destitution, or that they engaged in looting to get by. Letters of overseers and former enslavers expressed displeasure if not disbelief that Black sharecroppers and field workers negotiated for pay and benefits to their advantage as much as possible, and that their first concerns were not the interests of their former enslavers. Some male field workers, for example, did not want their wives working in the field. White plantation owners repeatedly complained to each other about the work ethic they attributed to freed people and boasted of discharging workers they found disagreeable. They also shared advice on terms of hire.

The correspondence gives the impression that management of the Cameron's vast land holdings was challenged continuously by labor shortages and lawlessness, including the looting of Fairntosh. Paul C. Cameron ultimately relinquished much of the direct control of his plantations to tenant farmers and sharecroppers, some of whom had formerly been enslaved by him. Although he maintained contact with his antebellum factors Tartt, Stewart, and Company in Mobile, Ala., Battle, Nobel, and Company in New Orleans, La., Andrew Keven and Brothers in Norfolk, Va., and E. M. Apperson and Company in Memphis, Tenn., Cameron did not have as many agricultural products to sell as he did before the war.

Paul C. Cameron remained involved in the North Carolina Railroad after the Civil War, and began to become interested in investing in mills and other industrial ventures. His correspondents during these years included Peter Hairston, Charles Pettigrew, William Halliburton, J. W. Norwood, Worth Daniel, Thomas Bragg, Hugh Waddell, William A. Graham, Bishop James Otey, Rev. William Mercer Green, Charles Dewey, David L. Swain, Kemp P. Battle, Charles Fisher, Rev. George Patterson, and Thomas Webb.

During these years there are letters to Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron from their sons Duncan Cameron and Bennehan Cameron who were at school. There are also letters from their teachers and headmasters about the boys' deportment and academic progress. There are frequent letters from Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron's daughter Anne Ruffin Cameron Collins (Annie) and her husband George P. Collins, who moved to Tunica County, Miss., to run Paul C. Cameron's plantation there after the Civil War. There are also letters from another daughter, Rebecca Cameron Graham, and her husband John Graham.

Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai (Maggie) continued to care for her disabled sister Mildred C. Cameron. There are frequent exchanges between Paul C. Cameron and Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai about the health of Mildred, as well as other family business. Margaret continued to receive letters from her friends in Philadelphia, Adelaide Montmollin and Louise DeEnde. Margaret corresponded frequently with members of her extended family including Emma Mordecai, Laurine Mordecai, Mary Jones, Phebe Hawks, Rebecca Anderson, Mary Lucas, and Robert Walker Anderson. Anne Ruffin Cameron's letters from the Ruffin and Roulhac families are also included.

For more documentation about the schooling of Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron's children, see Subseries 4.3 and 5.1.

For documentation of financial transactions between Paul C. Cameron and his factors, see Subseries 2.1.

1870-1889

Chiefly family letters, particularly correspondence between Paul C. Cameron and his sister Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai ("Maggie"), between Paul C. Cameron and his wife Anne Ruffin Cameron, and between Paul and Anne Ruffin Cameron and their children. Also included are some letters to Paul C. Cameron from friends and business associates.

Family letters document the death of George Mordecai in 1871, Mildred C. Cameron's declining health, the marriages of Paul C. Cameron's children, Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai's trip to Philadelphia for the centennial celebration in 1876, and her involvement with Saint Mary's School in Raleigh, N.C.

Letters to Paul C. Cameron document his continued support of the North Carolina Railroad Company, other railroad companies, local banks, and local cotton manufacturing companies. Also well documented is Paul C. Cameron's leadership in the effort to reopen and rebuild the University of North Carolina which had closed during Reconstruction and fallen into disrepair. There are frequent letters from Kemp P. Battle, president of the University of North Carolina, and from Cornelia Phillips Spencer, Cameron's longtime friend and booster of the University. Paul C. Cameron also corresponded regularly with George W. Patterson, an Episcopal minister and family friend.

Paul C. Cameron continued to correspond with his factors, Andrew Keven in Petersburg, Va., and Rawland Brothers in Norfolk, Va., but the letters are much sparser than in past decades. There are letters from tenants and overseers, including J. G. Piper, Samuel Rogers, and Wilson Oberry.

Paul C. Cameron's frequent correspondents include Bishop Thomas Atkinson, William A. Graham, Aldert Smedes, J. W. Norwood, Kemp P. Battle, John Kerr, George W. Thompson, Joseph B. Cheshire, John Devereaux, George Winston, William Mercer Green, Charles Dewey, and Cornelia Spencer.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists revised correspondence series descriptions (1757-1866) to include more information about the community of people enslaved by the Cameron, Bennehan, and Mordecai families. Many of the individual letters highlighted as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction" in this series were identified by Jean Bradley Anderson in Piedmont Plantation: The Bennehan-Cameron Family and Lands in North Carolina (Durham, N.C.: Historic Preservation Commission of Durham, 1985) and by Sydney Nathans in To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2012). Many more records of enslavement exist throughout Series 1. Correspondence but have not yet been identified in this finding aid.

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Correspondence, 1865: May-December

Folder 1248: Records of Reconstruction:

  • 2 June 1865: letter from Rebecca Cameron, Burnside, to Mildred Cameron, Raleigh, mentioning Annie, a freed person who stayed with Mildred, and reporting that "Uncle Ovid" [Jurdon] from Stagville, had brought his family and Mima to Hillsboro, and they were the only freed people to stay with the Camerons.

Folder 1249: Records of Reconstruction:

  • 1 July 1865: letter from W. Oberry in Greene County, Ala. to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning York and Tony, freed people who had left the plantation but had returned. Oberry also reported that he had handed over management of the labor contracts with freed people to a Yankee officer in Demopolis.
  • 1865: letter from Samuel Piper to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning John, Big Bill and his daughter, and [Ovid?] Jurden, who were freed people previously enslaved by the Cameron family.
  • 5 July 1865: letter from S. H. Card, Person County, to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning Gabriel, who was a freed person previously enslaved by the Camerons, and the difficulty of motivating the labor force.

Folder 1251: Records of Reconstruction:

  • 7 November 1865: letter from W. Oberry, Greene County, Ala., to Paul C. Cameron, describing the murder of a freed person without consequence, his use of violent threats to manage freed people, a violent conflict with Yankees and freed people who were attempting to steal cotton from the gin house, lawlessness in the area, and an outbreak of scarlet fever.
  • 12 November 1865: letter from Thomas Ruffin, Alamance County, N.C., to Paul C. Cameron, Hillsborough, mentioning Isaac, a freed person, had served Ruffin with a notice to appear in court to pay him ten dollars per month.
  • 27 November 1865: letter from Andrew Keven and Bros. of Petersburg to Paul C. Cameron, advising on the hiring of white and Black labor.

Folder 1252: Records of Reconstruction:

  • 3 December 1865: letter from L. H. Card to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning Math and Ellis, who likely were freed people previously enslaved by the Cameron family. Card reported that Math and Ellis were willing to work in the field and take care of their grandparents.
  • 22 December 1865: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Hillsborough, to Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai, Raleigh, mentioning Aimee King, a freed person who worked for the Camerons as a house servant.
  • 31 December 1865: letter from George P. Collins, Memphis, to Paul C. Cameron, reporting on his arrival at the Tunica County plantation. Collins mentioned that John Spokman, a freed person who had traveled with the family and other freed people from North Carolina who were hired field workers, had already moved to live with Beloat. Collins also mentioned that Joe was likely to stay because of his wife and children; John Simon and Elias accidentally had been left behind at the Burkeville train station; and field workers preferred to contract for an interest in the crop rather than wages.
  • 1865 (undated): letter from Samuel Piper, Stagville, to Paul C. Cameron, reporting that field workers had refused to cut any more wheat until their contracts were renegotiated.
  • 1865 (undated): letter from Samuel Piper, Stagville, to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning Arch, Amy, and Jasper at Stagville; Joe at Snow Hill; and Anthony. Piper also reported on work slow downs and stoppages among freed people.
  • 1865 (undated): letter from Samuel Piper, Stagville, to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning Joe. Piper also reported that freed people who were field workers were likely to reject Cameron's labor contracts at first.
  • 1865 (undated): letter from Samuel Piper, Stagville, to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning that Joe, who at the time of this letter likely was still enslaved, had run off but returned.
  • 1865 (undated): letter from Samuel Piper at Stagville to Paul C. Cameron, Hillsboro, mentioning Charles, Lem Jr., Math, Mitchel, Polly, and Kinchen.
  • 1865 (undated): letter from Samuel Piper, Stagville, to Paul C. Cameron, Hillsboro, mentioning Charles and Betsy.
  • 1865 (undated): letter from Samuel Piper, Stagville, to Anne Ruffin Cameron, Hillsboro, mentioning Nat.
  • 1865 (undated): letter from Samuel Piper, Stagville, to Anne Ruffin Cameron, Hillsboro, mentioning Jude, Mehala, Betsy.
  • 1865 (undated): letter from Samuel Piper, Stagville, to Paul C. Cameron, Hillsboro, mentioning Charles and Joe. Piper also reported on the status of work for the field hands.
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Correspondence, 1866

Folder 1253: Records of Reconstruction:

  • 8 January 1866: letter from Duncan Cameron, Commerce, Miss., to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning Green, who apparently had been enslaved previously by Paul C. Cameron in Alabama. Green travelled to Commerce to retrieve his daughter Nettie, who was married to Jephat. Duncan Cameron also reported superficially on the well-being of the freed people who were now working in the fields for the Camerons.
  • 12 January 1866: letter from Ermine, Columbus, to Anne Ruffin Cameron, Hillsborough, mentioning a garrison of African American soldiers in Columbus, who after they were discharged sought employment in the area. The former soldiers were subjected to arrests. Small pox was also rampant in Columbus.
  • 15 January 1866: letter from George P. Collins, Memphis, Tenn. while on a shopping trip, mentioning the ill health of the African American field workers and reporting on several freed people who were formerly enslaved by the Camerons: Old Lizzie was the cook and coupled with Harrison; Mariah was the nurse and coupled with Isaac; Ester, the daughter of Molly York, worked in the house; Joe and his wife possibly would leave; John and his wife had left already; Juba and his wife had remained, as well as Alec. Collins also requested that John, Simon, Elias, and 3 or 4 other laborers be sent to him.
  • 21 January 1866: letter from W. Oberry to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning that he had hired many laborers who were familiar to him, including Monroe, but he had not Jim's family. Oberry also reported on the sharecropping terms (instead of wages) of their hire; an agreement to provide food, housing, fuel, and medical care to the farmers; a case of measles; and the prevalence of small pox in the area.
  • 25 January 1866: letter from A. Wright, Memphis, describing very difficult financial burdens, needing to hire more laborers than were available to cultivate land in "the Bottom," the previous loss of potential hands when people enslaved by him were stolen while in transit from Georgia, and tenants and others having looted his property in Georgia.

Folder 1254: Records of Reconstruction:

  • 4 February 1866: letter from W. Oberry, Greene County, Ala., to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning the challenge of hiring freed people laborers to move to Mississippi, seemingly without recognition that such a move would be disruptive to their lives. Oberry also reported that farm laborers were recovering from measles.
  • 5 February 1866: letter from Maggie Cameron Mordecai, Raleigh, to Anne Ruffin Cameron, Hillsborough, sending affection to "Aunt Ellen," who formerly was enslaved by the Camerons as a house servant.
  • 11-12 February 1866: letter from George P. Collins to Paul C. Cameron, mentioning Dave, Japhet, Mariah, Annie, and Juba, who were freed people who were formerly enslaved by the Camerons. He also reported that Japhet's wife had just had a baby and that the wife and children of John Sparkman had just gone to live with "Old Bettie."

Folder 1255: Records of Reconstruction:

  • 3 March 1866: letter from Wilson O'Berry, Greene County, Ala., to Paul C. Cameron, reporting that the male laborers would work in the fields, but wanted their wives and daughters to remain at home, even on the condition that Oberry would only supply provisions for field workers.

Folder 1256: Records of Reconstruction:

  • 17 April 1866: letter from George P. Collins, Commerce, Miss., to Paul C. Cameron, Hillsboro, mentioning Meekins, Allen, Lot, Japhet, Isaac, Dave, all of whom were freed people previously enslaved by the Camerons.

Folder 1257: Records of Reconstruction:

  • 2 May 1866: letter from Wilson Oberry to Paul C. Cameron, Hillsboro, mentioning that the wives of field workers kept house and did not receive provisions. Oberry also asserted that many freed people were preachers.

Folder 1260: Records of Reconstruction

  • 17 June 1866: letter from Wilson Oberry to Paul C. Cameron, Hillsboro, reporting that he had rewritten the contracts for 1866 such that the field workers would be required to work on whatever Oberry assigned them for 12 months of the year. He also mentioned that freed people often had visitors or were going visiting, a practice which had always been prohibited before but now was custom in the county. Finally, he assured Cameron that none of the field workers would be owed by Cameron at the end of the year; on the contrary, he would make sure it was the other way around.

Folder 1266: Records of Reconstruction:

  • 23 September 1866: letter from Wilson Oberry to Paul C. Cameron, reporting on freed people's desire to work for crops rather than wages.
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Correspondence, 1867

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Correspondence, 1868

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Correspondence, 1869

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Correspondence, 1870

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Correspondence, 1871

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Correspondence, 1872

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Correspondence, 1873

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Correspondence, 1874

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Correspondence, 1875

Folder ??: Records of Reconstruction

  • 19 January 1875: letter from Paul C. Cameron, Hillsboro, to Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai, mentioning that "Old Joe Nichols," formerly enslaved carpenter, came and offered to sit up at night with young Duncan who was sick.
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Correspondence, 1876

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Correspondence, 1877

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Correspondence, 1878

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Correspondence, 1879

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Correspondence, 1870s

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Correspondence, 1880

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Folder 1546

Folder 1547

Folder 1548

Folder 1549

Folder 1550

Folder 1551

Folder 1552

Folder 1553

Folder 1554

Folder 1555

Folder 1556

Correspondence, 1881

Folder 1557-1570

Folder 1557

Folder 1558

Folder 1559

Folder 1560

Folder 1561

Folder 1562

Folder 1563

Folder 1564

Folder 1565

Folder 1566

Folder 1567

Folder 1568

Folder 1569

Folder 1570

Correspondence, 1882

Folder 1571-1587

Folder 1571

Folder 1572

Folder 1573

Folder 1574

Folder 1575

Folder 1576

Folder 1577

Folder 1578

Folder 1579

Folder 1580

Folder 1581

Folder 1582

Folder 1583

Folder 1584

Folder 1585

Folder 1586

Folder 1587

Correspondence, 1883

Folder 1588-1611

Folder 1588

Folder 1589

Folder 1590

Folder 1591

Folder 1592

Folder 1593

Folder 1594

Folder 1595

Folder 1596

Folder 1597

Folder 1598

Folder 1599

Folder 1600

Folder 1601

Folder 1602

Folder 1603

Folder 1604

Folder 1605

Folder 1606

Folder 1607

Folder 1608

Folder 1609

Folder 1610

Folder 1611

Correspondence, 1884

Folder 1612-1634

Folder 1612

Folder 1613

Folder 1614

Folder 1615

Folder 1616

Folder 1617

Folder 1618

Folder 1619

Folder 1620

Folder 1621

Folder 1622

Folder 1623

Folder 1624

Folder 1625

Folder 1626

Folder 1627

Folder 1628

Folder 1629

Folder 1630

Folder 1631

Folder 1632

Folder 1633

Folder 1634

Correspondence, 1885

Folder 1635-1656

Folder 1635

Folder 1636

Folder 1637

Folder 1638

Folder 1639

Folder 1640

Folder 1641

Folder 1642

Folder 1643

Folder 1644

Folder 1645

Folder 1646

Folder 1647

Folder 1648

Folder 1649

Folder 1650

Folder 1651

Folder 1652

Folder 1653

Folder 1654

Folder 1655

Folder 1656

Correspondence, 1886

Folder 1657-1674

Folder 1657

Folder 1658

Folder 1659

Folder 1660

Folder 1661

Folder 1662

Folder 1663

Folder 1664

Folder 1665

Folder 1666

Folder 1667

Folder 1668

Folder 1669

Folder 1670

Folder 1671

Folder 1672

Folder 1673

Folder 1674

Correspondence, 1887

Folder 1675-1696

Folder 1675

Folder 1676

Folder 1677

Folder 1678

Folder 1679

Folder 1680

Folder 1681

Folder 1682

Folder 1683

Folder 1684

Folder 1685

Folder 1686

Folder 1687

Folder 1688

Folder 1689

Folder 1690

Folder 1691

Folder 1692

Folder 1693

Folder 1694

Folder 1695

Folder 1696

Correspondence, 1888

Folder 1697-1715

Folder 1697

Folder 1698

Folder 1699

Folder 1700

Folder 1701

Folder 1702

Folder 1703

Folder 1704

Folder 1705

Folder 1706

Folder 1707

Folder 1708

Folder 1709

Folder 1710

Folder 1711

Folder 1712

Folder 1713

Folder 1714

Folder 1715

Correspondence, 1889

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.6. Correspondence, 1890-1935.

About 215 items.

This subseries consists of letters written to members of the Cameron family after the death of Paul C. Cameron.

1890-1897

Chiefly letters to Anne Ruffin Cameron from her children and grandchildren. Anne Ruffin Cameron also received occasional letters from Kemp P. Battle, Cornelia Phillips Spencer, and George W. Patterson. The bulk of the letters to her, however, are from family members concerning domestic matters.

1898-1935

Letters written to Bennehan Cameron, Paul C. Graham, and John W. Graham from lawyers and banks relating to the settlement of Paul C. Cameron's estate. From 1898 to 1914, the letters are written to Bennehan. A letter, dated 17 August 1901, deals extensively with Bennehan Square in Raleigh, N.C. After 1914, the letters are to Paul C. Graham and John W. Graham.

Folder 1716-1729

Folder 1716

Folder 1717

Folder 1718

Folder 1719

Folder 1720

Folder 1721

Folder 1722

Folder 1723

Folder 1724

Folder 1725

Folder 1726

Folder 1727

Folder 1728

Folder 1729

Correspondence, 1890

Folder 1730-1732

Folder 1730

Folder 1731

Folder 1732

Correspondence, 1891

Folder 1733-1735

Folder 1733

Folder 1734

Folder 1735

Correspondence, 1892

Folder 1736

Correspondence, 1893

Folder 1737

Correspondence, 1894

Folder 1738

Correspondence, 1895

Folder 1739

Correspondence, 1896-1897

Folder 1740

Correspondence, 1898-1914

Folder 1741

Correspondence, 1915-1935

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.7. Outgoing Correspondence, undated.

About 1,200 items.

Arrangement: alphabetical by last name of writer.

Undated letters written by members of the Cameron family and their relatives.

Folder 1742

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Amis, Thomas

Folder 1743

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Anderson, Daniel

Folder 1744

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Anderson, Julia

Folder 1745

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Anderson, Malcolm

Folder 1746-1751

Folder 1746

Folder 1747

Folder 1748

Folder 1749

Folder 1750

Folder 1751

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Anderson, Mary Read (Cameron)

Folder 1752

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Anderson, Mildred ("Minnie") Ewing

Folder 1753

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Anderson, Phoebe (Hawks)

Folder 1754

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Anderson, Robert Walker; Anderson, Mary Read; Anderson, Eliza B.; Anderson, William E. (children of)

Folder 1755

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Anderson, Walker

Folder 1756

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Anderson, William E.

Folder 1757

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Anderson, William E., Jr.

Folder 1758

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Bennehan, Mary

Folder 1759

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Bennehan, Richard

Folder 1760

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Bennehan, Thomas D.

Folder 1761

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Buxton, Anna Nash (Cameron)

Folder 1762

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Anna MacKenzie

Folder 1763-1765

Folder 1763

Folder 1764

Folder 1765

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Anne (Call)

Folder 1766-1768

Folder 1766

Folder 1767

Folder 1768

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Anne Owen

Folder 1769-1772

Folder 1769

Folder 1770

Folder 1771

Folder 1772

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Anne (Ruffin)

Folder 1773

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Catherine L. ("Cate")

Folder 1774-1779

Folder 1774

Folder 1775

Folder 1776

Folder 1777

Folder 1778

Folder 1779

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Duncan

Folder 1780-1781

Folder 1780

Folder 1781

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Duncan, III

Folder 1782

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Eliza Adam

Folder 1783

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Isabella (Wilkins)

Folder 1784

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Jean

Folder 1785

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, John Adams

Folder 1786

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, John Wilder, and "Altie" Gales

Folder 1787

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Katherine ("Kate")

Folder 1788

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Mary Amis

Folder 1789-1790

Folder 1789

Folder 1790

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Mary Anne

Folder 1791

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Mary (Short)

Folder 1792

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Mildred Coles

Folder 1793-1815

Folder 1793

Folder 1794

Folder 1795

Folder 1796

Folder 1797

Folder 1798

Folder 1799

Folder 1800

Folder 1801

Folder 1802

Folder 1803

Folder 1804

Folder 1805

Folder 1806

Folder 1807

Folder 1808

Folder 1809

Folder 1810

Folder 1811

Folder 1812

Folder 1813

Folder 1814

Folder 1815

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Paul C.

Folder 1816-1817

Folder 1816

Folder 1817

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Rebecca ("Beck")

Folder 1818

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Thomas N.

Folder 1819

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, Thomas and Jean

Folder 1820

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Cameron, William and son William

Folder 1821-1822

Folder 1821

Folder 1822

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Collins, Anne Ruffin (Cameron)

Folder 1823

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Gales, Jean C.

Folder 1824-1825

Folder 1824

Folder 1825

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Gales, Mary A. Cameron, ("Mollie")

Folder 1826-1828

Folder 1826

Folder 1827

Folder 1828

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Graham, Rebecca (Cameron) Anderson

Folder 1829-1830

Folder 1829

Folder 1830

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Jones, Eliza ("Lizzie")

Folder 1831-1832

Folder 1831

Folder 1832

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Jones, Mary C.

Folder 1833

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Jones, Mary Read (Cameron) and R. C.

Folder 1834

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Kirkland, Anna M. (Cameron) and her son Robert Strange

Folder 1835-1842

Folder 1835

Folder 1836

Folder 1837

Folder 1838

Folder 1839

Folder 1840

Folder 1841

Folder 1842

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Mordecai, Margaret Bain (Cameron)

Folder 1843-1844

Folder 1843

Folder 1844

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Nash, Frederick

Folder 1845

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Nash, Maria

Folder 1846-1848

Folder 1846

Folder 1847

Folder 1848

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Nash Family

Folder 1849

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Peebles, Margaret M. (Cameron)

Folder 1850

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Roulhac, J. B. G. and Catherine (Ruffin)

Folder 1851

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Ruffin, Jane

Folder 1852-1854

Folder 1852

Folder 1853

Folder 1854

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Ruffin, Pattie

Folder 1855

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Ruffin, Thomas

Folder 1856-1859

Folder 1856

Folder 1857

Folder 1858

Folder 1859

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Ruffin Family

Folder 1860

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Shepard, Mildred Coles (Cameron)

Folder 1861

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Shepard, Pauline (Cameron)

Folder 1862-1863

Folder 1862

Folder 1863

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Syme, Jean M. (Cameron)

Folder 1864

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Witherspoon, Eliza Cameron

Folder 1865-1866

Folder 1865

Folder 1866

Outgoing correspondence (undated): Unidentified Nieces, Nephews, and Cousins

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.8. Incoming Correspondence, undated.

About 875 items.

Arrangement: alphabetical by last name of writer.

Undated letters from individuals (including members of the Mordecai family) who were not members of the Cameron family.

Folder 1867

Incoming correspondence (undated): A

Emma [Graves?] Alderman (Mrs. Edwin A.). Elias Alexander. Amelia [Johnston] Alves. Walter Alves. B. H. Ancrum. Annie Ashe. Caroline B. Ashe. Meta Ashe. R. H. Ashe. Sam P. Ashe. R. W. Ashton. Robert Atkinson. S. P. Atkinson. EBA.

Folder 1868-1872

Folder 1868

Folder 1869

Folder 1870

Folder 1871

Folder 1872

Incoming correspondence (undated): B

Mrs. George E. Badger. George E. Badger. M. C. Batchelor. Kemp P. Battle. Pattie (Mrs. Kemp P.) Battle. C. Bayley. Miss Beach. Fannie M. Beall. G. T. Bedell. Robert Bell. [C. J. Benton?]. Josh Blake. Tempe Blakely. Ellen Boylan. Annie E. T. Bradford. G. S. Bradshaw. George Brasfield. James Briggs. N. L. Brodnax. A. Brown. Aunt A. Brown. Peter Browne. Mrs. John H. Bryan. Mary McLean Bryant. Sarah M. Bryant. David Buchanan. Benjamin Bulloch. Miss Burgwyn. Burnett & Rigdon. Horace Burton. M. A. Burwell. S. H. Busbee. Jarvis Buxton.

Folder 1873-1874

Folder 1873

Folder 1874

Incoming correspondence (undated): C

E. Cain. Mary C. Cain. T. R. Cain. W. Cain. David E. Caldwell. Elias Caldwell. Helen (Hogg) Caldwell (Mrs. Joseph). R. A. Caldwell. Harriet A. Carter. Jesse Carter. Agnes Mayo Carter. Joseph Blount Cheshire. Frances Child. C. R. Childs. William Coggin. [W. Cooke?]. James Cothran. Will A. Crawford. C. P. Curtis. Mary DeRosset Curtis (Mrs. M. A.). Moses Ashley Curtis. Mary Curtis. L. Czarnowska.

Folder 1875

Incoming correspondence (undated): D

M. C. Dancy. W. Dandridge. Janes Daniel. Allen Jones Davie. Anna Devereux. J. Devereux. Kate Devereux. Margaret Devereux. Meta Devereux. Thomas Pollock Devereux. C. Dewey. Jesse Dickens. Samuel Dickins. John H. [Du Cartintz?]. D[orothea] L. Dix.

Oversize Paper OP-133/103

Incoming correspondence (undated): Letter to Duncan Cameron from Buchanan Dunlop, 2 October 1800

Formerly OP-133/90; this number is no longer in use.

Folder 1876

Incoming correspondence (undated): E, F, G

Peter Early. [C. W.?] Edmonston. Franklin Felton. Hamilton Fulton. C. E. Gadsden. Joseph Gales. Mrs. Joseph Gales. L. S. Gales. Weston R. Gales. William Gaston. Andrew Gibson. James Gibson. Glass. S. W. (Mrs. William A.) Graham. Lucy A. Green. William Mercer Green.

Folder 1877-1879

Folder 1877

Folder 1878

Folder 1879

Incoming correspondence (undated): H

E. J. Hale. George Haldane. James Hamilton (Granville County). Edward Hampton. J. Hawkins. W. J. Hawkins. Mrs. F. L. Hawks. John Haywood, treasurer. John Haywood, judge. Sherwood Haywood. William Haywood. W. H. Haywood. W. H. Haywood, Jr. Pleasant Henderson. Thomas Henderson. Mrs. Kate Henesse. E. Hill. E. H. Hill. Thomas B. Hill. W. F. Hilliard. C. Hines. Rowena Hines. Nellie Hinsdale. John Hogan. Gavin Hogg. James Hogg, Jr. M. W. Holt. W. Hooper. Helen Hughes. John Huske.

Folder 1880

Incoming correspondence (undated): I, J

Mr. and Mrs. Iredell [James, Jr.?]. Lieutenant Johnson. William Johnston. Calvin Jones. Maggie Jones. Pride Jones. R. E. (Mrs. Cadwallader?) Jones. Robert H. Jones. Andrew Kevan & Bro.

Folder 1881

Incoming correspondence (undated): K, L

F. S. Key. John N. Kirkland. Bryant Kittrell. Andrew Knox Lamb. Lawrence LeMay. [John Lenox?]. George Lightfoot. J. G. Lippett. J. Lippincott. J. R. Lloyd. F. Lock.

Folder 1882-1886

Folder 1882

Folder 1883

Folder 1884

Folder 1885

Folder 1886

Incoming correspondence (undated): M

E. M. Ida M. W. P. Mangum. James Crew [McCaw?], Richmond, to Richard Bennehan. Benjamin McCulloch. M. McGehee. F. M. McKeithen. Cameron T. McRae. E. McMurtrie. Mary Mason. R. S. Mason. S. L. Manly. M. E. Manly. John Manning. Thomas C. Manning. Betty Marbury (34). H. H. Marbury. Juliet Marbury. Thomas Marshall to James Martin. M. Sue Marshall. W. Mebane. L. Mitchell to Thomas D. Bennehan. Mr. and Mrs. Miller. Ann Moore. Mary Moore. B. F. Moores. Adelaide Montmollin. Augusta Mordecai. Ellen Mordecai. Patty M[ordecai]. Henry Mordecai. M. Mordecai. John Motley Morehead (unimportant note). Martha Morse. H. Murfree. Carolina Myers.

Folder 1887-1890

Folder 1887

Folder 1888

Folder 1889

Folder 1890

Incoming correspondence (undated): N, O, P, Q

J. W. Nicholson. Hezikiah Niles. James Norwood. W. Oberry. Robert Nash Ogden. Wm. W. Old. Alfred Palmer. James Parks. Parsons & Co. Lydia C. Partridge. George Patterson. Jeanie Patterson. Samuel F. Patterson. Dane [Pealh?] Mittie Peebles. P. F. Pescud. K. W. Petersilia. Annie S. Pettigrew. J. G. Piper. S. Piper overseer, many letters. W. Piper. Andrew J. Polk. F. A. Polk. Leonidas Polk. Sarah (Mrs. William) Polk. William Polk. Ann Pollok (fragment probably to Mrs. Richard Bennehan). William Potter to Richard Bennehan. H. [J?] Pride to Thomas D. Bennehan. Annie Quayle.

Folder 1891

Incoming correspondence (undated): R

Mary D. Ramseur. John Ramsey. Susan S. (Mrs. Kenneth Rayner. J. Reid. John Grant Rencher. Crawford Riddell. Rowland. John C. Rudd about Thomas Cameron. Mary Ryan.

Folder 1892-1893

Folder 1892

Folder 1893

Incoming correspondence (undated): S

R. A. S. A[nna] H[ayes] (Mrs. Romulus M.) Saunders. Romulus M. Saunders. A. M. Scales. W. A. Sharpe. G[ottlieb] Shober. A. Smedes. Bennett Smedes. Sadie S. Smedes. James Smith, Jr. Jesse Smith. Richard Smith. Venal Smith. John Snow. J. Southerland. P. Southerland. W. W. Spear. Cornelia P. Spencer. Mary Stanford. Robert S. Steele. Charles Stewart. David W. Stone. Mrs. Stott. Eben[ezer] Stott. Bettie Strange. F. K. Strother. Bryant Strowd. S. Strudwick. William B. Sullivan.

Folder 1894

Incoming correspondence (undated): T, U, V

E. L. T. A. Temple. C. Townsend. Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. (committee). D. & M. Trokes. Asa Turner. J. Turner. S. C. D. Turner. W. D. Turrentine. U. N. C. Dialectic Society. Z. B. Vance. W. F. Vestal.

Folder 1895-1897

Folder 1895

Folder 1896

Folder 1897

Incoming correspondence (undated): W, X, Y, Z

S. H. W. Hugh Waddell. John Wadow. Robert Walker. E. Althea Warren. James Webb. R. Webb. John R. Whitaker. B. Williams. E. B. Eilleston. George T. Winston. J. Witherspoon. A. Wright. J. W. Wright. T. Wright.

Folder 1898-1901

Folder 1898

Folder 1899

Folder 1900

Folder 1901

Incoming correspondence (undated): Unidentified writers; Fragments

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 2. Family Financial and Legal Papers, 1761-1942 and undated.

About 3,700 items.

Arrangement: by type and then chronological.

Accounts (Subseries 2.1), deeds and indentures (Subseries 2.2), surveys and land plats (Subseries 2.3), tax lists and receipts (Subseries 2.4), promissory notes and bonds (Subseries 2.5), estate papers (Subseries 2.6), wills (Subseries 2.7), insurance policies (Subseries 2.8), and other papers (Subseries 2.9) documenting the financial and legal affairs of members of the Cameron family and related families, as well as the labor, medical care, provisioning, and trafficking through sale, devising, and hiring out of the people who were enslaved by them, and the labor of freed people who became field workers, sharecroppers, and tenant farmers on Cameron land after the Civil War. For records of enslavement, see subseries for accounts, deeds and indentures, tax lists, estate papers, wills, and other papers.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists reviewed this series to uncover more information about the lived experience of enslaved and free Black people. Folders that include materials related to enslaved and free Black people during the antebellum period, the institution of slavery, or freed people after the Civil War are indicated as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction." People were presumed to be enslaved if identified only by a first name or if described with a racial term (but not otherwise identifed as a free person of color) or as "hands." Receipts that do not identify an enslaved person by name are recorded with the hope that information elsewhere in the collection may help with future identification. Receipts for supplies like hats, shoes, and blankets for enslaved people are only highlighted if explicitly stated for enslaved people; however, it is likely that there are many more receipts for supplies that document slavery.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.1. Accounts, 1767-1942 and undated.

About 1,800 items.

Accounts document income and expenses of members of the Cameron family and related families and their associates, as well as the labor, medical care, provisioning, and trafficking through sale, devising, and hiring out of the people who were enslaved by them, and the labor of freed people who became field workers, sharecroppers, and tenant farmers on Cameron land after the Civil War.

Note that this subseries is divided chronologically into four periods: antebellum, Civil War, post-war, and undated. The bulk of these accounts is from the antebellum period.

See Subseries 6.2 and 6.7 for account books.

See Subseries 2.6 for accounts relating to settlement of Cameron Family estates.

1767-March 1861

Records of income and expenses of Richard and Thomas D. Bennehan, their business partners William Johnston and Thomas Amis, Duncan and Paul C. Cameron, Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai, Mildred C. Cameron, and several wards supported by the Camerons. Materials include shipping invoices, bills and receipts, various kinds of lists (debts, tools, crops, livestock), household and store inventories, financial statements, and checks.

Records of the lived experience of people enslaved by the Camerons in Orange, Person, and Wake County, N.C., are also found here, especially in lists of enslaved people that often include names, ages, and familial relationships, and in receipts for medical services, provisioning of blankets, hats, and other supplies, and the trafficking through hiring out of their labor, skills, and knowledge. Of note are the points at which the enslaved communities were subjected to significant disruptions and forced relocations. Beginning in 1844, there are receipts and lists of enslaved people, supplies, and expenses relating to a Cameron plantation in Greene County, Ala. Beginning in the 1850s there are similar materials documenting a Cameron plantation in Tunica County, Miss. Also of note are the deaths of Thomas D. Bennehan in 1847 and Duncan Cameron in 1853, which resulted in lists and related documents that show the division of enslaved communities to fulfill the inheritances of the Cameron heirs.

The information contained on a single bill or receipt often combines personal and household expenses with plantation, store, legal, or other business expenses, demonstrating the fluidity with which the Camerons perceived their financial affairs: the private world and the world of business are not always clearly distinct in the Cameron accounts. Furthermore, different business interests are often mingled as well.

The accounts originate from diverse locations including Raleigh and Hillsborough, N.C.; New York and Philadelphia; Norfolk and Petersburg, Va.; Mobile, Ala.; and Memphis, Tenn. Some accounts span several years and are filed according to the date the account was settled or the date of the last entry.

These accounts document myriad services rendered or employed, and goods purchased or sold by the Camerons. Included are bills for textiles and clothing; food, liquor, and spices; tools for agriculture and carpentry; sewing and medical instruments; guns and ammunition; building supplies; household furnishings; plants and animals; music and musical instruments; books and subscriptions for newspapers and periodicals; travel expenses; tuition and school supplies; club memberships; medical visits, prescriptions, and medicines/cathartics for sicknesses, ailments, and procedures such as abortion, childbirth (accouchement), circumcision (phimosis), lancing of boils, and vaccination; land purchases and sales; personal items such as jewelry, eyeglasses, combs, and postage; and tombstones and coffins. Services documented include those offered by the Cameron Family such as horse breeding and Duncan Cameron's legal services, as well as services commissioned by the Camerons, such as weaving, sewing, ditching, gardening, hauling, plastering, painting, building repair (agricultural equipment, household furnishings, buildings), and surveying. Included are bills from doctors, midwives, merchants, factors, carpenters, coppersmiths, tailors, blacksmiths, seamstresses, cabinetmakers, undertakers, stonemasons, overseers, wheelwrights, jewelers, shoemakers, and many others.

Some topics of special interest which are documented by accounts include the capture of two deserters by Richard Bennehan, who was relieved of military service for this act (June 1781); subscription receipts for the Episcopal Schools of North Carolina in 1837 and subsequent bills for building and repairs at Saint Mary's seminary; in the early 1850s, several bills for labor and supplies used to build the North Carolina Railroad; and material concerning the University of North Carolina.

For account books, see Subseries 6.2-6.7.

For accounts relating to the settlement of the estates of the Cameron family, see Subseries 2.6.

April 1861-April 1865

These accounts document the income and expenses of Paul C. Cameron, Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai, Mildred C. Cameron, and others. Like the earlier accounts, these materials identify individual enslaved people at plantations in North Carolina and Mississippi, and document a variety of goods and services, especially medical care, purchased or provided by the Cameron family. There is a receipt documenting the hiring out of labor, skills, and knowledge of enslaved people to the railroad. In addition, there is evidence of Cameron support of the Confederacy in receipts for labor provided by enslaved people to the Confederate Army and for fabric and merchandise associated with Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai's work with the Ladies Soldiers Aid Society of Raleigh (1861).

May 1865-1942

These accounts document the income and expenses of Paul C. Cameron, Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai, Mildred C. Cameron, Thomas A. Cameron, and Bennehan Cameron. The records document a variety of goods and services purchased or provided by the Cameron family, including corn, bacon, and other staples harvested by freed people. Account records also contain property lists and other information about the estates of Paul C. Cameron, Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai, and Mildred C. Cameron. Other records concern the University of North Carolina, and include bills for construction of Memorial Hall (20 June 1885); see also an undated "estimate for completion of Swain Hall, Chapel Hill." Undated accounts from this era are in Subseries 2.1.4.

Undated

Undated accounts, are arranged by recipient and exclude those of Richard Bennehan, Thomas D. Bennehan, and Duncan Cameron, and lists of enslaved people, all of which are filed in folders 2041-2045.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists reviewed this series to uncover more information about the lived experience of enslaved and free Black people. Folders that include materials related to enslaved and free Black people during the antebellum period, the institution of slavery, or freed people after the Civil War are indicated as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction." People were presumed to be enslaved if identified only by a first name or if described with a racial term (but not otherwise identifed as a free person of color) or as "hands." Receipts that do not identify an enslaved person by name are recorded with the hope that information elsewhere in the collection may help with future identification. Receipts for supplies like hats, shoes, and blankets for enslaved people are only highlighted if explicitly stated for enslaved people; however, it is likely that there are many more receipts for supplies that document slavery.

Folder 1902

Accounts, 1767-1768

Folder 1903

Accounts, 1769

Oversize Paper OP-133/93

Account, 19 December 1769

Johnston & Bennehan with Buchanan & Cuniston.

Folder 1904

Accounts, 1770

Folder 1905

Accounts, 1771

Records of enslavement:

  • 30 December1771: Johnston & Bennehan in account with Hamilton Godwin, including an entry for 2 unidentified enslaved people.
Folder 1906

Accounts, 1772

Records of enslavement:

  • 15 March 1772: List of debts due Richard Bennehan, including an entry for an unidentified enslaved boy on hand at an auction of enslaved people.
  • 22 October 1772: Johnston & Bennehan in account with John Hamilton & Co., including an entry for 2 unidentified enslaved people.
Oversize Paper OP-133/92

Account, 31 August 1772

Johnston & Bennehan with Buchanan & Cunison.

Folder 1907

Accounts, 1773

Records of enslavement:

  • to 1 March 1773 (page 13): Snowhill account record, mentioning Scrub, an enslaved child who was trafficked in 1771 from John Halloway to Richard Bennehan.
  • to 1 March 1773 (page 14): Snowhill account record, mentioning Jack, an enslaved person who was trafficked in 1771 from James Wilkinson to Richard Bennehan. Scrub, the enslaved child mentioned on the previous page appears in the record again in 1772.
  • to 1 March 1773 (page 15): Snowhill account record, including aggregate total of debts incurred for purchasing enslaved people.
  • to 1 March 1773 (page 16): Snowhill account record, indicating 2 enslaved children were trafficked in May 1772 from Thomas Marshall to Richard Bennehan; in July 1772 an unnamed child was trafficked from William Cain to the Bennehans and Peter, an enslaved child, was trafficked from Edward Harris to Richard Bennehan; there is a line for profit and loss for "abatement" relating to an unnamed enslaved person.
  • to 1 March 1773 (page 13): Snowhill account record, mentioning Scrub, the enslaved child mentioned on previous pages appears in the record again in March 1773.
  • to 1 March 1773 (page 18): Snowhill account record, including aggregate total of debts incurred for purchasing enslaved people.
Folder 1908

1774

Records of enslavement:

  • 1 March 1774 (page 13): Balances due Richard Bennehan, mentioning Scrub, an enslaved child at Snow Hill plantation.
  • 1774: Thomas Amis in account with Allen Jones, including mention of Peter, Frank, Nan, Molly, Moses, and Dinah, who were enslaved people who had been trafficked by hiring out.
Folder 1909

Accounts, 1775

Records of enslavement:

  • 1 June 1771: Account record mentioning William, Thomas, and Peggy, who may have been enslaved.
  • 31 August 1770: Account record mentioning hire of an unnamed boy, who may have been enslaved.
  • 4 March 1772: Account record mentioning shoes purchased for Jack, an enslaved person.
  • 31 August 1772: Account record mentioning hire of an unnamed boy, who may have been enslaved.
  • 23 August 1773: Account record mentioning payment to Julius Burton for purchase of unidentified enslaved people at court.
  • 20 July 1775: Peter Perkins in account with John [Litch?], mentioning expenses related to Joe and Milly, who were enslaved children.
  • 4 January 1775: Johnson & Bennehan in account with Eilbeck Ross & Co., including purchase of 2 unidentified enslaved children.
Folder 1910

Accounts, 1776

Folder 1911

Accounts, 1777

Records of enslavement:

  • 25 June 1778: Inventory of goods on hand belonging to Johnston & Bennehan, including Ester and Harry, who were enslaved people claimed as property.
  • 12 July 1777: Receipt relating to [Beck?] and her daughter Betty, who were enslaved people who had been trafficked at public sale from Alex Telfair to Richard Bennehan.
Folder 1912

Accounts, 1778

Folder 1913

Accounts, 1779

Folder 1914

Accounts, 1780

Folder 1915

Accounts, 1781

Records of enslavement:

  • 2 August 1781: Richard Bennehan in account with Hart, Rochester, Benton & Co., mentioning profits from trafficking of unidentified enslaved people.

Also included is a note signed by Captain Thomas Donoho, excusing Richard Bennehan and Hezekial Ferrell from the next draft of the Continental Army as a reward for their apprehension of Peter Macguire and John [Naybear?], who allegedly had deserted from the Maryland Line of the Continental Army.

Folder 1916

Accounts, 1782

Folder 1917

Accounts, 1783

Records of enslavement:

  • January 1783: Robert Lanier in account with Duncan Rose, mentioning payment on bonds related to unidentified enslaved people.
  • 1778-1783: Thomas Amis in account with Richard Bennehan, including an entry for the trafficking through hiring out of Daniel, Frank, Daniel, Dinah, Sall, Will, and George, who were enslaved people.
Folder 1918

Accounts, 1784

Records of enslavement:

  • October 1782: Cash account record, including an entry for a wool hat made for Phil, who may have been enslaved.
  • June 1783: Cash account record, including an entry for cash paid to Maggy, who may have been a free Black person or an enslaved person, for 6 baskets, and to Peter, who may have been a free Black person or an enslaved person, for 2 riddles.
  • December 1783: Cash account record, including entries for expenses related to the hire of Peter, an enslaved person who was trafficked by Colonel Thackston, and for Frank, who may have been a free Black person or an enslaved person who provided transport to Halifax.
Folder 1919

Accounts, 1785

Folder 1920

Accounts, 1786

Folder 1921

Accounts, 1787

Folder 1922

Accounts, 1788

Folder 1923

Accounts, 1789

Records of enslavement:

  • 3 November 1789: Richard Bennehan in account with David Buchanan, including entries for the sale of cotton specified for enslaved people.
Folder 1924

Accounts, 1790

Folder 1925

Accounts, 1791

9 February 1791: David Witherspoon in account with James McKinlay, including an entry for a quart of rum that may have been purchased from an unidentified free Black person.

Folder 1926

Accounts, 1792

Folder 1927

Accounts, 1793

Folder 1928

Accounts, 1794

Folder 1929

Accounts, 1795

Folder 1930

Accounts, 1796

Records of enslavement:

  • 1 January 1796: James Watson Jr. in account with William McQuisten, including several entries for sundries or cash paid to Andrew, who may have been a free Black person or an enslaved person (see 17 November 1792, 6 April 1793, 1 February 1794). Similarly, 8 April 1795 includes an entry for cash paid to Hannah to get sugar and coffee. Hannah may have been a free Black person or an enslaved person.
Folder 1931

Accounts, 1797

Records of enslavement:

  • 7 January 1797: Receipt signed by John Morgan for trafficking of the labor of an unnamed enslaved person by David Witherspoon in lieu of cash payment in fulfillment of a subscription toward the building of the Methodist Church in New Bern.
  • 4 September 1797: Joseph Tagart in account with David Witherspoon, including an entry for the trafficking of the labor of Jack, an enslaved person, for a 3 year period ending 1 January 1797.
Folder 1932

Accounts, 1798

Folder 1933

Accounts, 1799

Records of enslavement:

  • to September 1799: list of 13 children, including a set of twins, born between October 1796 and September 1799, who are identified by name and the name of their enslaved mothers.
Folder 1934

Accounts, 1800

Folder 1935

Accounts, 1801

Records of enslavement:

  • 24 October 1801: Richard Bennehan in account with Watson & Stoll, including an entry for cotton intended for enslaved people.
  • 8 March 1801: memo between N. Roberts and N. Scales, relating to the will of Thomas Rose, which bequeathed Patt, an enslaved person, to his daughter Jane Roberts. After Thomas Rose's death, his son Phillip Rose pretended that he had become the enslaver of Patt through a previous exchange with his father Thomas Rose. Patt was awarded to Phillip Rose who then trafficked Patt through sale.
Folder 1936-1937

Folder 1936

Folder 1937

Accounts, 1802

Folder 1936: Records of enslavement:

  • 13 May 1802: Jesse Rhymes in account with the estate of Thomas Amis, including entries for cotton intended for enslaved people.

Folder 1937: Records of enslavement:

  • 12 October 1802: List of balances due Thomas Amis, including entries for Dempsey Underdew and John Bell, who were identified as being of mixed race.
  • 18 December 1802: receipt for payment for work performed by Sam, who was enslaved by John Winslow. Sam had painted the house of Duncan Cameron or G. Anderson.
Folder 1938-1939

Folder 1938

Folder 1939

Accounts, 1803

Folder 1938: Records of enslavement:

  • 9 April 1803: list of 75 enslaved people, identified by name, who were sold on 31 July 1797 by John Dickerson to John Peace as part of a judgment against Dickerson.
  • 5 May 1803: Dividend of Amis & Rhymes, including an entry for Jordan [Artest?] a free Black person, and Burwell [Colheck?] a person identified as being of mixed race.
  • 5 May 1803: Jesse Rhymes share of the unsettled accounts due Amis & Rhymes, including entries for Hardy Richardson, [Burnell?] Francis, Richard Francis, Hardy Manly, [Cuba?] [Heathcock?], [Ozeia?] Dempsey, all of whom are identified as being of mixed race.

Folder 1939: Records of enslavement:

  • 15 July 1803: Richard Bennehan in account with James Webb, including an entry for medical services for Betty, an enslaved person.
  • 15 November 1803: Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including entries for medical services for Jim, Duke, Nancy, Abram, and possibly other enslaved people.
  • 1801-1803: 2 lists of enslaved people identified by name who received shirts and blankets.
  • 1803: list of 26 people identified by name and age who were enslaved by Rebecca Bennehan.
Folder 1940-1942

Folder 1940

Folder 1941

Folder 1942

Accounts, 1803

Folder 1940: Records of enslavement:

  • December 1803: Ready money sales, including an entry at 27 December for sundries for Edd, who may have been a free Black person or an enslaved person.
  • April 1799-April 1803: Duncan Cameron in account with John Hogg & Co., including entries in 1801 and 1802 for Charles, an enslaved person who was trafficked by hiring out several times.

Folder 1941: Records of enslavement:

  • 19 June 1803: receipt of payment from Richard Bennehan through William Cameron to William Boylan for trafficking through hiring out of Minerva, an enslaved person
  • 26 June 1803: lists of debts and property of Duncan Cameron, including entries for Abram, Pauncy, Moses, Tom, Nancy, Jim, and George, who were enslaved people claimed as property by Cameron.
  • 1789-1803: Thomas Amis in account with Richard Bennehan, including note that Thomas Amis would not charge for the hire of people enslaved by him; and a May 1789 entry related to transfer of half of the assessed value of Will, George, and Dinah, who were adults, and Donum (15 years), Old Sam (11 years), Paymore (9 years), Phebee (9 years), Claricy (7 years), Joe (6 years), [Taymor?](5 years), Jim Frog (2 years), and Peggy (2 years), all of whom were enslaved people.
  • 18 October 1803: Duncan Cameron in account with William Kirkland, including entries that mention Jim, Nancy, and possibly other enslaved people.
  • 1799-1803: Duncan Cameron in account with John Hogg & Co., including entries for Charles, an enslaved person who was trafficked through hiring out multiple times; and for shoes for unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 1942: Records of enslavement:

  • 10 December 1803: the surviving partners of Bennehan, Cameron & Co. in account with Duncan Cameron for bonds and Dickerson's debt, including entries for Pauncy and Moses and for an unidentified enslaved person.
Oversize Paper OP-133/1

Duncan Cameron in account with Gracie Anderson & Co., 12 December 1803

Folder 1943-1944

Folder 1943

Folder 1944

Accounts, 1805

Folder 1944: Records of enslavement:

  • 7 December 1805: Samuel Turrentine in account with Duncan Cameron, including a credit related to the trafficking of Hannah and her children Jenny and David, who were claimed and sold as property of Robert Bell.
  • 31 December 1805: receipt for services rendered by Robert Eaton in the hiring out of unidentified enslaved people from the estate of Sally Moore. Duncan Cameron was the guardian of Sally Moore.
  • 1805: dividend of the estate of George Moore, includes an entry for the deficiency of Sally Moore's share of the enslaved people. Duncan Cameron was the guardian of Sally Moore.
Folder 1945-1946

Folder 1945

Folder 1946

Accounts, 1806

Folder 1947-1948

Folder 1947

Folder 1948

Accounts, 1807

Folder 1947: Records of enslavement:

  • 9 February 1807: Sally Moore in account with James Webb, including entries for medical services for Old Betty, an enslaved person.
  • 9 February 1807: Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including entries for medical services for Maryan, [Calomel?], Jim, Nancy, [Columbo?], all of whom were enslaved people.
  • 4 May 1807: Duncan Cameron account, with entries for various goods in February 1803 for Abram; in January, April, and August 1806 for Little Jim and Old Frank; in December 1806 for Mary; and in December 1806 and January 1807 for Daniel, all of whom may have been enslave.

Folder 1948: records of enslavement:

  • 15 November 1807: invoice for lodging charges in Raleigh for Duncan Cameron, including an entry for related charges for an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with him.
  • 19 December 1807: Duncan Cameron in account with John Gales, including an entry for advertising possibly related to the sale of unidentified enslaved people and land in Bibb County, Ala.
  • 28 December 1807: receipt for services rendered by R. Smith in the trafficking through hiring out of unidentified enslaved people who were claimed as property by Sally Moore, for whose estate Duncan Cameron was guardian.
  • 1807: Account of trafficking through hiring out of enslaved people, including entries for Bill, who was hired out to George Anderson; Abraham and his family to James Palmer; Betty Jr. to [?]; Sam to James Moore; George to John Kent; Glasgow to James Hastings; Old Jenny and [Alssey?] and her children to John [Risk?]; Dick to Henry Thompson; Cyrus to Jacob Green; Tony to Betty [Rob?]; and July to Jacob Green.
Oversize Paper OP-133/2

Financial material, 7 June 1807

Folder 1949-1950

Folder 1949

Folder 1950

Accounts, 1808

Folder 1949: Records of enslavement:

  • 30 January 1808: Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including entries for medical services for Maryan.
  • 24 March 1808: Duncan Cameron in account with Jacob Green, including entries for clothes for July and Cyrus, who were enslaved by Cameron and had been trafficked through hiring out to Green.
  • 3 August 1808: William Bennehan in account with James Webb, including an entry for an operation on Charles, who was enslaved by Duncan Cameron or Thomas G. Amis.

Folder 1950: Records of enslavement:

  • 10 October 1808: list of people enslaved by Sarah Moore McCulloch, including Toney, Betty, Joe, Esther, Abraham, Luch and three young children, George, Sarah, Nancy, Jenny, Jack, Rinah, Bill, Betty Jr., Dick, Cyrus, Sam, Glasgow, Dell, Phillis, Alssey and her 2 children Jenny and July.
  • 15 December 1808: Duncan Cameron in account with Maben & Morrison, including an entry for sides of leather intended for use by enslaved people.
Folder 1951

Accounts, 1809

Records of enslavement:

  • 21 February 1809: Stagville accounts, including an August 1808 entry for Old Edd, who may have been a free Black person or an enslaved person.
Folder 1952

Accounts, 1810

Records of enslavement:

  • 9 November 1810: Statement of debts and effects of Duncan Cameron, including an entry for the valuation of 60 enslaved people.
Folder 1953

Accounts, 1811

Records of enslavement:

  • 22 February 1811: Duncan Cameron in account with Charles Parrish, including entries for boarding of an unidentified boy, who likely was enslaved.
  • 29 July 1811: Statement of property of Duncan Cameron, including an unidentified enslaved girl.
Folder 1954

Accounts, 1812

Records of enslavement:

  • 27 August 1812: Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including an entry for an unnamed enslaved person.
  • 12 September 1812: Account of wheat and cotton sent, including an entry for the percentage of wheat harvested by unidentified enslaved people.
  • 8 October 1812: Duncan Cameron in account with Charles Parrish, including entries for meals and boarding for an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Cameron.
Folder 1955

Accounts, 1813

Records of enslavement:

  • 28 September 1813: Thomas D. Bennehan in account with Charles Parrish, including an entry for meals for an unidentified enslaved person.
  • 26 November 1813: Thomas D. Bennehan in account with James Webb, including entries for medical services for Dilsey, Solomon, and possibly other enslaved people.
  • 28 December 1813: receipt for services rendered by J. Lockhart in the trafficking through hiring out of unidentified people enslaved by Samuel Strudwick. Duncan Cameron served as guardian of Strudwick.
  • 1813 or 1816: estate of William Strudwick in account with Henry Wright, including an entry for boarding and medical care for two unidentified enslaved people.
Folder 1956

Accounts, 1814

Records of enslavement:

  • 8 February 1814: Account of John Nelson, with an entry for expenses related to Dion, who may have been enslaved.
  • 25 May 1814: Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including entries for a medical visit to George and shoes for Luke, both of whom may have been enslave.
  • 19 September 1814: Expenses of Solomon from Sulphur Springs. Solomon may have been an enslaved or free Black person.
Folder 1957

Accounts, 1815

Records of enslavement:

  • January 1815: Invoice to Graham & W. Miller, from James Webb, including entries for an exam, presumably medical, of Elliot, who may have been enslaved.
Oversize Paper OP-133/3

Balance sheet, 24 May 1815

Folder 1958

Accounts, 1816

Records of enslavement:

  • 24 January 1816: Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including a note mentioning an enslaved person who had self-emancipated from Dick Tap by running away. Webb wrote that Luke, an enslaved person who was the carrier of this note, could provide more information. Webb also mentioned a memorandum to Mr. Nash that enumerated the clothes to which Tony, likely an enslaved person, was entitled.
  • 16 February 1816: Statement of stocks, debts, and property belonging to Duncan Cameron, including an entry for the value of 90 unidentified enslaved people.
  • 5 June 1816: Duncan Cameron, guardian of William Anderson, in account with Mary R. Anderson, including entries for expenses related to clothing for unidentified enslaved people.
  • December 1816: Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including an entry for medicine for Dick, an enslaved person.
  • 1816: Statement of Doctor Webb's account, including entries for shoes for Luke and medical services for Dick, Abram, Joshua, Charity, Jerry, Rilla, Silla, John, George, Harriet, Amos, Mary, and Ginger.
  • 1816: Bennehan & Cameron in account with James Webb, including entries for shoes for Luke and John and medical services for John, Dick, Abram, Joshua, Charity, Jerry, Rilla, Silla, Harriet, Amos, and George.
Folder 1959

Accounts, 1817

Records of enslavement:

  • January 1817: Duncan Cameron in account with John Fort, including entries for carpentry and repair work completed by Sammy and Sol, who may have been enslaved.
  • 1 August 1817: Fishdam ford accounts, including entries for medical services for identified and unidentified enslaved people claimed as property by Duncan Cameron and other enslavers. The identified enslaved people included Phill, Milly, Charity, Davy, and Jack at Thomas D. Bennehan's.
  • 8 August 1817: Duncan Cameron in account with John Fort, including entries for carpentry work completed by Sammy and Sol, who likely were enslaved people.
  • 12 August 1817: Duncan Cameron in account with S. Mitchell, including entries for [medical?] visits to unnamed enslaved women.
  • November 1817: Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including entries for medical visits to Joshua and Charity.
  • 25 December 1817: Thomas D. Bennehan and Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including entries for medical services to Joshua, Charity, Jerry, and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • 1817: General charges to cash, including entries for Old Frank, and for medical services for Phil.
Folder 1960-1963

Folder 1960

Folder 1961

Folder 1962

Folder 1963

Accounts, 1818

Folder 1960: Records of enslavement:

  • 7 January 1818: Duncan Cameron in account with John Fort, including entries for carpentry and repair work by "Black Sam," who may have been a free person, and by Sol and Sammy, who may have been enslaved.
  • 30 May 1818: an unidentified account record, including an entry that mentions Frank, who may have been enslaved.

Folder 1961: Records of enslavement:

  • 29 July 1818: Bennehan and Cameron in account with John Green, including entries that mention Frank, who may have been enslaved.
  • 5 October 1818: Duncan Cameron in account with John Fort, including entries for work performed by Solomon and Harry, who may have been enslaved.

Folder 1963: Records of enslavement:

  • 1818: Bill of carpentry and repair work done by John Fort on the barn, including entries for work performed by Solomon, who may have been enslaved.
Folder 1964

Accounts, 1819

Records of enslavement:

  • 5 February 1819: Duncan Cameron in account with John Fort, including entries for carpentry and repair work done by Solomon, Henry, Sam, and [Soney?], who may have been enslaved.
  • 29 July 1819: invoice to Richard Bennehan, including charges for boarding at Lenox Castle of an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Bennehan.
  • 13 August 1819: Mary R. Anderson in account with James Webb, including entries for medicine or medical visits to Jerry, Jim, and July, who were enslave.
  • 25 October 1819: bill of sale for [Della?], Melissa, and Caroline, the daughter of Patt [Maloney?], who were trafficked by John R. [Archer?], Amelia County, Va., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
Folder 1965

Accounts, 1820

Records of enslavement:

  • 1 January 1820: Bennehan & Cameron in account with John Wilkins, including an entry for the trafficking of Jim, an enslaved child, through hiring out during 1817-1819.
  • 17 July 1820: invoice from Young Dortch, including work performed by John, who may have been his son or an enslaved person.
  • 24 October 1820: invoice for Bennehan, including work performed by John, who may have been enslaved.
  • Bennehan & Cameron in account with Johnson and Dugger, including entries for the hire of enslaved people working in tobacco production.
Folder 1966-1967

Folder 1966

Folder 1967

Accounts, 1821

Folder 1966: Records of enslavement:

  • 20 April 1821: Mary R. Anderson in account with James Webb, including entries for medical services for Lucy, John, and Fred, who were enslaved.
  • 22 April 1821: invoice for Duncan Cameron, including work performed by John, who may have been enslaved.
  • 8 June 1821: Duncan Cameron in account with Young Dortch, including entries for work performed by John, who may have been his son or an enslaved person.

Folder 1967: Records of enslavement:

  • November 1821: amounts brought forward, including reference to "runaway" debt at Fish Dam, which may be a reference to enslaved people who self-emancipated.
Folder 1968

Accounts, 1822

Records of enslavement:

  • 7 January 1822: Bennehan & Cameron in account with John Fort, including entries for work performed by Solomon, Hannah, and Jim, who may have been enslaved.
  • 31 December 1822: Duncan Cameron in account with Joseph and William Peace, including an entry mentioning Frank, who may have been enslaved.
Folder 1969-1970

Folder 1969

Folder 1970

Accounts, 1823

Folder 1969: Records of enslavement:

  • 13 January 1823: William Leathers in account with Duncan Cameron, including entries for the trafficking through hiring out of Isbelle and family, who were enslaved; and for the trafficking through sale of Isbelle, Ned, Peter, Grace, and Commodore (bill of sale 9 May 1822).

Folder 1970: Records of enslavement:

  • 5 December 1823: receipt for work performed by Dick, an enslaved person who had been trafficked through hiring out by N. Ragsdale of Raleigh to Duncan Cameron.
  • Circa December 1823: Bennehan & Cameron in account with Duncan Cameron, including entries for cash paid to enslaved people for corn (multiple entries); to Solomon, who may have been enslaved, for sundry work; to laborers at harvest time; to expenses for Jerry, who may have been an enslaved person who had been trafficked through hiring out by John Vanhook; to enslaved people for work performed at the low quarter.
  • 1823: Bennehan & Cameron in account with Duncan Cameron, including entries for cash paid to enslaved people for corn (multiple entries) and for sundry expenses for enslaved people.
  • 1823: account sheet, including entries for cash paid to enslaved people for corn; for expenses for Jerry, who may have been an enslaved person who was trafficked through hiring out by John Vanhook.
Folder 1971-1972

Folder 1971

Folder 1972

Accounts, 1824

Folder 1971: Records of enslavement:

  • 28 February 1824: Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including entries for medical services for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 4 March 1824: list of flour sent down, including mention of Jerry, George, Joe, and others who may have been enslaved.
  • 7 June 1824: an expense bill, including an entry for Jerry and a wagon. Jerry may have been an enslaved person who delivered goods.

Folder 1972: Records of enslavement:

  • 1824: shoemaking by Thomas C. Reavis for Thomas D. Bennehan, including entries for Matthew, Jerry, Ephraim, Albert, Young Phillip, Patsy, Peter, Virgil, and others who were enslaved.
  • 1824: record of money paid for building of a house near Hillsborough, including entries for the trafficking through hiring out of Sam, an enslaved boy, by Eliza Estes, and of Peter, who was enslaved, by Mrs. Cameron, and to Peter for work on the chimney.
Folder 1973-1975

Folder 1973

Folder 1974

Folder 1975

Accounts, 1825

Folder 1973: Records of enslavement:

  • Circa 1825: list of 38 enslaved people who are identified by name and age.
  • 19 February 1825: Thomas D. Bennehan in account with Walter Chissenhall, including entries to deduct the cost of the labor of Nat and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • 16 March 1825: account sheet, including an entry for Billy, an enslaved child and the son of Charlotte, who was claimed as property by Thomas H. Taylor and trafficked through sale to Duncan Cameron.
  • March 1825: Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including entries for medical services for Ned and Tony, who were enslaved.

Folder 1974: Records of enslavement:

  • 22 May 1825: Richard Bennehan in account with David Mitchell, including an entry for supper and breakfast for an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Bennehan.
  • 19 July 1825: Richard Bennehan in account with David Mitchell, including an entry for lodging for an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Bennehan.

Folder 1975: Records of enslavement:

  • 19 September 1825: Richard Bennehan in account with David Mitchell, including an entry for supper and breakfast for an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Bennehan.
  • November 1825: invoice for shoes for Lewis, [Essecks?], Betty, Fanny, Kinsey, Rosetta, Daphney, Sally, Kitt, and Nancy, who were enslaved.
  • 1 December 1825: list of enslaved people and personal property purchased from estate of John A. Cameron by Duncan Cameron, including Levin, Simeon and Sarah.
  • December 1825: list of enslaved people and real and personal property purchased from estate of John A. Cameron by Duncan Cameron, including Levin, [Elcy?], Nancy, Mariah and Julias, Simeon and Sarah.
  • 1825: Richard Bennehan in account with William H. Slaughter, including an entry for boarding of an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Bennehan.
  • 1822-1825: Duncan Cameron in account with various people, including an entry in 1823 for M. Adams and 3 unidentified enslaved people who may have assisted him in a search for an enslaved person who may have self-emancipated by running away.
Folder 1976-1978

Folder 1976

Folder 1977

Folder 1978

Accounts, 1826

Folder 1976: Records of enslavement:

  • 27 January 1826: James Cothran in account with Duncan Cameron, including an entry for seeds furnished to unidentified enslaved people and the plantation.
  • 27 February 1826: Francis Timberlake in account with Duncan Cameron, including an entry for barrels of corn cultivated by unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 1977: Records of enslavement:

  • 20 June 1826: invoice for enclosure of the garden by Harry, an enslaved person who had been trafficked through hiring out by James Brown to Duncan Cameron.
  • 26 June 1826: invoice to Duncan Cameron from William Cameron for overtime for George, an enslaved person who had been trafficked through hiring out by an unnamed person who claimed him as property.
  • 17 July 1826: invoice to Duncan Cameron from William Cameron in Wake County for work performed by Daniel, an enslaved carpenter who had been trafficked through hiring out by Alford Alston.
  • 22 July 1826: invoice to Duncan Cameron from William Cameron in Wake County for work performed by George, an enslaved stone mason who had been trafficked through hiring out by David Brassfield.
  • 10 August 1826: invoice to Duncan Cameron from William Cameron in Wake County for window frames and sashes in the kitchen that were made by Daniel, an enslaved carpenter who had been trafficked through hiring out by Alford Alston.
  • 3 August 1826: list of 38 people identified by name and family unit and by age in some cases, who were enslaved by Duncan Cameron and Thomas D. Bennehan.

Folder 1978: Records of enslavement:

  • 17 October 1826: invoice to Duncan Cameron from William Cameron in Wake County for Daniel, an enslaved carpenter who had been trafficked through hiring out by Alfred Alston. Daniel located timber, glazed it, and then made window frames and sashes.
  • 28 October 1826: invoice to Duncan Cameron from William Cameron in Wake County for Daniel, an enslaved carpenter who had been trafficked through hiring out by Alfred Alston.
  • 15 December 1826: receipt from Duncan Cameron for payment for work performed by Harry, an enslaved person who had been trafficked through hiring out.
  • 16 December 1826: Duncan Cameron in account with Daniel Call, Richmond, including multiple entries for work performed by Daniel, Harry (brick work), and George (field work); for the purchase of James, who was enslaved; and for shoes for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 2 July 1826: Duncan Cameron in account with Thomas J. [Faddis?], including entries for medical services for enslaved people.
  • 26 December 1826: account sheet for Duncan Cameron, including an entry for George, possibly to buy oysters.
Folder 1979-1980

Folder 1979

Folder 1980

Accounts, 1827

Folder 1979: Records of enslavement

  • 6 February 1827: invoice to Duncan Cameron from Samuel Southerland, including entries for work performed by Jim and [?], who were enslaved people who had been trafficked through hiring out by John Wilkins.

Folder 1980: Records of enslavement:

  • 30 April 1827: Mrs. William Cameron and Duncan Cameron in account with Dr. Jesse Isler, including entries for medical services for Washington, Sally, Fanny, and Sucke, who were enslaved.
  • 26 May 1827: Duncan Cameron in account with Dr. J. R. Harrison, including entries for medical services for John and [Lizzy?], who were enslaved children.
  • 28 November 1827: receipt for Stanford and Pompey, who were trafficked through sale on 10 September 1827 by Thomas D. Watts for John Carrington, Orange County, to Thomas D. Bennehan.
Folder 1981

Accounts, 1828

Records of enslavement:

  • 24 November 1828: receipt from Duncan Cameron for payment to James Clancy, the jailor, for expenses related to boarding Daniel, who was enslaved.
  • 1828: invoice to Duncan Cameron from J. Malone for sawing planks, including for flooring for a house for enslaved people.
Folder 1982-1983

Folder 1982

Folder 1983

Accounts, 1829

Folder 1983: Records of enslavement:

  • 20 December 1829: work record submitted to Duncan Cameron, including entries for John, who may have been enslaved.
  • 29 December 1829: invoice to Duncan Cameron from Sarah Bonner, for services she provided to women enslaved by Cameron.
  • Undated: Duncan Cameron note carried to its recipient by Frank, an enslaved person.
  • Undated: Duncan Cameron note carried to its recipient by Daniel, an enslaved person.
  • Undated: list of 33 enslaved people, identified by name and age and grouped by family unit.
Folder 1984

Accounts, 1830

Records of enslavement:

  • Duncan Cameron in account with William Pickett, including entries for work done by Jerry, Luke, and an unnamed child, who may have been enslaved.
  • 13 August 1830: Hugh Cain, administrator to Thomas D. Bennehan, account record, including entries for Mary and Esther, who were enslaved adults, and Henry, who was an enslaved child.
  • 28 September 1830: receipt for payment to James Clancy, the jailor, from Duncan Cameron, for boarding Daniel, who was an enslaved person.
  • 8 November 1830: receipt for payment to John [Beckwith?] from Duncan Cameron for medical services for an unidentified enslaved woman.
  • 1830: list of enslaved people from whom Duncan Cameron and Miss Cameron purchased cotton, including Josephus, Lewis, Ablion, Peter, Ephraim, Edmon, Abner, Anderson, and Thomas.
Folder 1985

Accounts, 1831

Records of enslavement:

  • September 1831: Duncan Cameron in account with James Webb, including an entry for medical services for [Therebee?], ["Old Fill"?], "Old Robin" at W. Cam.
  • 11 November 1831: list of people, including Jerry and John, who may have been enslaved.
  • 2 December 1831: Paul C. Cameron in account with Saul [Child?], including entries for boarding an unidentified enslaved child and adult.
  • 1831: Paul C. Cameron financial record, including an entry for payment for the hiring of Stephen, who may have been trafficked by James Ward or W. Anderson.
Folder 1986

Accounts, 1832

Records of enslavement:

  • 1832: money collected for James Ward, including an entry for the hire of Stephen, an enslaved person. Stephen may have been claimed as property by Margaret Ward, for whom James Ward was guardian.
Folder 1987-1988

Folder 1987

Folder 1988

Accounts, 1833

Folder 1987: Records of enslavement:

  • 30 March 1833: Thomas D. Bennehan in account with Samuel Yarborough, including entries for [Dave?] and [Will?], who were enslaved people trafficked by sale from James Walker; Amy and a child, an enslaved family sold by Reavis & Sons; Harry, an enslaved child sold by Bledsoe & Sons; Esther, an enslaved person who also was trafficked by sale from James Walker; and Harry, an enslaved child who was sold by Hugh Cain.
  • 15 May 1833: receipt for payment from Duncan Cameron for the hiring of Jack, an enslaved person who was trafficked by C. Dewey.
  • 1820s?: Emeline Dortch in account with Duncan Cameron, executor of estate of Mary Woods, including entries for the trafficking of 2 unidentified enslaved people by Young Dortch and McKenzie & William.
  • 12 August 1833: invoice for Duncan Cameron from R. W. Backus (Mrs. D. Backus), including an entry for boarding of 2 unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 16 August 1833: invoice for Duncan Cameron from Robert Dickson, including an entry for boarding of 3 unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 31 August 1833: invoice for Duncan Cameron from White Sulphur Springs, Va., including an entry for boarding of 3 unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.

Folder 1988: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 September 1833: invoice for Duncan Cameron from Erskine Caruthers, Salt Sulphur Springs, including an entry for boarding of 3 unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 7 September 1833: receipt of payment to Erskine Caruthers, Salt Sulphur Springs, from Duncan Cameron for boarding of 3 unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 10 September 1833: receipt of payment to R. W. Backus from Duncan Cameron for boarding of 3 unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 14 December 1833: invoice for Paul C. Cameron from James Millar, for boarding expenses for an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Cameron.
  • 30 December 1833: receipt of payment by Little Woods from Thomas D. Bennehan for hiring out of an unidentified person enslaved by Woods.
  • 1833: Paul C. Cameron in account with James Ward, including entries for the hire of Stephen, who was enslaved by Mary Ward, for whom James Ward was the guardian.
Folder 1989-1990

Folder 1989

Folder 1990

Accounts, 1834

Folder 1989: Records of enslavement:

  • 19 February 1834: Duncan Cameron master account, including entries for shoes and hats for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 14 June 1834: note from Paul C. Cameron to the Bank of Cape Fear at Hillsborough with instructions to pay Henry, who was enslaved by M. W. Burk.
  • June 1834: Paul C. Cameron in account with James Webb, including an entry for jailing [Nat?], who was enslaved.

Folder 1990: Records of enslavement:

  • 31 August 1834: Duncan Cameron in account with William Kirkland & Son, including entries for blankets for unidentified enslaved people.
  • August 1834: receipt for payment for hiring of Sam, an enslaved person who had been trafficked by Eliza Estes to Paul C. Cameron.
  • 2 September 1834: invoice for Thomas D. Bennehan from James Hanly for P.K. Rogers at Sweet Springs, for board for 2 unidentified enslaved people.
Folder 1991-1993

Folder 1991

Folder 1992

Folder 1993

Accounts, 1835

Folder 1992: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 June 1835: List of hogs at Fish Dam kept by David and Jack, who may have been enslaved.
  • 29 July 1835: Paul C. Cameron in account with James Webb, including entries for medical services for Gabriel and Mimi, who may have been enslaved.
  • 1 August 1835: Duncan Cameron in account with James Litchford, including an entry for a suit for Luke, who may have been an enslaved person.
  • 28 August 1835: Paul C. Cameron in account with William Kirkland & Son, including entries for nails for Jerry, who was enslaved.

Folder 1993: Records of enslavement:

  • 6 November 1835: Duncan Cameron in account, including entries for sundries payments and purchase of agricultural goods from Pompy, Nat, Peter, Abner, Jack, Cyrus, Fanny, Dave, Phillip, and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • 24 November 1835: Paul C. Cameron in account with Susan Taylor for work done by Jerry, an enslaved person who had been trafficked through hiring out by Taylor. Jerry worked on the chimney, gutter, and other projects.
Folder 1994-1995

Folder 1994

Folder 1995

Accounts, 1836

Folder 1995: Records of enslavement:

  • 12 May 1836: invoice and receipt for payment by Paul C. Cameron to W. A. Norwood for medical services for Mimi and Nancy who were enslaved, and to other unidentified enslaved people at the plantation in Person County.
  • 25 May 1836: invoice and receipt of payment by Thomas D. Bennehan to W. A. Norwood for medical services for Nelly, an enslaved person. Medicine was sent by Virgil, who also was enslaved.
  • 27 May 1836: invoice and receipt for work performed for Duncan Cameron by W. Carpenter, including an entry for the labor of Abram, who was enslaved.
  • 29 August 1836: receipt for payment for the trafficking through sale of Jim, an enslaved person, from Lindal Southerland to George Laws. Paul C. Cameron facilitated the trafficking in Hillsborough.
  • 13 September 1836: invoice and receipt for payment by Thomas D. Bennehan to Edmund Strudwick for providing medical services for Ephraim, who was enslaved.
  • 10 December 1836: invoice and receipt for payment by Duncan Cameron to W. A. Norwood for medical services for unidentified enslaved people at Person County plantation.
Folder 1996-1998

Folder 1996

Folder 1997

Folder 1998

Accounts, 1837

Folder 1997: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 April 1837: list of deaths of 54 enslaved people beginning 1 April 1837. Enslaved people are identified by name, age at death, location, cause of death, and sometimes family relationships.
  • 27 May 1837: invoice and receipt of payment from Duncan Cameron to Will Peek (Peck?) for corn and oranges grown by John, who may have been enslaved.
  • 20 July 1837: invoice for Duncan Cameron from John B. Lewis for charges at Sweet Springs, including an entry for 8 meals for unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 22 July 1837: invoice for charges to Duncan Cameron from Erskine Caruthers at Salt S Springs, including an entry for boarding 4 unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 28 July 1837: invoice to Paul C. Cameron from E. Strudwick, with entries for medical services for Stephen, Mimi, and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • 28 July 1837: invoice to Paul C. Cameron from James Webb, with entries for medical services for Lucy, Myme, Gabriel, Simeon, and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • 1 August 1837: invoice to Duncan Cameron from Erskine Caruthers for charges for boarding unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.

Folder 1998: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 December 1837: Duncan Cameron in account with F. J. Haywood, including entries for medical services for unidentified enslaved people and Sylla, who may have been enslaved.
Folder 1999-2000

Folder 1999

Folder 2000

Accounts, 1838

Folder 1999: Records of enslavement:

  • 3 January 1838: Duncan Cameron in account with Thomas Hunter, including entries for work performed by Peter, who may have been enslaved.
  • 22 January 1838: Duncan Cameron in account with James Cothran, an overseer, including entries for repair of shoes for unidentified enslaved people by Taylor Hick and medicines for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 21 April 1838: Duncan Cameron in account with William Thompson, including entries for 2 coffins for unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2000: Records of enslavement:

  • 5 June 1838: receipt for delivery of corn by Jerry, who was an enslaved person, from Thomas D. Bennehan to R. Fleming of Twitty Green & Co.
  • 5 June 1838: receipt for delivery of corn by Daniel, who was an enslaved person, from Duncan Cameron to R. Fleming of Twitty Green & Co.
  • 6 July 1838: receipt for delivery of corn by Daniel, who was an enslaved person, from Duncan Cameron to R. Fleming of Twitty Green & Co.
  • 3 August 1838: receipt for delivery of corn by Gabriel, who was an enslaved person, from Paul C. Cameron to R. Flemming of Twitty Green & Co.
Folder 2001-2002

Folder 2001

Folder 2002

Accounts, 1839

Folder 2001: Records of enslavement:

  • 16 March 1839: Duncan Cameron in account with Litchford & Oliver, including an entry for cutting 2 coats for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 7 May 1839: Duncan Cameron in account with Captain Malone, mentioning Jerry, an enslaved person.

Folder 2002: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 October 1839: Duncan Cameron in account with Samuel P. Forsyth and Richard Hobman, including an entry for hauling by Daniel, an enslaved person.
  • 12 December 1839: invoice and receipt of payment from Duncan Cameron to William W. Seymour, including entries for boarding and meals for unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 12 December 1839: invoice and receipt of payment from Duncan Cameron to Angus Stewart, including entries for boarding for unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 14 December 1839: invoice and receipt of payment from Duncan Cameron to M. M. Rice at the Colleton Hotel, including entries for boarding for unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 15 December 1839: invoice and receipt of payment from Duncan Cameron to William [Loumans?] at Coosawhatchie, including entries for boarding for unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 1839: invoice for Duncan Cameron in account with John Malone, including entries for labor of unidentified enslaved people.
Folder 2003-2004

Folder 2003

Folder 2004

Accounts, 1840

Folder 2003: Records of enslavement:

  • 25 February 1840: Duncan Cameron in account with P. A. Smith, including an entry for boarding of 2 unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 4 May 1840: Duncan Cameron in account with Thomas L. [?], including an entry for lotion for an unidentified enslaved person.

Folder 2004: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 June 1840: note from E. G. Mangum to Thomas D. Bennehan, requesting that a blacksmith make irons for confining 2 enslaved people.
  • 25 July 1840: invoice for Duncan Cameron from the Union Hotel, including entries for boarding of an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Cameron.
  • 4 August1840: invoice for Duncan Cameron from the Charlotte Hotel, including entries for boarding of 4 unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 18 October 1840: Duncan Cameron in account with [Thomas?] McBane, including an entry for work done by Dave, an enslaved person.
Folder 2005-2006

Folder 2005

Folder 2006

Accounts, 1841

Folder 2005: Records of enslavement:

  • 14 January 1841: Duncan Cameron in account with James Litchford, including entries for clothes made for John, Luke, and David, who were enslaved.
  • 29 January 1841: invoice to and receipt of payment from Duncan Cameron from T. J. Haywood for medical services for an unidentified enslaved woman.
  • 1 July 1841: list of 405 enslaved people, livestock, and plantation tools claimed as property of Duncan Cameron. Enslaved people are identified by name and approximate age and grouped by plantation. Six enslaved people were identified as having died in the past 12 months.

Folder 2006: Records of enslavement:

  • 30 September 1841: Memorandum of cash paid by Paul C. Cameron for Duncan Cameron, including entries for prison charges in Oxford for Little Joe, who was enslaved.
  • 29 November 1841: invoice to and receipt of payment from Paul C. Cameron from James Leathers, including an entry for the labor of Peter, who was an enslaved person, on Mill Dam on Eno at Buck Shoale.
  • 12 December 1841: Duncan Cameron in account with Margaret Cochran for medical services for Sally, Cherry, Lucy, and Patsy, who were enslaved.
Folder 2007-2008

Folder 2007

Folder 2008

Accounts, 1842

Folder 2008: Records of enslavement:

  • 30 August 1842: invoice to and receipt of payment from Duncan Cameron to Syracuse House for boarding of an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Cameron.
  • 6 September 1842: invoice to and receipt of payment from Duncan Cameron to John Cross in Saratoga Springs for boarding of an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Cameron.
  • 28 October 1842: invoice to and receipt of payment from Thomas D. Bennehan to Will Peck for hiring out of Ned, who was an enslaved person.
  • 8 December 1842: Duncan Cameron in account with John W. Lewis, including entries for medical services for John and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • 1834-1842: list of 48 children identified by name, parents, and birth year, who were born into slavery at Stagville.
  • 1842: list of 37 enslaved people, identified by name and grouped by family unit, to be relocated to Person County.
Folder 2009-2010

Folder 2009

Folder 2010

Accounts, 1843

Folder 2009: Records of enslavement:

  • 15 March 1843: Thomas D. Bennehan in account with James Webb, including entries for providing medical services to an unidentified enslaved person.
  • 17 March 1843: Duncan Cameron in account with Reeder & Louger for work done at St. Mary's Hall in Raleigh, including entries for an unidentified boy who likely was an enslaved person.

Folder 2010: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 July 1843: Paul C. Cameron in account with James Webb, including entries for medical services provided to unidentified enslaved people at Home house, Bobbitt's, and Eno.
  • circa 1843: list of 55 enslaved people identified by name at Snow Hill; there are birth dates for 5 people who were children at the time.
Folder 2011-2012

Folder 2011

Folder 2012

Accounts, 1844

Folder 2011: Records of enslavement:

  • 6 January 1844: Duncan Cameron in account with Thomas Hicks, including entries for medical visits to enslaved people at Bobbitt's and Eno
  • 30 January 1844: Duncan Cameron in account with Margaret Cothran, including entries for midwifery and other medical visits to Sally Scot, Patsey, Phebe, Ritta, Lucy, and Molly, who were enslaved people.
  • 5 March 1844: Paul C. Cameron in account with Margaret Cothran, including entries for midwifery and other medical visits to Grace, "Nutty Jane," Lucy Strephon, Fanny, and Sara, who were enslaved people.

Folder 2012: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 November 1844: list of 28 enslaved people identified by name at Snow Hill; parent names are provided for 2 infants born in the previous year.
  • 2 November 1844: invoice to Paul C. Cameron from George Lewis for removal of 110 enslaved people and livestock, probably to Alabama.
  • November 1844: Memoranda of expenses of relocating enslaved people to the new plantation in Alabama.
  • 1844: Shoe list, including enslaved people identified by name and plantation: 48 people at Home; 33 people at Eno; 35 people at Snow Hill; 29 people at Bobbitt's; 30 people at Brick House; 4 people at Mill; 33 people at Jim Ray's; 28 people at North Fork (Person); and 26 people at Mill Quarter (Person). Individual enslaved people were counted but not identified at Raleigh (24). 398 pairs of shoes were made by Ben, Lewis, Robbin, Streton, and Walter, who were enslaved people.
  • 1844: list of 80 enslaved people identified by name at Snow Hill as of July 1843; 49 enslaved people are listed by name at Brick House; 56 enslaved people are listed by name at Fairntosh; 12 enslaved people are listed by name and age, as well as birthdate for some individuals at Paul C. Cameron's. Births (including parent name(s)) and deaths of enslaved people during 1841-1844 are noted.
  • 1843-1844: list of 63 enslaved people identified by name at Eno; 67 individuals are listed by name at Bobbitt's. Births (including parent name(s)) and deaths of enslaved people in 1843 and 1844 are noted.
  • 1844: list of 43 enslaved people identified by name at North Fork (Person County); 30 enslaved people are identified by name at Paul C. Cameron's; 30 enslaved people are identified by name at McKissicks; 10 enslaved people are identified by name at Person Mill; 27 enslaved people are identified by name at Raleigh. Births (including parent name(s)) and deaths of enslaved people during 1841-1844 are noted.
  • circa 1844: list of 64 enslaved people identified by name at North Fork in Person County; 12 enslaved people are identified by name at Person Mill; 41 enslaved people are identified by name at Bobbitt's; 38 enslaved people are identified by name at Brick House; 48 enslaved people are identified by name at Fairntosh; 9 enslaved people are identified by name and as house servants at Paul C. Cameron's; 50 enslaved people are identified by name at Eno. Births (including parent name(s)) and deaths during 1842-1844 are noted.
Folder 2013-2014

Folder 2013

Folder 2014

Accounts, 1845

Folder 2013: Records of enslavement:

  • 14 January 1845: Duncan Cameron in account with Solomon Taylor, a blacksmith or ironworker who may have been a free Black person.
  • 31 January 1845: Duncan Cameron in account with John Beckwith, including entries for medical services for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 3 February 1845: list of 109 enslaved people identified by name at Green County, Ala., plantation.
  • 4 February 1845: list of 109 enslaved people identified by name at Green County, Ala., plantation; also includes a list of 12 enslaved people at Paul C. Cameron's.
  • 17 February 1845: Duncan Cameron in account with Thomas Hicks, including entries for medical services for Jim at Huntsville and other enslaved people at Bobbitt's, Eno, and Mill plantation.
  • February 1845: disbursements by W. Llewellyn in 1845, including payment for the arrest of Juba, an enslaved person.

Folder 2014: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 July 1845: lists of enslaved people identified by name, and in some cases age, and grouped by plantation: 9 enslaved people at Person Mill; 3 enslaved people at Eno Mill; 46 enslaved people at Person [North?] Plantation; 25 enslaved people at Raleigh; 34 enslaved people at McKissack's; 30 enslaved people at Mill Plantation; 12 enslaved people at Paul C. Cameron's in Orange County; and 9 enslaved people at Paul C. Cameron's in Alabama. There are 3 enslaved people who are listed as deceased under Paul C. Cameron's in Alabama.
  • 1 July 1845: lists of enslaved people identified by name and grouped by plantation: 63 enslaved people at Snow Hill; 50 enslaved people at Fairntosh; 11 enslaved people at Paul C. Cameron's house; 44 enslaved people at Brick House; 47 enslaved people at Eno.
  • 18 July 1845: Paul C. Cameron in account with James H. Ruffin, including an entry for cash paid to Abram, who may have been enslaved.
  • 21 July 1845: receipt for payment to Charles Llewellyn from Paul C. Cameron for apprehending Juba, an enslaved person who had self-emancipated by running away.
  • 13 August 1845: receipt for payment to Charles Llewellyn from A. Rackley and W. H. Cherry for a coffin for an unidentified enslaved person.
  • 30 October 1845: list of 14 enslaved children identified by name and plantation who were born in 1844 and 1845.
  • 1845?: Paul C. Cameron expenses, including an entry for repair of shoes for unidentified enslaved people.
  • undated: Paul C. Cameron in account with Duncan Cameron, relating to slavery expenses.
  • 1845: record of shoemaking by Streton, Robbin, Ben, and Walter, who were enslaved people.
  • 1845: list of enslaved people identified by name and grouped by plantation: 9 enslaved people at Jones's; 11 enslaved people at Peaksville; 20 enslaved people at Fish Dam.
Folder 2015

Accounts, 1846

Records of enslavement:

  • 26 January 1846: Paul C. Cameron in account with William King, including entries for medical services for Joe, Toney, Anaca, and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • February 1846: money paid by Paul Green in connection with the plantation in Greene County, Ala., winter of 1845-1846, including entries for paying taxes on enslaved people claimed as property and expenses for clothing for enslaved people.
  • 1 July 1846: an account of assets by Deveraux, including an estimation that the population of enslaved people had grown by 100 since 1840.
  • 1 November 1846: Plantation property is itemized, including 516 enslaved people claimed as property by the family, with 7 additional enslaved people having died in the previous year.
  • 1 November 1846: List of enslaved people identified by name at Paul C. Cameron's Mill plantation (42), North Point / McKissack's (37); and Raleigh (30). For some enslaved people there is birth and death information and family relationships. A note indicates that as of 1 November 1846 there were 108 enslaved people in Alabama, 258 enslaved people in Orange County, 123 enslaved people in Person County, and 25 enslaved people in Raleigh claimed as property by the Camerons.
  • 10 November 1846: Duncan Cameron in account with Thomas Hicks, including entries for medical services at Home and Bobbitt's, probably for enslaved people.
  • December 1846: receipt for payment to Whitsell & Gamer for clothing for unidentified enslaved people.
  • December 1846: inventory of property at Greene County, Ala., plantation, including 110 unidentified enslaved people claimed as property. There is also a note about the deaths of Simon, [Tork?], and Lucius in 1846, and the births of Alice (of May), Anne (of Lidy), Minerva (of Eliza), Margaret (of Polly), Squire (of Sally), and Billy (of Dilcy).
Folder 2016

Accounts, 1847

Records of enslavement:

  • 1 January 1847: Paul C. Cameron in account with William Ring, including entries for medical services for Martin, [Quack?], Eaton, Toney, Fanny, Prince, Simon, Aggy, Polly, Caroline, Lewis, Polly, Annaka, Tinct, [Ergot?], Milton, and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • 8 March 1847: receipt for payment by Thomas Martin for Paul C. Cameron, related to advertisement of Milton, an enslaved person who had self-emancipated by running away.
  • 8 March 1847: Paul C. Cameron in account with W. F. Wade, a jailor, including entries relating to jail fees for Milton, an enslaved person who had self-emancipated by running away.
  • 15 March 1847: letter from John G. Moon to Charles Llewellyn, indicating that an unidentified enslaved person was delivering goods and money.
  • 16 March 1847: letter from C. H. Richmond to Thomas D. Bennehan, indicating that Tinsley, an enslaved person, was delivering goods to Bennehan.
  • 9 October 1847: Duncan Cameron in account with Thomas Hicks, including entries for medical services provided at Stagville and Brick House.
  • 20 November 1847: letter from Margaret Cothran in Person County to Paul C. Cameron with charges for midwifery visits to enslaved women, including Grace, "Nutty Jane," Lucy (wife of Stephen), Fanny, Sarah, Adeline, Caroline, Ellen, Sally Scot, Patsy, Phebe, Ritta, Molly, Patience, and Nelly.
  • 1847: Paul C. Cameron via Charles Llewellyn in account with Asa Barnes, for expenses related to Milton, an enslaved person who had self-emancipated by running away.
  • 1847: list of enslaved people for J. W. Laws, including 113 people identified by name. There are 2 additional lists that identify by name the enslaved women and the children they gave birth to in 1846 and 1847.
Folder 2017-2018

Folder 2017

Folder 2018

Accounts, 1848

Folder 2017: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 January 1848: Duncan Cameron in account with Thomas Hicks, including entries for medical services for Horrace and to other unidentified enslaved people at Brick House, Bobbitt's, and Eno.
  • 22 March 1848: receipt of payment from Paul C. Cameron to John R. Moore for a consultation with Dr. Ring about an unidentified enslaved woman.
  • 22 March 1848: Paul C. Cameron in account with Green & Ring, including entries for medical services for Priscilla, Delphia, Nelly, Aggy, Mary, Sally, Washington, Davy, Simon, and Eaton.
  • 22 March 1848: Paul C. Cameron in account with John R. Moore, including entries for medical services for unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2018: Records of enslavement:

  • 11 August 1848: invoice to Duncan Cameron from William Friend by A. L. Press for charges at Powell Hotel, including board for an unidentified enslaved person.
  • 28 October 1848: invoice to and receipt of payment from Duncan Cameron to Henry I. Patterson for brick work by 2 people who may have been enslaved.
  • 26 November 1848: Paul C. Cameron in account with Thomas Hicks, including entries for medical services for Peter at Stagville and other unidentified enslaved people at Eno.
Folder 2019-2020

Folder 2019

Folder 2020

Accounts, 1849

Folder 2019: Records of enslavement:

  • 4 January 1849: Paul C. Cameron in account with W. C. Ashe for medical services provided to a boy, who may have been enslaved.
  • 5 January 1849: Paul C. Cameron in account with M. A. Moore, including entries for medical services for Nelson and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • 20 January 1849: Paul C. Cameron in account with Candy & Land's Clothing, including an entry for blankets for enslaved people.

Folder 2020: Records of enslavement:

  • 29 August 1849: invoice to and receipt of payment from Duncan Cameron for charges at White Sulphur Springs, including board for 2 unidentified enslaved people.
  • 11 November 1849: Paul C. Cameron in account with Thomas Hicks, including entries for medical services for Tinesia and other unidentified enslaved people at Stagville.
  • 1848-1849: list of 108 enslaved people who were claimed as property of Paul C. Cameron and placed in the care of James G. Stephenson as overseer. The enslaved people are identified by name and grouped by sex and age.
Folder 2021-2022

Folder 2021

Folder 2022

Accounts, 1850

Folder 2021: Records of enslavement:

  • 4 January 1850: [Duncan or Paul C.] Cameron in account with John H. Parrish, including entries for medical services for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 5 January 1850: Paul C. Cameron in account with M. A. Moore in Greene County, Ala., including medical services for unidentified enslaved people and to Daniel and Ellick, who may have been enslaved.
  • 2 January 1850: list of 124 enslaved people at Greene County, Ala., who are identified by name.
  • 15 May 1850: receipt for payment from Duncan Cameron to F. Heness, Philadelphia, including charges for boarding of the unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Cameron.
  • 22 May 1850: receipt for payment from Duncan Cameron to F. Heness, Philadelphia, including charges for boarding of the unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Cameron.

Folder 2022: Records of enslavement:

  • 3 June 1855: receipt for payment from the Misses Cameron to F. Heness, Philadelphia, including charges for boarding of the unidentified enslaved person who travelled with the Cameron.
  • 5 June 1850: receipt for payment from Duncan Cameron to F. Heness, Philadelphia, including charges for boarding of the unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Cameron.
  • 7 June 1850: payment by Duncan Cameron to the City Hotel in Norfolk, including charges for boarding of 2 unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
  • 8 July 1850: Paul C. Cameron in account with William Cothran, whose wife Margaret Cothran provided midwifery services to Grace, "Nutty Jane," Lucy (Strephan), Fanny, Sarah, Adeline, Caroline, Ellen, Minna, Fillis, Hannah, Keziah, Laura, and Violet, who were enslaved people.
  • 14 October 1850: Paul C. Cameron in account with William Cothran, whose wife Margaret Cothran provided midwifery services to Sally Scott, Patsey, Phebe, Ritta, Lucy, Molly, Liza, Patience, Nelly, Nancy, and Candace, who were enslaved people.
  • November 1850: Paul C. Cameron in account with J. B. G. Roulhac, Raleigh, N.C., including entries for blankets for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 9 December 1850: contract between Paul C. Cameron and Frederick Nash for the trafficking through hiring out of labor, skills, and knowledge of Daniel and Allen, who were enslaved people and claimed as property by Nash.
  • 9 December 1850: Paul C. Cameron in account with Moore & Thorp, including medical services for Jacob, Juba, and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • 23 December 1850: Paul C. Cameron in account with Timothy Thorp, including entries for medical services for Toney, Silla, and Prince.
  • 30 December 1850: list of enslaved people identified by name and age in Greene County, Ala.
Folder 2023

Accounts, 1851

Folder 2024-2025

Folder 2024

Folder 2025

Accounts, 1852

Folder 2024: Records of enslavement:

  • February 1852: list of 39 enslaved people identified by name; children are also identified by age.
  • 19 April 1852: receipt of payment from Paul C. Cameron to Henry Nash for labor, skills, and knowledge of Daniel, an enslaved brick maker.
Folder 2026-2027

Folder 2026

Folder 2027

Accounts, 1853

Folder 2026: Records of enslavement:

  • 7 February 1853: Paul C. Cameron in account with Michael W. Holt, including an entry for medical services for Maria, an enslaved person.
  • 13 May 1853: Margaret B. Cameron in account with Thomas Hicks, including medical services for Mima at Stagville, Peggy at Huntsville, George at Fish Dam; Peggy, Mary, Jones, Ergot, Kinsy, Sam, Gilly, Emelie, Aimee, and other unidentified enslaved people at James quarter, Huntsville, Catharta, Fish Dam, and Peaksville, and to Stanford, who may have been enslaved.

Folder 2027: Records of enslavement:

  • 20 June 1853: Paul C. Cameron in account with Robert Moore, including entries for work on railroads by unidentified enslaved people, a gallon of brandy for unidentified enslaved people, and other expenses related to unidentified enslaved people.
  • 19 July 1853: receipt for items delivered to Ann S. Hillyard from Paul C. Cameron by Ben, an enslaved person.
  • 10 August 1853: Paul C. Cameron in account with Thomas H. Turner, including entries for medical services for Stephen, John, Walter, Billy, Shantius, Sol, Dinah, David, Mathew, Daniel, Nat, Peggy, [Warney?], Ike, Anderson, and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • 22 August 1853: Paul C. Cameron in account with W. E. Strudwick, including entries for medical services for Simon, Betty, Edward, and other unidentified enslaved people.
  • 18 November 1853: note from John C. Shields, Alpha Mills, to Paul C. Cameron, concerning a delivery of goods to Cameron by an unidentified enslaved person claimed as property by Cameron.
  • 5 December 1853: Paul C. Cameron in account with William Cothran for midwifery services provided by his wife Margaret Cothran to Grace, "Nutty Jane," Lucy (Strephen), Fanny, Sarah, Adeline, Caroline, Ellen, Sally, Mima, Hannah, Fillis, Winny, Keziah, and Violet, all of whom were enslaved people.
  • 1853?: note indicating that W. Bobbitt will put Phebe, Zilpa, Nathan, Ezekial, and their families at Peaks; Louisa, Minerva, and Suckey and their families at Jones; Olley, Sam King, Jim Dickinson, Edmund, Dinah and their families at Fish Dam. Gillis and his family are mentioned but not where they would be going.
Folder 2028

Accounts, 1854

Records of enslavement:

  • 10 January 1841: list of property at Greene County, Ala., plantation, including 141 unidentified enslaved people.
  • 1 April 1854: list of 141 enslaved people identified by name at Greene County, Ala. plantation.
  • 17 June 1854: Mildred Cameron in account with J. T. Hicks, including entries for medical services for Eliza and other unidentified enslaved people at Brick House.
  • 17 June 1854: Paul C. Cameron in account with J. T. Hicks, including entries for medical services for Sarah at Home Place; Ned, Stanley, Sarah at Stagville; and Lucy and other unidentified enslaved people at Eno.
  • 6 November 1854: charges on a railroad contract, including entries for cash paid to an unidentified free Black person for 4 barrels of tar; to sundries for hands who likely were enslaved; and to [?] for enslaved people who were sick.
  • 26 December 1854: Paul C. Cameron in account with Timothy Thorp, including entries for medical services for Gustus, Anderson, Tom, and the children of Aggy, Dilcy, Anarchy, and Molly, all of whom were enslaved people.
Folder 2029-2030

Folder 2029

Folder 2030

Accounts, 1855

Folder 2029: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 January 1855: list of 143 enslaved people identified by name at Greene County, Ala., plantation.
  • 9 April 1855: Paul C. Cameron in account with P. B. Ruffin, including entries that mention Durham, Squire, and Davis, who were enslaved people.
  • 11 May 1855: invoice to and payment from Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai to F. Heness in Philadelphia, for charges related to boarding for an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Mordecai.
  • 18 May 1855: invoice to and payment from Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai to F. Heness in Philadelphia, for charges related to boarding for an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Mordecai.
  • 25 May 1855: invoice to and payment from Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai to F. Heness in Philadelphia, for charges related to boarding for an unidentified enslaved person who travelled with Mordecai.

Folder 2030: Records of enslavement:

  • 18 December 1855: list of 182 enslaved people identified by name at Stagville and 38 enslaved people identified by name at Little River.
  • 18 December 1855: list of 67 enslaved people identified by name at Fairntosh and 55 enslaved people identified by name at Eno. A note indicates that Paul C. Cameron claimed 566 enslaved people as property in December 1855.
Folder 2031

Accounts, 1856

Records of enslavement:

  • 1 January 1856: invoice to and payment from Paul C. Cameron to James K. Levect for medical services for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 3 January 1856: inventory of clothing for enslaved people claimed as property by Paul C. Cameron in Greene County, Ala.
  • 3 January 1856: list of 146 enslaved people identified by name at Greene County, Ala. plantation.
  • 1 April 1856: Sam Piper to Paul C. Cameron, including entries for charges for shoes for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 27 September 1856: Paul C. Cameron in account with Thomas Hicks, including entries for medical services for Sarah, and at Stagville and Person County plantations.
  • 28 October 1856: list of 150 enslaved people identified by name at Greene County, Ala. There is also a list of 31 people to be removed.
  • 27 November 1856: Paul C. Cameron in account with Thomas Hicks, including entries for medical services for Sarah and Simeon, and at Stagville and Person County plantations.
  • 1856: Sam Piper to Paul C. Cameron, including entries for charges for shoes for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 1855-1856: supplies ordered by Paul C. Cameron for people enslaved by himself, Mildred C. Cameron, and Thomas A. Cameron, at Stagville, Little River, Fairntosh, Eno, Mill quarter, Jim Rays, Belvin's, Brick House, and Snow Hill.
Folder 2032-2033

Folder 2032

Folder 2033

Accounts, 1857

Folder 2032: Records of enslavement:

  • 5 March 1857: list of 229 enslaved people identified by name at Stagville; list of 120 enslaved people identified by name at Fairntosh.
  • 31 March 1857: Paul C. Cameron in account with John R. Webster, including entries that mention charges for labor of unidentified enslaved people; a blacksmith bill from T. R. Tunstall, who may have been a free Black person; and charges for removal of enslaved people to [?].
  • 7 June 1857: invoice to and receipt of payment from Mildred Cameron by Paul C. Cameron to William Cameron for medical services for enslaved people.

Folder 2033: Records of enslavement:

  • 20 July 1857: Thomas A. Cameron in account with [?], including entries for medical services provided at Snow Hill, probably for enslaved people.
  • 11 November 1856: invoice to George Mordecai from W. W. Holden for painting work at St. Mary's Hall done by Willis, an enslaved person who had been trafficked through hiring out of his labor, skills, and knowledge.
  • 17 November 1857: Thomas A. Cameron in account with Thomas Hicks, including entries for medical services provided at Snow Hill, probably to enslaved people.
Folder 2034-2035

Folder 2034

Folder 2035

Accounts, 1858

Folder 2034: Records of enslavement:

  • 6 January 1858: Mildred C. Cameron in account with William Cameron, including entries for medical services for Julius, Nash, Henry, Anderson, and other unidentified enslaved people at Brick House.
  • 6 January 1858: invoice to and receipt of payment from Thomas A. Cameron by Paul C. Cameron to William Cameron for medical services provided by Dr. Blackwell to Bill Green and Solomon at Person County plantation.
  • February 1858: list of plantation supplies, including clothes and shoes for unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2035: Records of enslavement:

  • 7 December 1858: Thomas A. Cameron in account with A. Kevan & Bro., including entries for blankets, hats, and tools for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 7 December 1858: Mildred C. Cameron in account with A. Kevan & Bro., including entries for blankets, hats, and tools for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 1858: Paul C. Cameron in account with [Thomas Hicks?], including entries for medical services provided at Stagville and Eno, probably to enslaved people.
Folder 2036-2037

Folder 2036

Folder 2037

Accounts, 1859

Folder 2036: Records of enslavement:

  • 16 January 1859: Paul C. Cameron in account with James H. Freeman, including entries for medical services for unidentified enslaved people at the "old" place and the "new" place.
  • 20 January 1859: list of 64 enslaved people identified by name in Tunica County, Miss., who were given blankets and hats; most people do not have surnames but there are a few: Cooper, Hico, Johnston, Loco, Simon, and Sowell.
  • 22 January 1859: list of 83 enslaved people identified by name in Tunica County, Miss.; most people do not have surnames but a few do: Cooper, Hico, Johnston, Loco, Simon, and Sowell.
  • February 1859: Paul C. Cameron in account with Richard Blacknall, including entries for medical services for Anderson, Violet, Baldy, Winey, Bob, Allen, Phebe's child, Candice and her child, Jane, Chany, Rhoda, Bill, Raney, Nelly's child, Hannah, Laura, and other unidentified enslaved people at Mill quarter and Jim Ray's.
  • 7 March 1859: Paul C. Cameron in account with [?], including entries for medical services at Stagville for unidentified enslaved people.
  • 19 March 1859: Thomas A. Cameron in account with William Cameron, including entries for medical services for Violet, Phebe, and other unidentified enslaved people at Snow Hill.
  • 19 March 1859: Mildred C. Cameron in account with William Cameron, including entries for medical services for Sam, Bob, and other unidentified enslaved people at Belvin's, and for Essia, Rosetta, Julius, Maria, Henderson, and other unidentified enslaved people at Brick House.

Folder 2037: Records of enslavement:

  • July 1859: invoice to Thomas Cameron from Richard Blacknall for medical services for Horace and William, who were enslaved children at Snow Hill.
  • July 1859: Paul C. Cameron in account with Richard Blacknall, including entries for medical visits to Streton, Violet, Baldy, Winey and child, Bob, Allen, Phebe's child, Candice and child, Jane, Chaney, Chas, Rhoda, Bill Greene, Rany, Nelly's child, Hannah, Nancy's child, Laura's child, and other unidentified enslaved people at Mill quarter, Eno, and other locations.
  • July 1859: invoice to Thomas Cameron from Richard Blacknall for medical services for Horace and William and for unidentified enslaved children at Snow Hill and Eno.
  • 22 November 1859: Paul C. Cameron in account with E. M. Apperson Co. in Memphis, Tenn., including entries for jail fees for 3 enslaved people.
  • 29 December 1859: Paul C. Cameron in account with G. W. Leatherman, including entries for medical services for Phil, Dorsay, Jim, Thomas, Isaac, Tony, Martha Ann, Morgan, Eveline, Kesia, Cherry, Betsy, and other unidentified enslaved people at Tunica County, Miss.
Oversize Paper OP-133/96

Paul C. Cameron, list of goods and prices, New Orleans, La., 14 January 1859

Folder 2038-2039

Folder 2038

Folder 2039

Accounts, 1860

Folder 2038: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 January 1860: invoice to and receipt of payment from Thomas A. Cameron by Paul C. Cameron to William Cameron for medical services for enslaved people at Snow Hill.
  • 3 January 1860: invoice to and receipt of payment from Mildred C. Cameron by Paul C. Cameron to William Cameron for medical services for Lyd at Fairntosh and Mary at Belvin's.
  • 27 February 1860: Paul C. Cameron in account with O. Mazange & Co., including an entry for "Jim Crow Cards," which were wooden combs with metal teeth that were designed to treat wool before it was spun into yarn, but were given to enslaved people to use as hair combs.
  • 1859: Paul C. Cameron in account with E. M. Apperson & Co., including an entry for cash paid to Lamb for expenses on corn account of enslaved people.

Folder 2039: Records of enslavement:

  • 31 October 1860: receipt for payment from William Hurst to J. W. Rowlite for meal for Hurst and an unidentified enslaved person.
  • 28 December 1860: Paul C. Cameron in account with [?], including entries for medical services for unidentified enslaved people at Stagville, Eno, and Little River.
  • 10 November 1860: account of expenses to move 42 unidentified enslaved people to Mississippi.
  • 28 December 1860: Thomas A. Cameron in account with [?], including entries for medical services for [Emeline?] and other unidentified enslaved people at Snow Hill.
  • 1860: inventory of Paul C. Cameron, including 409 unidentified enslaved people in Orange County.
  • 1860: lists of 95 enslaved people at Belvin's and 75 enslaved people at Brick House who were identified by name and claimed as property by Mildred C. Cameron.
Folder 2040a

Accounts, January 1861-March 1861

Records of enslavement:

  • 6 February 1861: Paul C. Cameron in account with William Cameron, including entries for medical services for Zylphia, Sydney, Sarah, Pattie, Abner, Sally, Ned, Cornelius, Henderson, Jessie, Wilson, Reddin, Charles, Noah, Morgan, Polly, and other unidentified enslaved people at Eno, Snow Hill, and Fairntosh.
  • 1 March 1861: list of 125 enslaved people in Tunica County, Miss., identified by name and claimed as property by Paul C. Cameron.
  • 12 March 1861: list of 120 enslaved people in Greene County, Ala., identified by name and age and claimed as property by Paul C. Cameron.
Folder 2040b

Tunica County, Miss., Plantation, 1856-1861

Chiefly legal documents pertaining to the sale of land and other property in Tunica County, Miss. by Fleming J. McCartney to Samuel Tate of Shelby County, Tenn., and from Tate to Paul C. Cameron, Orange County, N.C.

Records of enslavement:

  • 23 March 1857: list of 39 enslaved people in Tunica County, Miss., identified by name and claimed as property by Paul C. Cameron.
  • 1857: inventory of property proposed to be sold by Sam Tate, including cabins for enslaved people.
  • 1857: will of Fleming J. McCartney, Madison County, Ala., stating that Catherine and her children Reuben, Vizz, and Luvinia, who were an enslaved family, should be sold in order to pay off his debts. He also bequeathed Hiram, who was an enslaved person, to Louisa House.
Folder 2041

Richard Bennehan, undated

Folder 2042

Thomas D. Bennehan, undated

Records of enslavement:

  • undated: invoice to and receipt of payment from Thomas D. Bennehan to Edward Strudwick for medical services for Ben, who was an enslaved person.
Folder 2043

Duncan Cameron, undated

Records of enslavement:

  • undated: invoice to Duncan Cameron from C. Dewey for carpentry labor, skills, and knowledge of Jack, Lorenzo, and Sam, who may have been enslaved people.
  • undated: note carried by Jim, who was an enslaved person, to Mr. Harns, requesting a dozen hams, which were delivered in part by Ben and Nathan, who were also enslaved people.
  • undated: invoice to Duncan Cameron from the Union Hotel for boarding of an unidentified enslaved person travelling with Cameron.
  • undated: Buchanan, Cunnison & Co. in account with Duncan Cameron for Banks & Dickinson, including entries for payments related to management and overseeing of unidentified enslaved people at plantation.
  • undated: [Cothran?] in account with Duncan Cameron, including entries for payments made to Jim and Phillip, who may have been enslaved people.
  • undated: invoice to and receipt of payment from Duncan Cameron to Echols for boarding for unidentified enslaved people who travelled with Cameron.
Folder 2044

Lists of enslaved people, undated

Lists identify enslaved people by name and their enslaver (Duncan Cameron, Paul C. Cameron). Family units are indicated by a horizontal line drawn between names on the list. Locations include Fairntosh, Stagville, Eno, Brick House, Paul C. Cameron's, Bobbitt's, Snow Hill, Snow Hill, Jim Ray's, McKissick's, Jones', Hunt's, Fish Dam, Leathers, Little River, North Quarter, and Mill Quarter.

There are a few lists that are more of a census of the enslaved adult and children age groups and supplies of blankets, hats, etc. distributed to enslaved people; another list appears to be male heads of household and the number of workers in each family unit.

There is a list of enslaved people with their home plantations and who were to be sent South to Alabama and Mississippi. Enslaved people were trafficked from Fairntosh, Snow Hill, Eno, Brick House, Bobbitt's, Eno, Jim Ray's, and McKissack's. Other lists with the names of enslaved people are titled "Alabama," "Left in Mississippi," "Left in Alabama," and "Alabama debt."

There is a list of enslaved people titled "William B. Giles, Esq."

There are two lists of enslaved people titled "Fairntosh" that include occupation information.

Folder 2045

Lists of enslaved people, undated

Lists identify enslaved people by name and often include age information. Family unit and location information is less frequently provided. Family units are indicated by horizontal lines drawn between names on the list. Locations include Fairntosh, Bobbitt's, Paul C. Cameron, Snow Hill, Brick House, McKissack's, Jim Ray's, mill quarter/Mill plantation, North plantation, Fish Dam, and Peaksville.

Folder 2046

April 1861-December 1861

Records of enslavement:

  • 19 December 1861: Paul C. Cameron in account with [?], including entries for medical services for Joe, who was an enslaved person, and for other unidentified enslaved people at Eno and Stagville.
  • 30 December 1861: list of 123 enslaved people, including 24 children, at Tunica County, Miss., identified by name and claimed as property by Paul C. Cameron; note from J. Vick, the overseer who replaced William Lamb, that acknowledges the 123 enslaved people as being in good health, except for Barbary, Washington, and Evaline; Evaline had self-emancipated by running away but reportedly was still in the neighborhood.
  • Paul C. Cameron in account with Cook & Taylor, including entries for medical services for Emeline, Barbary and child, Virgil, Reuben, Lizzie, Dorsey, Green, Gus, Jim, Timothy, Meredith, Charles, Washington, and other unidentified enslaved people at Tunica County, Miss.
Folder 2047

1862

Records of enslavement:

  • 23 October 1862: receipt indicating that cash had been paid to a Black man, who may have been free or enslaved, to go to camp.
  • 1862: Paul C. Cameron in account with Samuel Piper, including entries for Abner, an enslaved person whose labor, skills, and knowledge with iron had been paid for separately.
Folder 2048

1863

Records of enslavement:

  • 29 January 1863: Paul C. Cameron in account with J. H. Cook, including entries for medical services for Robin, Han, Eveline, Tony, Jack, Franny, and Betsy, all of whom were enslaved people at Tunica County plantation.
  • 17 July 1863: Paul C. Cameron in account with E. Strudwick, including entries for medical services for Duncan, Sydney, West, Frank, Mildred, Milly, Ben, Benny, Jim, Jesse, and Nelson, who were enslaved people.
  • 29 July 1863: letter from H. James of Engineering Department at the Cape Fear regarding payment for labor, skills, and knowledge of unidentified enslaved people who had been conscripted to serve the Confederate Army.
Folder 2049

1864

Records of enslavement:

  • January 1864: list of income of Paul C. Cameron, including entries for the trafficking through sale of 2 unidentified enslaved people and hiring out of the labor, skills, and knowledge of unidentified enslaved house servants, a cook, and a gardener.
  • 27 July 1864: Paul C. Cameron in account with E. M. Holt, including entries for medical services for unidentified enslaved people at Home house, Stagville, Eno, and Snow Hill.
  • 31 December 1864: Paul C. Cameron in account with William Cameron, including entries for medical services for Ben, Taylor, Turner, Nathan, Mary's infant, Zylphy's infant, Haywood, Henry Cooper, Wilson, Johnson, Mima, Phill, Daniel, and other unidentified enslaved people.
Folder 2050

January 1865-April 1865

Records of enslavement:

  • 28 February 1865: note from Paul C. Cameron indicating that he owed Thomas A. Cameron for the trafficking through hiring out of [Westy?] to the North Carolina Railroad.
  • 1 March 1865: Paul C. Cameron in account with E. M. Holt, including entries for medical services for Munroe at Mill and to unidentified enslaved people at Home House, Stagville, Eno, and Little River.
  • 29 March 1865: Thomas A. Cameron by Paul C. Cameron in account with E. M. Holt, including entries for medical services for unidentified enslaved people at Snow Hill.
  • 29 March 1865: Mildred C. Cameron by Paul C. Cameron in account with E. M. Holt, including entries for medical services for unidentified enslaved people at Belvin's and Brick House.
Folder 2051

Accounts, May 1865-December 1865

Records of enslavement:

  • 30 August 1865: Paul C. Cameron in account with A. C. Murdock, including entries in January 1864 for supplies for enslaved people.
  • undated: list of 219 formerly enslaved people identified by name. Lines between names may indicate family groupings. Approximately 90 names are marked with an "x.".
Folder 2052

Accounts, 1866

Records of enslavement:

  • 21 December 1866: Paul C. Cameron in account with E. M. Apperson & Co., including an April 1861 entry for charges related to apprehending and jailing an enslaved person who had self-emancipated by running away

Records of Reconstruction:

  • 1 June 1866: account record for payments made to Ovid, Ellen, Ellicia, and Edward, who were freed people.
  • 23 September 1866: account record of payments made to Ovid and Ellen and their children Ellicia, Egbert, and Dilcy. Additional freed people mentioned under credits for shoes and clothing include Abner, Coley, and Easter.
Folder 2053

Accounts, 1867

Records of enslavement:

  • 4 January 1867: Paul C. Cameron in account with William Cameron, including 1865 entries for medical services to Henry, Henry Cooper, Emma, Wilson, Patty, Cynthia, Daniel, Israel, Abe, and Archy.
  • 5 February 1867: Paul C. Cameron in account with William Cameron, including 1864 entries for medical services to Ben, Turner, Taylor, Nathan, Mary's infant, Zilph's baby, Haywood, Wilson, Johnson, Mima, Phill, Daniel, Henry, Henry Cooper, and other unidentified enslaved people at Person County plantation.

Records of Reconstruction:

  • March 1867: Paul C. Cameron in account with Wilson O'Berry, including entries related to corn grown by freed people.
  • 26 November 1867: list of hogs at Snow Hill with Eprhaim and Owen, who were freed people
  • 15 December 1867: account of harvest by Charles Amis, who was a freed person
Folder 2054

Accounts, 1868

Records of Reconstruction:

  • 16 October 1868: account of harvest by Duncan Cain, who was a freed person.
  • 20 October 1868: account of harvest at Fairntosh by Jasper Jones, who was a freed person
  • 28 October 1868: account of harvest by Charles Amis, who was a freed person.
  • 6 November 1868: account of harvest by Cornelius, who was a freed person.
  • 1868: Statement and Settlement between Paul C. Cameron and freed people at Fairntosh
Folder 2055

Accounts, 1869

Folder 2056-2057

Folder 2056

Folder 2057

Accounts, 1870

Folder 2058

Accounts, 1871

Folder 2059

Accounts, 1872

Folder 2060

Accounts, 1873

Folder 2061-2062

Folder 2061

Folder 2062

Accounts, 1874

Folder 2063-2064

Folder 2063

Folder 2064

Accounts, 1875

Folder 2065

Accounts, 1876

Folder 2066

Accounts, 1877

Folder 2067

Accounts, 1878

Folder 2068

Accounts, 1879

Folder 2069-2070

Folder 2069

Folder 2070

Accounts, 1880

Folder 2071-2073

Folder 2071

Folder 2072

Folder 2073

Accounts, 1881

Folder 2074-2075

Folder 2074

Folder 2075

Accounts, 1882

Folder 2076

Accounts, 1883

Folder 2077-2078

Folder 2077

Folder 2078

Accounts, 1884

Folder 2079

Accounts, 1885

Folder 2080

Accounts, 1886

Folder 2081

Accounts, 1887-1889

Folder 2082

Accounts, 1890-1894

Folder 2083

Accounts, 1901-1908

Folder 2084

Accounts, 1909-1942

Folder 2085

Paul C. Cameron

Folder 2086

Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai and Mildred C. Cameron

Folder 2087-2088

Folder 2087

Folder 2088

Miscellaneous

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.2. Deeds and Indentures, 1772-1908 and undated.

About 150 items.

Deeds, indentures, and grants documenting the trafficking of enslaved people and the transfer of Cameron lands. The bulk of these papers represent transactions involving either Richard Bennehan or Duncan Cameron, and sometimes both. Some documents pertaining to transactions involving Thomas D. Bennehan, Paul C. Cameron, and other family members are also included.

Subseries 3.1 Client Files of Duncan Cameron include deeds not involving the Cameron family. Many enslaved people are documented in the client files.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists reviewed this series to uncover more information about the lived experience of enslaved and free Black people. Folders that include materials related to enslaved and free Black people during the antebellum period, the institution of slavery, or freed people after the Civil War are indicated as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction." People were presumed to be enslaved if identified only by a first name or if described with a racial term (but not otherwise identifed as a free person of color) or as "hands."

Folder 2089

Deeds and indentures, 1772-1799

Records of enslavement:

  • 1 September 1789: indenture between William Wilson, Alexandria, Va., and Colin Auld, Alexandria, Va., concerning Pat, Jack, Page and her child Mary, enslaved people who in 1785 were trafficked through sale by William Neilson, formerly of Loudon County, Va., and now of Tennessee, to William Wilson.
Oversize Paper OP-133/101

Indenture, 24 January 1776

Formerly OP-133/4; this number is no longer in use.

Land in Orange County, N.C., sold by Tyree Harris and Mary Ann Harris to Richard Bennehan. In two pieces.

Oversize Paper OP-133/63

Indenture, 1779

Land in Caswell County, N.C., sold to Osborne Jefferys.

Oversize Paper OP-133/100

Indenture, 31 August 1786

Formerly OP-133/5; this number is no longer in use.

Land in Orange County, N.C., sold by James Freeland, sheriff, to Richard Bennehan.

Oversize Paper OP-133/6

Indenture, 27 February 1787

Land in Orange County, N.C., sold by Judith Stag to Richard Bennehan.

Oversize Paper OP-133/66

Indenture, 10 July 1788

Rosanna Baxter.

Oversize Paper OP-133/69

Indenture, 16 January 1795

Walter Alves.

Oversize Paper OP-133/11

Indenture, 28 November 1796

Indenture for land sold by the Trustees of the University of North Carolina to Richard Bennehan.

Oversize Paper OP-133/7

Indenture, 19 January 1798

266 acres of land in Orange County, N.C., sold by Walter Alves and Amelia Alves to Richard Bennehan.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/8

Indenture, 19 January 1798

266 acres of land in Orange County, N.C., sold by Walter Alves and Amelia Alves to Richard Bennehan; second copy.

Oversize Paper OP-133/71

Indenture, March 1799

Land in Orange County, N.C., sold to William Lingo.

Oversize Paper OP-133/9

Grant, 26 November 1799

From the state of North Carolina to Richard Bennehan for 247 acres in Orange County, N.C.

Oversize Paper OP-133/10

Indenture, 28 November 1799

Land in Orange County, N.C., sold by the Trustees of the University of North Carolina to Richard Bennehan.

Folder 2090

Deeds and indentures, 1800-1809

Records of enslavement:

  • 12 February 1807: indenture for Hampton, an enslaved adult, and Cynthia, Charlotte, Betcy, Maria, and infant William, enslaved children who were trafficked through sale of debts from Joseph Ross, Raleigh, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Hillsborough, N.C. Ross previously purchased from John Davis, sheriff of Wake County, N.C.
Oversize Paper OP-133/13

Indenture, 16 April 1801x

Land in Orange County, N.C., sold by Anthony Ricketts to Richard Bennehan.

Oversize Paper OP-133/72

Indenture, 22 December 1801

Land in Orange County, N.C., sold by William Waite, Person County, N.C., to John Tilley Jr., Orange County, N.C.

Oversize Paper OP-133/12

Indenture, 23 December 1801

Land in Orange County, N.C., sold by John Tilley Jr. to Richard Bennehan.

Folder 2091

Deeds and indentures, 1810-1816x

Records of enslavement:

  • 16 April 1810: Deed of trust in which Ed (about 21 years old), and Silvia (about 20 years old) and her child Major (about 3 years old), enslaved people, were sold by James Carrington to Richard Henderson and Samuel Yarborough in payment of debts.
Oversize Paper OP-133/14

Indenture, 19 September 1812

Land sold in Orange County, N.C., by Walter Alves to Richard Bennehan.

Oversize Paper OP-133/15

Indenture, 6 November 1812

Land sold in Orange County, N.C., by Walter Alves to Thomas D. Bennehan.

Folder 2092

Deeds and indentures, 1817-1819

Folder 2093

Deeds and indentures, 1820-1823

Records of enslavement:

  • 10 January 1822: deed of trust in which Isbell, Peter, Grace, Chancy, and Edny, enslaved people, were served as collateral for William Leathers until he repaid debts to Hugh Cain and Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
Oversize Paper OP-133/16

Grant, 15 August 1822

Land in Orange County, N.C., sold by the State of North Carolina to Thomas D. Bennehan, with attached plat.

Folder 2094

Deeds and indentures, 1824-1826

Records of enslavement:

  • 11 May 1825: indenture that established that Tom, Esther, Sam, Robert, and James, people who were enslaved by Daniel Call, would be inherited by his daughter Anne Ruffin Cameron, who was married to Duncan Cameron, and her children after her.
  • 10 December 1830: indenture in which Jenny and her children Mackenzie and William, and Dilcy, an enslaved child, were trafficked from Young Dortch to James Webb as a bond on a debt owed to Duncan Cameron.
Folder 2095

Deeds and indentures, 1830-1833

Folder 2096

Deeds and indentures, 1834-1838

Folder 2097

Deeds and indentures, 1841-1857

Folder 2098

Deeds and indentures, 1866-1869

Records of Reconstruction:

  • 6 August 1865: template for labor contract for freed people, created by Assistant Commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees and Freedmen in Raleigh.
Folder 2099

Deeds and indentures, 1870-1879

Folder 2100

Deeds and indentures, 1881-1888

Folder 2101

Deeds and indentures, 1902-1908 and undated

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/102

Indenture, undated

Land sold, possibly by James Freeland to Richard Bennehan.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.3. Surveys and Land Plats, 1761-1937 and undated.

About 60 items.

Surveys and plats of Cameron lands. The bulk of these surveys and plats were commissioned by either Richard Bennehan or Duncan Cameron and date from 1761 to the 1820s. Later survey maps were commissioned by Paul Cameron or his estate. For other Cameron maps, see Subseries 2.6. For survey books, see Subseries 6.8.

Folder 2102

Surveys and land plats, 1761-1799

Oversize Paper OP-133/17

Map, circa 1792

Downtown Raleigh, "Union Square," with lots 140, 141, 156, and 157 marked "RB." Laminated.

Folder 2103

Surveys and land plats, 1801-1812

Oversize Paper OP-133/18

Survey for Richard Bennehan, 20 March 1804

Folder 2104

Surveys and land plats, 1813-1830

Oversize Paper OP-133/19

"Plot of Survey Walter Alves heirs to Duncan Cameron," 16 January 1821

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/24

Survey map, 26 October 1824

Person County, for Duncan Cameron, hand-drawn by Phillips Moore.

Folder 2105

Surveys and land plats, 1831-1946

Oversize Paper OP-133/75

Map and survey, 1852

White Hall, Arnaudlia, and Lake Place Plantations. Concordia Parish, La. Printed.

Oversize Paper OP-133/76

Map, March 1881

Tract of land lying North of Chapel Hill, N.C. Survey by Professor R.H. Graves. Hand drawn. Enclosure dated 24 February 1883.

Oversize Paper OP-133/77

Map of land east of Chapel Hill, N.C., July 1882

R.H. Graves, Surveyor. Enclosure dated 24 February 1883.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/20

"Map of Honorable Paul C. Cameron's Land on Flat, Eno, and Neuse Rivers in Durham, Wake, and Granville Counties," March 1890

Survey of J.G. McDuffie, white on black.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/21

Map, March 1917

Snowhill Plantation. Survey by Sno. K. Strange.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/22

Map, December 1920

"Proposed Subdivision of Snowhill Plantation - Durham County, N.C." Drawn by Blair and Drane, Inc., Charlotte, N.C.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/23

Map, October 1921

"Subdivisions of Snowhill Plantation, Durham County, N.C. - The Property of the Heirs of Annie R. Collins." Plat and areas by Blair and Drane, Inc.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/25

Map, July 1937

"Showing in Part of Timbered Land, Fairntosh Plantation."

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/26

Map, December 1946

Division line, Fairntosh Farm.

Folder 2106

Surveys and land plats, undated

Oversize Paper OP-133/27

Tract of land between Little River and Flat River, undated

Oversize Paper OP-133/28

Tract of land, undated

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/29

Map, undated

Paul C. Cameron's land on Flat, Eno, and Neuse Rivers in Durham, Wake, and Granville Counties. See also XOP-133/30a-b.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/30A

Map, undated

Map of Honorable Paul C. Cameron's land on Flat, Eno, and Neuse Rivers in Durham, Wake, and Granville Counties. Blueprint. See also XOP-133/29.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/30B

Map, undated

Map of Honorable Paul C. Cameron's land on Flat, Eno, and Neuse Rivers in Durham, Wake, and Granville Counties. Second Copy. See also XOP-133/29.

Oversize Paper OP-133/31

Map, undated

Tracts on Flat and Little Rivers, hand-drawn, laminated.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/32

Plan of sundry tracts of land on Little River, undated

Hand-drawn, laminated.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/33

Land survey, undated

A large area in Durham County, N.C. Tracts marked I-VIII. No legend.

Oversize Paper OP-133/34

Survey, undated

Tract of land belonging to Richard Bennehan on Flat River.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.4. Tax Lists and Receipts, 1770-1941 and undated.

About 250 items.

Tax lists and receipts documenting county, town, city, and federal property taxes paid by various members of the Cameron family over a period of 150 years. The bulk of the material relates to Orange County, N.C., taxes, with some material relating to Hillsborough, N.C., town taxes and Raleigh, N.C., city taxes. There are a few tax lists for federal direct taxes, as well as for "in kind" taxes levied by the Confederacy during the Civil War. Also included are a few receipts and lists documenting taxes paid on Cameron property in Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida.

Of note are the tax lists of people enslaved by Richard Bennehan and Thomas D. Bennehan in Orange County, N.C., from 1770 through the 1830s. These inventories frequently identify the enslaved people by name and age, and sometimes by geographic location and family unit. The tax lists also enumerate land holdings, livestock, and farm equipment. Duncan and Paul C. Cameron's tax records include some detailed lists but primarily consist of receipts documenting only the amount of tax paid.

See Subseries 2.1, 2.6, 2.7, and 2.9 for more information about enslaved people claimed as property by the Camerons.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists reviewed this series to uncover more information about the lived experience of enslaved and free Black people. Folders that include materials related to enslaved and free Black people during the antebellum period, the institution of slavery, or freed people after the Civil War are indicated as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction." People were presumed to be enslaved if identified only by a first name or if described with a racial term (but not otherwise identifed as a free person of color) or as "hands."

Folder 2107

Tax lists (Richard Bennehan), 1770-1789

Enslaved people are identified by name and categorized by age range on some tax lists.

Also included is one tax list, 1786, for the estate of William Johnston in which 12 enslaved people are identified by name and categorized by age range.

Oversize Paper OP-133/104

Tax list (Richard Bennehan), 25 July 1780

Formerly OP-133/88; this number is no longer in use.

Enslaved people are not identified by name on this tax list.

Oversize Paper OP-133/105

Tax list (Richard Bennehan), August 1782

Formerly OP-133/89; this number is no longer in use.

Enslaved people are not identified by name on this tax list.

Folder 2108

Tax lists (Richard Bennehan), 1790-1802

Enslaved people are identified by name and age on tax lists.

Folder 2109

Tax lists (Richard Bennehan, Duncan Cameron), 1803-1809

Orange County, N.C.

Enslaved people are identified by name and age on tax lists.

Folder 2110

Tax lists (Richard Bennehan, Thomas D. Bennehan, Duncan Cameron), 1810-1819

Orange County, N.C.; Wake County, N.C.

Enslaved people are identified by name and age on tax lists.

Folder 2111

Tax lists (Richard Bennehan, Duncan Cameron), 1820-1825

Orange County, N.C.

In 1821, Duncan Cameron claimed 50 enslaved people as taxable property in Orange County; by 1825, he claimed 95 people.

Enslaved people are identified by name and age on tax lists. Enslaved people appear to be listed in groups, possibly by unidentified locations, on tax lists for Duncan Cameron in 1821 and 1825.

Folder 2112

Tax lists (Thomas D. Bennehan, Duncan Cameron), 1826-1829

Orange County, N.C.

Enslaved people are identified by name and age on some tax lists.

People enslaved by Duncan Cameron are sometimes in lists ordered by location (Eno, Home Place, Brick House, Snow Hill).

An 1827 list of people enslaved at Fish Dam identifies matrilineal relationships.

Folder 2113

Tax lists (Thomas D. Bennehan, Duncan Cameron, Paul C. Cameron), 1830-1835

Orange County, N.C.; Person County, N.C.

Enslaved people are identified by name and age on some tax lists.

Enslaved people are grouped by location (Stagville, Little River, Fish Dam) and family in an 1830 tax list for Thomas D. Bennehan. At Stagville, some people are listed under "old shop family" and "kitchen."

Folder 2114

Tax lists (Thomas D. Bennehan, Duncan Cameron, Paul C. Cameron), 1836-1839

Orange County, N.C.; Person County, N.C.

Enslaved people are identified by name and age on some tax lists.

Folder 2115

Tax lists (Thomas D. Bennehan, Duncan Cameron, Paul C. Cameron), 1840-1845

Orange County, N.C.; Person County, N.C.

Enslaved people are identified by name on some tax lists. An 1842 tax list noted locations: Fairntosh, Eno, Brick House, Bobbitt's, Snow Hill, Jim Ray's, Walnut Hill (Person County), Hickory Hill, and "House Servants."

Folder 2116

Tax lists (Duncan Cameron, Paul C. Cameron), 1846-1849

Orange County, N.C.; Person County, N.C.; Greene County, Ala.

Enslaved people are not identified by name on tax lists in this folder.

Folder 2117

Tax lists (Duncan Cameron, Paul C. Cameron), 1850-1859

Orange County, N.C.; Person County, N.C.; Tunica County, Miss.

Enslaved people are not identified by name on tax lists in this folder.

Folder 2118

Tax lists (Duncan Cameron, Paul C. Cameron, Thomas A. Cameron), 1860-1865

Orange County, N.C.; Tunica County, Miss.

Enslaved people are not identified by name on tax lists in this folder.

Folder 2119

Tax lists, 1866-1869

Folder 2120

Tax lists, 1870-1879

Folder 2121

Tax lists, 1880-1899

Folder 2122

Tax lists, 1900-1941

Folder 2123

Tax lists (Thomas D. Bennehan, Duncan Cameron, Mildred C. Cameron, Thomas A. Cameron), Undated

A tax list circa 1834-1840 for Duncan Cameron includes enslaved people who are identified by name.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.5. Promissory Notes and Bonds, 1772-1889.

About 300 items.

Promissory notes and bonds documenting money lent by members of the Cameron family to each other and to overseers, craftsmen, neighbors, friends, and relatives. Also included are notes and bonds documenting loans made to the Cameron family.

Folder 2124

Promissory notes and bonds, 1772-1799

Folder 2125

Promissory notes and bonds, 1800-1803

Folder 2126

Promissory notes and bonds, 1804

Folder 2127

Promissory notes and bonds, 1805

Folder 2128

Promissory notes and bonds, 1806

Folder 2129

Promissory notes and bonds, 1807

Folder 2130

Promissory notes and bonds, 1808

Folder 2131

Promissory notes and bonds, 1809-1810

Folder 2132

Promissory notes and bonds, 1811-1819

Folder 2133

Promissory notes and bonds, 1820

Folder 2134

Promissory notes and bonds, 1821

Folder 2135

Promissory notes and bonds, 1822

Folder 2136

Promissory notes and bonds, 1823

Folder 2137

Promissory notes and bonds, 1824

Folder 2138

Promissory notes and bonds, 1825

Folder 2139

Promissory notes and bonds, 1826

Folder 2140

Promissory notes and bonds, 1827

Folder 2141

Promissory notes and bonds, 1828

Folder 2142

Promissory notes and bonds, 1829-1832

Folder 2143

Promissory notes and bonds, 1833

Folder 2144

Promissory notes and bonds, 1834

Folder 2145

Promissory notes and bonds, 1835-1839

Folder 2146

Promissory notes and bonds, 1840-1849

Folder 2147

Promissory notes and bonds, 1850-1859

Folder 2148

Promissory notes and bonds, 1860-1869

Folder 2149

Promissory notes and bonds, 1870-1879

Folder 2150

Promissory notes and bonds, 1880-1889

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.6. Estate Papers, 1804-1942.

About 450 items.

Arrangement: alphabetical by name.

Receipts, bills, statements, maps, lists of enslaved people, correspondence, and other materials relating to the settlement of the estates of members of the Cameron family. The arrangement of this subseries reflects the arrangement of these papers when they arrived at Wilson Library. The papers pertaining to each estate were in labeled bundles or envelopes. Each set of papers presumably was collected by the family member who was the executor of the estate. The estate papers of Thomas Bennehan and Duncan Cameron are especially complete.

Also included in this subseries are the estate papers of William Johnston, collected by Richard Bennehan who was Johnston's business partner and the executor of his estate.

See Subseries 6.9 for volumes relating to Cameron estates.

See Subseries 2.7 for wills made by members of the Cameron family.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists reviewed this series to uncover more information about the lived experience of enslaved and free Black people. Folders that include materials related to enslaved and free Black people during the antebellum period, the institution of slavery, or freed people after the Civil War are indicated as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction." People were presumed to be enslaved if identified only by a first name or if described with a racial term (but not otherwise identifed as a free person of color) or as "hands."

Folder 2151

Estate papers: Thomas Amis, 1804, 1808, undated

Folder 2152

Estate papers: Daniel Anderson, 1813, 1816

Folder 2153-2156

Folder 2153

Folder 2154

Folder 2155

Folder 2156

Estate papers: Thomas D. Bennehan, 1847-1849

Folder 2153: Records of enslavement:

  • March 1849: Estimate and Exhibit of the Estate of Thomas D. Bennehan: includes 336 enslaved people, and reports that Virgil and Pheribe, an enslaved couple, William and Peggy, who also were enslaved, were emancipated and sent to Liberia in April 1848, per the directives in the will of Thomas D. Bennehan.
  • 3 December 1847: valuation of 336 people enslaved by the estate of Thomas D. Bennehan.
  • 2 April 1849: valuation of 336 people enslaved by the estate of Thomas D. Bennehan.

Folder 2154: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: valuation of 336 people enslaved by the estate of Thomas D. Bennehan.
  • October 1847: assessed value of people enslaved by Thomas D. Bennehan at Stagville, Little River, Jones, Hunt, Peaks, Fish Dam.
  • 16 October 1847: list of enslaved people identified by name and age at Stagville in Orange County.
  • 16 October 1847: list of enslaved people identified by name and age at Little River in Orange County.
  • Undated: list of enslaved people identified by name and age at Jones and Hunt plantations in Wake County.
  • Undated: list of enslaved people identified by name and age at Peak and Fish Dam plantations in Wake County.
  • Undated: list of 101 people identified by name and age who were enslaved by Margaret Cameron.
  • Undated: list of 47 people identified by name and age and affiliation with Brick House, who were enslaved by Mildred Cameron.
  • Undated: list of 101 people identified by name and age who were enslaved by Paul C. Cameron. Some family relationships are identified.
  • Undated: list of 103 people identified by name and age who were enslaved by Thomas Cameron.

Folder 2155: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: Statements of the Allotment of the Estate of Thomas D. Bennehan indicate value of enslaved people inherited by Paul C. Cameron, Margaret B. Cameron, and Mildred C. Cameron.

Folder 2156: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: Devised to P. C. Cameron: includes a line for Ben Umstead, his wife, and 6 sons; devised to M. B. Cameron: includes a line indicated that she inherited 5 enslaved people; devised to M. C. Cameron: includes a line indicated that she inherited 9 enslaved people.
  • Undated: Personal estates: indicates that Thomas D. Bennehan had 336 enslaved people at the time of his death; 22 of them were devised to specific members of his family.
  • 1847: Charges at Union Hotel for Duncan Cameron, including board for 2 unidentified enslaved people who travelled with hi.
Folder 2157

Estate papers: William Bennehan, circa 1807-1812

Folder 2158

Estate papers: Ann Nash Cameron, 1815-1837

Records of enslavement:

  • 8 April 1826: Tom, Esther and her son James, Sam, Robert, Baker, Katy, Jerry, and James Page were enslaved people who were trafficked by deed from Daniel Call, Richmond, Va., to his daughter Anne Ruffin Cameron, Hillsborough, N.C. This indenture from Daniel Call granted trusteeship over land and enslaved people he had deeded to his daughter Anne Ruffin Cameron. Duncan Cameron served as trustee for his sister-in-law Anne Ruffin Cameron.
  • 1 October 1836: Anne Ruffin Cameron's request for transfer of legal trusteeship of her property, both the people enslaved by her and land, from her brother-in-law Duncan Cameron to her son William Cameron and her son-in-law Alexander Kirkland. Anne Ruffin Cameron sought to sell land and move enslaved people for the profit of her children, who were desirous of moving to the Southwest, possibly Mississippi. She received land and enslaved people from a deed from her father Daniel Call, Richmond, Va., 8 April 1826.
Folder 2159

Estate papers: Anne Ruffin Cameron, 1901, 1942

Folder 2160-2166

Folder 2160

Folder 2161

Folder 2162

Folder 2163

Folder 2164

Folder 2165

Folder 2166

Estate papers: Duncan Cameron, 1816-1853

Folder 2160: Records of enslavement:

  • 16 February 1816: Memoranda for Rebecca Cameron, in which Duncan Cameron outlined how he wanted his estate to be distributed if he died. He estimated that he enslaved 90 people, 40 of whom could be selected for trafficking through sale if they were unmanageable or unable to increase through reproduction. He directed that the remaining 50 enslaved people be divided in employment in the house, in raising corn and pork, and in maintenance and repair of the plantation, in addition to raising corn and pork. He also directed that the people he enslaved be withdrawn from Fish Dam plantation. He claimed one-half of Rhody and her children and Davy, who were enslaved at Fish Dam, as his property; Jack, Fife, [Creacy?] and her children, [Nillthy?] and her children, Ben/B.S., Chainey and her children, Polly and her children, were all claimed wholly as his property. Dick and little Ben were bought in partnership; Cameron claimed Dick as his property and Ben was claimed by R.B. & Son. He directed that 1 or 2 enslaved people be given to each of their daughters upon their marriages, and the remainder to be divided among their sons Paul and Thomas.

Folder 2161: Records of enslavement:

  • 13 May 1853: statement by Margaret B. Cameron, that she and her sister Mildred had received the following enslaved people from the estate of Duncan Cameron: Luke, Grace, and their children Milly, Emeline, Molly, and Susan; [Syllan?] and her grandchildren; and Frank, who at that time had self-emancipated by running away, possibly to a northern city; Agnes and Bryant; John and Lizza and their children Virgil, Caroline, Frank (son of Anna deceased?), Henry (son of Sucky deceased).

Folder 2162: Records of enslavement:

  • January 1848-Februray 1849: account record of Duncan Cameron with Thomas Hicks, who made medical visits to Abner, Luke, Edmond, Emelie, Sarah, Ben, John, and Caroline. Visits were to Brick House, Eno, Bobbitt's, Snow Hill.
  • May-November 1849: account record of Duncan Cameron with Thomas Hicks, who made medical visits to Sarah, Nancy, Edmond, and Ned. Visits were to Stagville, Home place, Brick House.

Folder 2163: Records of enslavement:

  • January-November 1850: account record of Duncan Cameron with Thomas Hicks, who made medical visits to Nanny, Sally, Ned, Sarah, and Henry. Visits were made to Bobbitt's, Stagville, Snowhill, Eno, Peaks.
  • January-October 1851: account record of Duncan Cameron with Thomas Hicks, who made medical visits to Rachel, Bill, Ned. Visits were made to Snowhill.
  • January-October 1852: account record of Duncan Cameron with Thomas Hicks, who made medical visits to Cyrus, Ned, and Henderson. Visits were to Belvin's and Eno.

Folder 2164: Records of enslavement:

  • 23 February 1853: account record of Duncan Cameron with Thomas Roe for work performed on green house by Harris, 2 unnamed boys, Soloman, and Nelson and son.
  • 26 September 1853: tax receipt indicating the poll tax paid for 45 enslaved people.
  • 23 April 1853: tax receipt indicating the poll tax paid i Orange County, N.C., for 137 enslaved people.
  • 26 July 1851-23 December 1852: account record of Duncan Cameron with Thomas Hicks, who made medical visits to an unnamed boy and Evaline. Visits were made to Snow Hill, Homeplace, and Belvin's.
  • 1842: account record of Duncan Cameron with William Cothran for midwifery services provided by his wife to Patsy, Ritta, Sally Scott, Lucy, Molly, Liza, Patience, Nelly, Phebe, Nancy, and Candace.

Folder 2165: Records of enslavement:

  • 18 August 1853: contract in which George W. Mordecai and Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai agree to repay debts related to an inheritance, including enslaved people, she received from Thomas D. Bennehan.
  • 1842: Advancements made to Paul C. Cameron whilst in charge of his father's property in Orange and Person counties: includes expenditures related to Polly, Frank, Elisha, Jasper, Phebe, Wilson(?.
  • 1851: Railroad Contract conducted for the joint interest of Duncan Cameron, Margaret B. Cameron, and Paul C. Cameron, including expenses related to medical care for enslaved people and the labor of a free Black person.
  • 15 August 1853: inventory of testator Duncan Cameron, including 414 enslaved people on plantations in Orange and Person counties; 27 or 28 enslaved people living at Cameron's lot in Raleigh; 130 enslaved people in Green County, Miss.; and Ben Umstead and his family of 10 people, who lived in Orange County; and Frank, who had self-emancipated by running away out of state.
  • 4 April 1853: List of 101 enslaved people identified by name and age who were bequeathed to Margaret B. Cameron and to be delivered to A. Bobbitt, an overseer. A note indicates that Milley, Grace and her infant, were specifically devised to Margaret B. Cameron.
  • 4 April 1853: list of 98 enslaved people identified by name and age who were bequeathed to Mildred C. Bennehan and to be delivered to Belvin, an overseer. A note indicates that Emeline, the wife of Pomp, and her children were specifically devised to Mildred C. Cameron.

Folder 2166: Records of enslavement:

  • 24 March 1853: list of 414 people enslaved by the estate of Duncan Cameron, deceased. Enslaved people are identified by name, age, and to whom they were allotted.
  • 5 December 1847: list of 336 people enslaved by the estate of Thomas D. Bennehan, deceased. Enslaved people are identified by name, age, and location (138 enslaved people at Stagville; 44 enslaved people at Little River; 35 enslaved people at Jones plantation; 29 enslaved people at Hunt plantation; 31 enslaved people at Peak plantation; 59 enslaved people at Fish Dam). Sometime kin relationships and family units are indicated. All of the enslaved people at Little River and Stagville were allotted to Paul C. Cameron, except Betsy at Little River who had died, and Sam and Letty at Stagville, who were specifically devised to Margaret B. Cameron.
Folder 2167

Estate papers: Mildred C. Cameron, 1882

Oversize Paper OP-133/35

Estate papers: Inventory of the estate of Mildred C. Cameron by Paul C. Cameron, May 1882

Folder 2168

Estate papers: Paul C. Cameron, 1925-1939

Folder 2169

Estate papers: Thomas A. Cameron, 1870

Folder 2170

Estate papers: Anne Ruffin Collins,1941-1942

Folder 2171

Estate papers: William Johnston, 1785-1786

Records of enslavement:

  • 1786: Account sheet, including charges for clothing and salt for meat for enslaved people, as well as a gift at Christmas. There is also a charge for other supplies for Peter.
  • 1785: Account sheet, including charges for medical care, salt for meat, and clothing for enslaved people, as well as rum given at Christmas and during sickness. There is also a charge for coffee for Milly, for "lying in," and for other supplies for Peter and Sally.
Folder 2172-2173

Folder 2172

Folder 2173

Estate papers: George W. Mordecai, 1854-1874

Folder 2173: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: Statement of Ellen Mordecai's affairs at the time of her marriage, including Lunsford, Pompey, Harriet, Isaac, Ellen, Missouri, and 4 unnamed children, all of whom were enslave.
  • January 1854, January 1855: Memorandum of Property of George W. Mordecai includes mention of Betsy and 2 children, and Moses, an enslaved person who was a house servant.
  • January 1856-January 1857: Memorandum of Property of George W. Mordecai includes mention of Betsy and children Henry and Andrew, and Moses, an enslaved person who was a house servant.
  • January 1858-January 1865: Memorandum of Property of George W. Mordecai includes mention of Betsy and children Henry and Andrew, Moses, an enslaved person who was a house servant, and Matthew, who had been trafficked through purchase from Southerland.
  • 14 November 1856: Bill of sale for Washington, an enslaved person about 24 years old who was trafficked by sale from William Green of Orange County, N.C., to George W. Mordecai, Wake County, N.C. A note on the verso by George W. Mordecai states that Washington was purchased to replace Nathan, a person who was enslaved in trust by Margaret Bain Mordecai. Nathan was trafficked as punishment.
Folder 2174

Estate papers: Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai, circa 1850-1886

Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: Items of Property of Estate of Margaret B. Cameron, including 161 enslaved people from the estate of Thomas D. Bennehan, who labored on plantations in Wake County, N.C.; 30 enslaved people at the lot in Raleigh; 101 enslaved people inherited from the estate of Duncan Cameron; 106 enslaved people at Snow Hill, a property in trust for Thomas A. Cameron.
  • Undated: Items of property of M. B. C., including 161 enslaved people from the estate of Thomas D. Bennehan, who labored on plantations in Wake County, N.C.; 30 enslaved people at the lot in Raleigh; 101 enslaved people inherited from the estate of Duncan Cameron.
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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.7. Wills, 1764-1891.

About 20 items.

Arrangement: alphabetical by name.

Chiefly manuscript copies of wills of members of the Cameron family, and a typescript copy of Paul C. Cameron's will. Also included are wills of more distant relatives, Thomas Amis, Daniel Anderson, and several members of the Ruffin family. The will of Elizabeth Laws who left the enslaved people she claimed as property to Thomas D. Bennehan, is also included in this subseries.

The terms of Thomas D. Bennehan's will and Duncan Cameron's will represent some of the most significant disruptions experienced by the communities of people enslaved by the Bennehan and Cameron families. While family units were preserved, extended kinship networks at and across plantations were broken when people were forcibly moved.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists reviewed this series to uncover more information about the lived experience of enslaved and free Black people. Folders that include materials related to enslaved and free Black people during the antebellum period, the institution of slavery, or freed people after the Civil War are indicated as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction." People were presumed to be enslaved if identified only by a first name or if described with a racial term (but not otherwise identifed as a free person of color) or as "hands."

Folder 2175

Wills: Thomas Amis

Records of enslavement:

  • 28 March 1764: will of Thomas Amis in Northampton County, N.C., in which he bequeathed to his son John Amis his plantation in Halifax County and the enslaved people he claimed as property, including [Gloster?], Sole, Moses, Denah, and Wile. To his son Thomas Amis he bequeathed the enslaved people he claimed as property, including [Peter?], Nan, [Mobe?], Frank, Daniel. To his daughter Mary Amis he bequeathed the enslaved people he claimed as property, including Ned, Esther, Humphrey, Phebe, and Bill.
  • 7 October 1796: will of Thomas Amis in which he lent Grace and her son Henry, enslaved people he claimed as property, to Jesse Rhymes, and requested that Rhymes embrace the opportunity for their liberation when it was allowable by law. He also requested that his executors pay $100 to Grace upon her liberation and grant to Jim, Bray, and Duncan, who also were enslaved by him, clothes of second quality cloth. Grace is identified as being of mixed race.
  • 12 November 1797: will of Thomas Amis in which he lent Grace and her son Henry, enslaved people he claimed as property, to Jesse Rhymes, and requested that Rhymes embrace the opportunity for their liberation when it was allowable by law. He also requested that his executors pay $100 to Grace upon her liberation and grant to Jim, Bray, and Duncan, who also were enslaved by him, clothes of second quality cloth. Grace is identified as being of mixed race.
Folder 2176

Wills: Daniel Anderson

Records of enslavement:

  • 27 January 1818: will of Daniel Anderson in Petersburg, Va. bequeathing the people he enslaved to Mary R. Anderson.
Oversize Paper OP-133/91

Wills: Daniel Anderson, 12 June 1807

Folder 2177

Wills: Richard Bennehan

Folder 2178a

Wills: Thomas D. Bennehan

Records of enslavement:

  • 10 February 1841: will of Thomas D. Bennehan in Orange County, N.C., instructed his nephew Paul C. Cameron to give an annuity of 50 dollars to Charlotte Rice, his formerly enslaved housekeeper at Stagville, and to free and emancipate Virgil and his wife Fereby (Ferebay or Ferreby or Phebe or "Frost"), and her children William ("Toast") and Margaret ("Peggy"), the enslaved family he claimed as property. He also directed Cameron to give 500 dollars to Virgil upon his emancipation. He bequeathed to his brother-in-law Duncan Cameron half of the enslaved people he received from D. John Umstead. Bennehan's will also states that Harriet and Emiline, the daughters of Dicey, who had been enslaved by John Umstead but emancipated by his will, should be freed and emancipated following their wishes.
  • 28 April 1845: will of Thomas D. Bennehan bequeathed to Paul C. Cameron Stagville and Little River Plantation, his mill and seat on the Eno River on the condition that he free and emancipate Virgil and Ferreby (whom William usually called Frost), an enslaved couple, and Virgil's sister Margaret, usually called Peggey. Bennehan willed to his niece Margaret B. Cameron all the land he owned in Wake County and Granville County and the enslaved family, Patsey and Dandridge and their daughters Polley, Cinthia, and Antoynet, as well as Susan the daughter of Davie, who was enslaved by "Mr. Cameron." To his niece Mildred C. Cameron he willed Annie, who was also a daughter of Davie, and the enslaved family of Jemima and her children Mary, Mariah (Maria), Rebecca, Jean, Margaret, and John. To Duncan Cameron he willed the enslaved family of Ben and Mary Umstead and their daughter and six sons, as well as the daughters of Dicey, who was an emancipated woman. His will also directed that the approximately 300 enslaved people not specified in the will be divided in families between Paul C. Cameron, Margaret B. Cameron, and Mildred C. Cameron. His will also bequeathed to Charlotte Rice, his formerly enslaved housekeeper at Stagville, an annuity of $50.
Folder 2178b

Wills: Anne Ruffin Cameron

Records of enslavement:

  • 7 June 1897: will of Anne Ruffin Cameron directed that $250 be given to Annie Davis, Serena Jefferies, Virgil Thompson, and Zack Kirkland, who had been her servants (page 3). .
Folder 2179

Wills: Duncan Cameron

Records of enslavement:

  • 1 March 1851: will of Duncan Cameron in which he bequeathed to his daughters Margaret B. Cameron and Mildred C. Cameron the following enslaved people: the enslaved family of Luke and Grace and their daughters Milly, Emeline, Molly, and Susan; Sylla and her grandchildren Frank, Agnes, and Bryant; John and his wife Lizzie and their children; Virgil, Caroline, and Frank (son of Anna who was deceased); and Henry (son of Sukey who was deceased). He bequeathed to his son Paul C. Cameron the enslaved family of Ben Umstead and his wife and their children. The Umstead family had been previously trafficked from Thomas D. Bennehan to Duncan Cameron. He directed that the enslaved people not already mentioned be divided into four groups, maintaining families as "far as practicable." The four groups of enslaved people were trafficked to Paul C. Cameron and his heirs, Margaret B. Cameron and her heirs, and Mildred C. Cameron and her heirs, and the final group of enslaved people were to be held in trust for Thomas Cameron by Paul C. Cameron, Margaret B. Cameron, and Anne Ruffin Cameron. Upon the death of Thomas Cameron the enslaved people were to be divided between Margaret Cameron and Mildred Cameron.
  • 3 July 1850: will of Duncan Cameron in which he bequeathed to Margaret B. Cameron the enslaved family of Luke and Grace and their children Milly, Emeline, Molly, and Susan; Sylla and her grandchildren Frank, Agnes, Edward, and Bryant; John and Lizza (Lizzie) and their children; Virgil, Caroline, Daisy, Frank (son of Anna (Aggy) who was deceased); and Henry (son of Sukey who was deceased). He also willed to Paul C. Cameron all of the enslaved people who were sent to Green County Ala., and the enslaved people who were bequeathed to him by Thomas D. Bennehan, including Ben Umstead and his wife and all their children.
Folder 2180

Wills: John A. Cameron

Folder 2181-2182

Folder 2181

Folder 2182

Wills: Paul C. Cameron

Folder 2181: Records of enslavement:

  • 28 February, 1890: will of Paul C. Cameron in Orange County in which he directed that Anne (Annie) Davis, the maid and servant of his sister Mildred Cameron; Serena Jefferies, who was the maid and servant of Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai; and Virgil Thompson, their carriage driver, each receive $500 (page 25; see also copy 28).

Folder 2182: records of enslavement:

  • 9 March, 1857: will of Paul C. Cameron named A. C. Jones as the executor of the land and enslaved people he claimed as property.
  • 28 February, 1890 (booklet): will of Paul C. Cameron in Orange County in which he directed that Anne (Annie) Davis, the maid and servant of his sister Mildred Cameron; Serena Jefferies, who was the maid and servant of Margaret B. Cameron Mordecai; and Virgil Thompson, the carriage driver, each receive $500 (page 16).
Folder 2183

Wills: Elizabeth Laws

Records of enslavement:

  • 8 October, 1824: will of Elizabeth Laws in Orange County in which she bequeathed Writ, an enslaved person, to Thomas D. Bennehan in trust for Mary Ferguson. Laws willed the value of Dilcy and her daughter Sillar, an enslaved family she claimed as property, to Elisha Umstead's children. She bequeathed Hannah, an enslaved woman, to James Laws. She also willed the assessed value of Walter, an enslaved person, to Thomas D. Bennehan. The valuations of enslaved people were to be assessed by Samuel Yarbrough, James Leathers, and Robert Hariss. Laws bequeathed [Laurer?] to Frances Laws. .
  • 16 October, 1828: will of Elizabeth Laws in Orange County in which she bequeathed Dilcy and her children Priscilla, Walter, Henderson, and Squire to Thomas D. Bennehan. She also bequeathed Writ and Hannah, whom she claimed as property, to Thomas D. Bennehan in trust for Mary Ferguson. She bequeathed [Laurer?] an enslaved person, to William Laws.
Folder 2184

Wills: Annie M. Ruffin

Folder 2185

Wills: Thomas Ruffin

Records of enslavement:

  • 16 April, 1865: will of Thomas Ruffin of Orange County, N.C., in which he bequeathed Amy, an enslaved person, to his son Peter Brown. He also willed Patty, an enslaved person, to his son-in-law John W. Brodnax, and Peter, an enslaved person, to his son John K.; and the enslaved family of Susan and her child, to his son-in-law Edmund Ruffin.
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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.8. Insurance, 1820-1889.

About 120 items.

Chiefly policies for fire insurance on buildings owned by the Cameron family, with a few statements and advertising cards from various insurance companies. Included are fire insurance policies for Saint Mary's School in Raleigh, N.C. See Series 1 for correspondence dealing with Saint Mary's School. Also see Subseries 2.1 and 5.1 for other material about Saint Mary's School.

Folder 2186

Insurance, 1820-1829

Folder 2187

Insurance, 1830-1839

Folder 2188

Insurance, 1840-1859

Folder 2189

Insurance, 1860-1869

Folder 2190

Insurance, 1870-1875

Folder 2191

Insurance, 1876-1879

Folder 2192

Insurance, 1880-1885

Folder 2193

Insurance, 1886-1889

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.9. Other Family Financial and Legal Papers, 1769-1941.

About 525 items.

Arrangement: alphabetical by type of item, then chronological.

Advertisements, agreements, appointments, appraisals, certifications, Confederate bonds, court papers, licenses, a marriage settlement, memoranda, a presidential pardon, powers of attorney, releases, stock certificates, stockholder lists, and writs.

Advertisements chiefly consist of broadsides advertising the services of Cameron stud horses, including the renowned race horse Sir Archie. Also advertised is the sale of Cameron livestock and the availability of Cameron lands for lease to tenant farmers.

Legal agreements between members of the Cameron family and those with whom they did business include contracts, covenants, leases, and articles of agreement. Of particular note are antebellum agreements to formalize Duncan Cameron's business partnerships, especially with Richard and Thomas D. Bennehan; to traffic enslaved people and transfer land, sometimes in relation to debt repayment; and during Reconstruction to contract with field workers, sharecroppers, and tenant farmers, some of whom were formerly enslaved by Cameron family members. The contracts typically were for a year and dictated terms both financial and behavioural.

Other agreements include Duncan Cameron's contract to write a book summarizing cases decided by the Court of Conference, to be published by Joseph Gales; Paul C. Cameron's agreement with Horner and Graves to rent them land in Hillsborough, N.C., for a high school; and a lease for Saint Mary's School and a heating contract for Saint Mary's.

There are several appraisals and dozens of bills of sale for enslaved people. The bills of sale are for individuals and groups of enslaved people, for adults, children, and sometimes for family units, or partial family units. The pace of human trafficking through purchase of enslaved people, chiefly by Duncan Cameron and Thomas D. Bennehan, was greatest between 1810 and 1830. During the 1820s, there are a few examples of larger groups of people being trafficked between the Camerons and the Bennehans. Most trafficking took place within Orange County, N.C., and to a lesser extent from Amelia County, Va., and Granville and Person counties into Orange County, N.C.

There are similar bill of sale records for livestock. Also included are certifications of horses' pedigrees and of proofs of distilled liquor, and an 1838 document certifying that Duncan Cameron paid off a debt on behalf of "the Episcopal School in Raleigh" (the Episcopal School of North Carolina).

Manuscript copies of official court documents pertaining to court cases or legal actions involving the Camerons are included.

There are a few licenses giving the Camerons permission to distill spirits as well as a license allowing George Mordecai to have two gates across a highway on his land.

The marriage settlement between Margaret B. Cameron and George Mordecai is included, as is Paul C. Cameron's presidential pardon absolving him of his support for the Confederacy.

There are also a number of routine legal documents filed in this subseries: powers of attorney, chiefly granting out of state lawyers power to handle matters concerning Cameron lands; memoranda; releases freeing members of the Cameron family from financial obligations; and writs demanding payment of debt.

Stock and bond certificates and stockholder lists document the family's extensive financial holdings. Included among the stock and bond certificates are Confederate bonds purchased by Paul C. Cameron with Aldert and Bennet Smedes, directors of Saint Mary's School. The bulk of the Cameron's stock holdings was in banks, railroads, and insurance companies. For other stock lists, see Volumes 195-197. For more information about the Camerons involvement in banks and railroads in North Carolina, see Subseries 5.2 and 5.9.

Processing note: in 2023, archivists reviewed this series to uncover more information about the lived experience of enslaved and free Black people. Folders that include materials related to enslaved and free Black people during the antebellum period, the institution of slavery, or freed people after the Civil War are indicated as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction." People were presumed to be enslaved if identified only by a first name or if described with a racial term (but not otherwise identifed as a free person of color) or as "hands."

Folder 2194

Advertisements, 1792-1887

Oversize Paper OP-133/87

Advertisement for the horse, Sir Archie, undated

Oversize Paper OP-133/36

Advertisement by Thomas D. Bennehan for Young Sir Archie, a stud horse, 10 March 1830

Printed.

Oversize Paper OP-133/37

Advertisement by Thomas D. Bennehan for Character, a stud horse, 18 March 1832

Printed.

Oversize Paper OP-133/38

Advertisement by Thomas D. Bennehan, on behalf of John Ray, for Conqueror, a stud horse, 12 March 1833

Printed.

Folder 2195

Agreements, 1775-1810

Records of enslavement:

  • 1 January 1786: overseer contract between Richard Bennehan and Hezekiah Ferrell, who oversaw the forced labor of Carolina, Frank, Arthur, Will, George, Dinah, Phebe, and Sall, who were enslaved by Bennehan at Flatriver plantation.
  • Circa October 1802: agreement between John Peace Jr. and Duncan Cameron to settle debts of John Dickinson of Granville County, N.C. through trafficking of enslaved people through sale, bonds, and land at Tabb Creek. The enslaved people are named in the 30 October 1802 valuation of people and land claimed as property by John Peace Jr.
  • 30 October 1802: valuation of the enslaved people who were trafficked and land that was sold by John Peace Jr. to Richard Bennehan. The enslaved people named are Dick (45 years old), Pormey(27 years), Abram (25 years old), Moses (25 years old), Minny (18 years old) and her children Phasant (2 years old) and Davis (6 months old), Frank (50 years old) the mother of Minny, Lidia (27 years old) and her children Emanuel (9 years old), Philip (7 years old), Rose (4 years old), Ephraim (3 years old), and Roger (2 years old). James Lyne and Charles Eaton determined the value of the enslaved people and land.
  • 1807: agreement between Richard Bennehan, Thomas D. Bennehan, and Duncan Cameron to share expenses and profits related to the forced labor of unidentified enslaved people and the cultivation of land at their collective stores and plantation.
  • 1806: terms set by Duncan Cameron for clothing for the unidentified enslaved people he trafficked by hiring out their labor to R. Eaton.
Folder 2196

Agreements, 1811-1859

Record of enslavement:

  • 9 May 1822: Agreement for the trafficking of Isbel and her children Ned, Peter, Grace, and Commodore, who were enslaved by William Leathers and sold to Duncan Cameron in Orange County, N.C.
Folder 2197

Agreements, 1860-1869

Records of Reconstruction (1865-1877):

  • November 1865: Brick House contract between Mildred C. Cameron and free people formerly enslaved by her, including [Fid Odom?], Henderson Dunagan, Hightower Alfed, Anderson Walker, Lishe Haskins Robert Hart, Phillip Meaks, Moses Ami, Nash Williams, Wellington Haskin.
  • Unsigned contract between Paul C. Cameron and free people formerly enslaved by hi.
  • November 1865: Fairntosh and Eno contract between Paul C. Cameron and free people formerly enslaved by him, including Jasper Jones, William Lang?, Abram Sowel, William Mitchell, Paul Hargis, William Strephan, Daniel Goodle, Math Mitchell, Maudy Sowell, Jordan Haskins, Adam Ray, Henderson Latta, George Sowel, Worten Jordan, Lewis Goodler, Ike Sowel, Hinton Taylor, Len Haskins, Dilly Latta, Massey Sowel.
  • 20 November 1866: Stagville plantation contract between Paul C. Cameron and free people formerly enslaved by him, including Ami, Banks, Campbell, Davis, Dunnagan, Goodloe, Justice, [Kindon?], Meaks, Russell, Salter, Strudwick, Walker, Watso.
  • 1866: Snow Hill plantation contract between Paul C. Cameron and Ephraim Hart, Moses Ray, Daniel Sparkman, Isiah Sparkman, Dave Justice, Memphis Johnston, [Bill Browden?], Wesley Sparkman, Joh Dunnigan, Mires Hart, Owen Thompson, [? Greene]. [Note: names on this document are faint and difficult to decipher.
  • 1867: Snow Hill plantation contract between Paul C. Cameron and Ephram Hart, Moses Ray, Lem Sowell, Wesley Sparkman, David Sparkman, Mires Hart, Owen Thompson, John Dunigan, Austin Dunigan.
  • Orange County Home Place and Little River land above Oxford and Hillsboro Roads contract between Paul C. Cameron and Charles Amis, Jasper Jones, Duncan Cain, Daisy Ray.

Also includes contracts with white farmers who leased land from the Camerons, including Bradshaw, Durham, Green, Franklin, Lashly, Morris, Oberry (Alabama) Straughn, Turrentine, and others.

Folder 2198

Agreements, 1870-1879

Record of Reconstruction (1865-1877)

  • 20 December 1875: Contract between M. B. Mordecai and Wiley Rogers, permitting the latter to cultivate land near Raleigh currently leased to Lewis Powell.

Also includes contracts with white farmers who leased land from the Camerons, including Clemmons/Clements (Blue Hill); Copley, Hall, and Stanley (Snow Hill); Graves and Horner (Barracks); Hines; Lipscomb and Woods; Rodgers (Eno); Tilley (Buffalo Place); and others

Folder 2199

Agreements, 1880-1889

Folder 2200

Appointments, 1845-1848

Folder 2201

Appraisals, 1808-1877

Records of enslavement:

  • 9 November 1860: a valuation of George Smithfield and Little Jack, who were enslaved by Mildred C. Cameron. Their value was assessed by Joseph Woods. A note indicates that Paul C. Cameron intended to take them South and to traffic them by sale to another enslaver.
  • 19 January 1818: a valuation of Mark and Charles, who were enslaved by the estate of Thomas G. Harris in Orange County. Their value was assessed by James Webb at the request of Thomas D. Bennehan.
  • 5 October 1837: a valuation of Pomp and Esther, enslaved people. Their value was assessed by James Satterfield, James Cotham, W. Bumpass, James Satherfield.

Also includes valuations of land and personal property.

Folder 2202

Bills of Sale, 1769-1809

Records of enslavement:

  • 25 January 1769: Bill of sale for Bristoll, an enslaved child, and Fanny, an enslaved adult, who were sold by Richard Lambe of Dinwiddie County, Va., to Richard Bennehan.
  • 1772: Bill of sale for Antigua and Peter, enslaved children, who were sold by Thomas Marshall of Petersburg, Dinwiddie County, Va., to William Johnston and Richard Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 5 July 1777: Bill of sale for Arthur and Phebe, enslaved adults, and Lucy, an enslaved child, who were sold by Ralph Macnair to Richard Bennehan.
  • 30 October 1802: Bill of sale for Dick, Pormey, Abram, and Moses, enslaved adults; Winny, an enslaved adult, and her enslaved children Pleasant and Davis; and Frank, an enslaved woman, all of whom were sold by John Peace of Granville County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Hillsborough, Orange County, N.C.
  • 29 July 1803: Bill of sale for Tom, a 25 year old enslaved person, sold by John Marshall, John Marshall, of Granville County, and Charles Kennon, Wake County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 5 March 1803: Bill of sale for Frank, a 22 year old enslaved person, sold by John Kennon, Wake County, N.C., to Richard Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 24 November 1804: Bill of sale for Hannah and her children Jenny and David (Davy), an enslaved family who were sold at auction by Samuel Turrentine, sheriff of Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron. Hannah and her children were previously enslaved by Robert Bell.
  • 29 March 1805: Bill of sale for Absalom, a 10 year old enslaved child sold by John Carson, Rowan County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C. After Absalom was trafficked to Duncan Cameron he was known as Abner.
Folder 2203

Bills of Sale, 1810-1819

Records of enslavement:

  • 6 October 1810: Bill of sale for Squire, an enslaved person above 19 years old who was sold by Ashby Dunnigan, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 1 December 1810: Bill of sale for Squire, an enslaved person above 19 years old who was sold by Ashby Dunnigan, George Carrington, and John D. Carrington, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 6 October 1810: Bill of sale for Peter, an enslaved person under 35 years old who was sold by William Mangum, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 19 December 1810: Bill of sale for Dick, an enslaved person about 17 or 18 years old who was sold by John Marshall, Orange County, N.C., to Bennehan and Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 15 June 1811: Bill of sale for Rhodey and her 3 children, Sam, Humphrey, and Milley, an enslaved family who was sold by William Bennehan and Duncan Cameron to John Green.
  • 15 June 1811: Bill of sale for Rhodey and her 3 children, Sam, Humphrey, and Milley, an enslaved family who was sold by John Green to Thomas D. Bennehan and Duncan Cameron.
  • 9 March 1812: Bill of sale for [Japp?], an enslaved adult, and Jenny, an enslaved child, who were sold by Ashby Dunnigan, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 17 August 1814: Bill of sale for Peter, an enslaved person about 33 years old, who was sold by Thomas Reavis to Duncan Cameron.
  • 9 December 1817: Bill of sale for Cherry, 23 years old, and her son Green, 2 years old (born 12 September 1815), an enslaved family who were sold by Andrew Gray, Person County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 22 December 1818: Bill of sale for Phillip (coxswain?), Patience, Jenny, Lum, Hannah, Lucy, Anthony, Lizzy, William, Nancy and Henry (children of [Lona or Lara?]); Archer, Rainy, and Henry (weavers), who were enslaved people sold by William B. Giles, Amelia County, Va., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 22 December 1818: Bill of sale for Sally, [?], Patty, and Caroline, who were enslaved people sold by John Archer, Amelia County, Va., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 24 December 1818: Bill of sale for Rosetta, Fanny, and Caroline, who were enslaved people sold by Ann Graham, Amelia County, Va., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • December 2018: Bill of sale for Jim, Milly, Sally, Davy, Harrison, Phillip, Hannah, [Jeremy?], Billy, and others, enslaved people who were sold by Theodrick. B. Banister to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C. Due to fading of the document not all names of enslaved people are discernible. See also 19 March 1830 in folder 2204.
  • 26 October 1819: legal documentation of trafficking of enslaved people through from Frances Tabb, Amelia County, Va., to Theodrick B. Banister, Amelia County, Va., 22 December 1807, to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C., in December 1818. Enslaved people referred to in this document include Jim, Milly, Sally, Davy, Harrison, Phillip, Hannah, [Jeremy?], and Billy. Due to fading of the document not all names of enslaved people are discernible. See also 19 March 1830 in folder 2204.
Folder 2204

Bills of Sale, 1820-1854

Records of enslavement:

  • 7 March 1821: Bill of sale for Dave, about 17 years old, and Mime, about 14 years old, who were enslaved children sold by James Walker, Orange County, N.C. to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 7 July 1822: Bill of sale for Solomon, an enslaved person who was sold by John Fort, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C. Solomon may previously been enslaved by David Justice, Wake County, N.C.
  • 14 July 1810: Bill of sale for Jim, an enslaved person who was under 25 years old and was sold by William Ray Jr., Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C. (item misfiled in this folder).
  • 27 March 1821: Bill of sale for [Farthey?], Fanney, John, and Beckey, an enslaved woman and 3 enslaved children who were sold by James Clark, Person County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 9 May 1822: Bill of sale for Isbel (about 30 years old) and her children, Ned (about 13 years old), Peter (about 11 years old), Grace (about 4 years old), and Commodore (about 2 years old), an enslaved family who was sold by William Leathers, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 13 May 1822: Bill of sale for Mary, Esther, and Harry, enslaved people who were sold from the estate of Hugh Cain, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 9 April 1822: Bill of sale for Mariah, Edward, Simon, Sally, Barbara, Minerva, Elvia, Delphia, Lydia, Peggy, Ephraim, Ray, Bob, Susan, Lucy, Amos, Caroline, Alexander, Nancy, Christiana, Jasper, Becca, Mariah, Anna, Zilpha, Owen, and William, enslaved people who were sold by John Umstead, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 24 November 1823: Bill of sale for Patsy, an 8 year old enslaved child who was sold by John Farrer, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan.
  • 1823: Bill of sale for America, an enslaved person about 40 years old who was sold by William Harris to Duncan Cameron.
  • 19 March 1824: Bill of sale for Margaret, a 16 year old enslaved child who was sold by James Webb to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 15 April 1824: Bill of sale for Grace and her children Daniel, Milton, John, and Milly, an enslaved family sold by Joseph Wood, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 15 April 1824: Valuation of Grace and her children Daniel, Milton, John, and Milly, given by James Leathers, Yarborough, and Hugh Cain.
  • 2 October 1824: Bill of sale for Little Amy, an enslaved person about 20 years old, who was sold by Thomas C. Reavis to Samuel Yarborough.
  • 10 August 1824: Bill of sale for Betty, an 8 or 9 year old enslaved child who was sold at auction at the Stagville store on 15 May 1824 by James Gooch for John Farrar, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 31 August 1824: Bill of sale for Daniel, an enslaved person about 27 years old who was sold by John J. Carrington, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 25 October 1824: Bill of sale for Jincy (or Jessy) and her child Milindid (or Malinda), an enslaved family sold in Hillsborough by Thomas D. Watts, sheriff of Orange County, N.C., for John Taylor, to Richard Younger.
  • 23 November 1824: Bill of sale for Jessy (or Jincy) and her child Malinda (or Milindid), an enslaved family who were sold by Richard Younger to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 28 December 1825: Bill of sale for Fanny, about 19 years old, and her child Ailsy, about 18 months old, an enslaved family who were sold by James Ray, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 19 September 1825: Bill of sale for Judy, about 19 years old, and her child Matthew, about 18 months old, an enslaved family who were sold by James Ray, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 23 May 1825: Bill of sale for Nelson, an enslaved child sold by John T. Clement, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 3 August 1826: Bill of sale for Donald, Isham, Peter, Nelson, Peggy, Nancy, Dinah, Meg, Cherry, Patsy, William (child of Meg?), and Phip (infant child of Nancy), enslaved people who were sold by Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 21 March 1826: Bill of sale for Sepio, an enslaved person sold by James Ray and Alsay Dunnagan, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 9 March 1826: Bill of sale for Elcy, Nanny, Leven, Maria, Julius, Simeon, Sarah, enslaved people who were sold from the estate of John A. Cameron by William Cameron and John M. Dobbin, Cumberland County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 3 August 1826: Bill of sale for Elsy, Molly, Liza and Alfred, Bett, Kitty, Nat, Tempa, Polly, Nancy, Mark, and Edy; Jack, Dudley, Gilly, Lette, Anthony, Reddia, and David (children of Cressie, who was deceased); and Jack and Peter (children of Ninny, who was deceased), all of whom were enslaved adults and children sold by Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 23 November 1828: Bill of sale for Judy, about 19 years old, and her child Matthew, about 2 years old, an enslaved family who were sold by James Ray, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 4 November 1828: Bill of sale for Alfred (about 10 years old) and Isaac (about 8 years old), enslaved children who were sold by George A. Connally, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 21 October 1828: Receipt for partial payment for sale of Aggy, an enslaved person who was sold by Nancy Laws, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 9 October 1828: Bill of sale for Aggy (about 30 years old), an enslaved person who was sold by Nancy Laws, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 26 July 1828: Bill of sale for York, Fanny, and their children Monroe, Horton, Mary, and Zachariah, an enslaved family sold by Thomas Brownrig, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 25 May 1829: Bill of sale for Cynthia, Dandridge, Frank, John, Mills, Mary, Dilcy, William, Margaret, Ferebee, Ben, Elsy, Henderson, and Annica, who were enslaved people sold from the estate of John Umstead by James Webb and C. H. Campbell, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 22 January 1829: Bill of sale for Philip, an enslaved child who was sold by Paul Carrington for Thomas Mitchell, Caswell County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 15 January 1829: Bill of sale for Amy and her son Abner, an enslaved family who were sold by Samuel Yarborough, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C. Amy and Abner were previously enslaved by William Laws, deceased, then willed to his daughter Ailsey Laws (married to Thomas C. Reavis) after the death of Frances Law.
  • 19 March 1830: legal document tracing the trafficking of Jim, Milly, Sally, Phill, [Lona or Lara?], Peggy, Phillip, Robin, Davy, Harrison, Phillis, Wily, Tabby, Larisa, Jacob, Hannah, [Jenny or Jerry?], Billy, and Rowland, enslaved people who were sold by Frances Tabb, Amelia County, Va., to Theodrick B. Banister, Orange County, N.C., and then to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C. Gillis, [Susannah?], [Nancy?], Flora, Will, Jack, Tom, Davy, [Cay?], Jack, [Mary?], Liddy, Favorite, and [Mary or Nancy?] are also mentioned as enslaved people who were trafficked, possibly to William Barksdaleby way of Duncan Cameron in December 1819.
  • 4 April 1831: Bill of sale for Henry, an enslaved child about 13 years old who was sold by Samuel Yarborough, Person County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan. Henry was previously enslaved by Frances Laws.
  • 12 September 1832: Bill of sale for Violet, Moreau, Betty, Cornelius, Emeline, Amy, Peggy, Ovid, Robin, and Phoeba, enslaved people who were sold from the estate of John Umstead by James Webb, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • January 1834: Legal document in which Dilcy and her children Silla (also called Priscilla), Walter, Henderson, Squire, [Mary?], and William, an enslaved family, were trafficked through the will of Elizabeth Laws by James Leathers and Fielding Leathers, Orange County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C. Other people named include Mary Ferguson and William Laws.
  • 24 December 1834: Bill of transfer of ownership for Gabriel, Mina, Simeon, and Sarah, who were enslaved people in Orange County; Philip and Jenny and their children Randall, Jim, Ellen, Nancy, and Phill; Patience and her children Tom and Henry; Phillis and her children Anthony, Davy, Robin, Bently, and Frank; Simon, Lizza, and their children Washington, Monroe, Jim, and John; Patt, [?]; Adeline and Mary; [Rowland?] and Caroline; Sally Foster, Melissa and her children Martin and [Lina?]; William and Mary and their children [Dosia?] and [Lona or Lara?]; Absalom and Dick, now at the Mill Quarter Plantation in Person County. Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C., trafficked these enslaved people to Paul C. Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 5 March 1835: Bill of sale for Strephon, Nelly, Lucy, William, Demps, Stanly, [Erndy?], and [Len?], who were an enslaved family sold by William Robard, Granville County, N.C., to Paul C. Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
  • 21 December 1854: Bill of sale for Essex, an enslaved person sold at public auction by Thomas B. Lyon as guardian for Isaac Adams, Granville County, N.C., to Mildred C. Cameron, Wake County, N.C.
  • Undated: Bill of sale for Molly, an enslaved person sold from the estate of Mark Veazey by William Veazey, Granville County, N.C., to Thomas D. Bennehan, Orange County, N.C.
  • 5 April 1824: Bill of sale for Isaac, an enslaved person sold by John Buford and Abner Buford, Orange County, N.C., to Duncan Cameron, Orange County, N.C.
Folder 2205

Certifications, 1792-1872

Folder 2206

Confederate Bonds, 1864

Folder 2207

Licenses, 1815-1870

Folder 2208

Marriage settlement of Margaret B. Cameron and George W. Mordecai, 1853

Folder 2209

Memoranda, 1783-1861

Includes an investment proposal for a superphosphate factory in eastern North Carolina.

Records of enslavement:

  • undated: Memoranda for George Anderson mentions Joe, an enslaved person who was directed to work in the garden.
  • 6 August 1803: will of Martha Strudwick, in which she emancipated an enslaved woman [Old Silla?] and her children.
  • 16 October 1815: legal case describing work of enslaved people upon a glebe, a piece of land for a minister's benefit, that had been giving to John Cameron in the parish of Cumberland in Virginia.
  • 11 February 1829: bill of sale for George, Aggy and their children Jim, Squire, Letty, Port(?), and Nancy, an enslaved family who were trafficked from Lawrence [V?] to Duncan Cameron because of debt. [This item is missing as of July 2023.]
Folder 2210

Miscellaneous, 1785-1869

Records of enslavement:

  • 16 April 1785: Notice concerning Jenny and her children Jack and Violent, an enslaved family who were sold at public auction by Hall ad Hammond to James Cochran at Charleston, S.C.
  • Undated: deposition concerning purported damage to plantations near the upper mill that was built in 1835 by Duncan Cameron; mentions that enslaved people built a ford, possibly near to Eno plantation of Mrs. Whit.
Folder 2211

Miscellaneous, 1870-1921

Folder 2212

Petition for Presidential Pardon, 1865-1866

Oversize Paper OP-133/39

Presidential pardon by Andrew Johnson of Paul C. Cameron for taking part in the Civil War, 28 September 1865

Folder 2213

Powers of Attorney, 1826-1941

Folder 2214

Releases, 1828-1883

Folder 2215

Stock Certificates, 1838-1895

Folder 2216

Stockholder Lists, 1819-1889

Folder 2217

Writs, 1804-1816, 1818-1889

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 3. Duncan Cameron's Legal Papers, 1797-1837 and undated.

About 2,500 items.

Case and client files, dockets, correspondence, and forms documenting Duncan Cameron's legal practice. Enslaved people who were claimed as property are documented in Series 3.1 Client Files, where they are most often mentioned in cases of contested property.

See Series 1 for correspondence from clients.

See Subseries 6.10 for other documentation of Duncan Cameron's legal practice.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 3.1. Client Files, 1797-1830s.

About 2,000 items.

Arrangement: alphabetical by client.

Deeds, depositions, case notes, statements, receipts, and other legal papers which do not pertain to members of the Cameron family. The bulk of this material was generated by Duncan Cameron in his law practice and concerns services rendered to clients. Many enslaved people are documented in this subseries. Some material may relate to cases Cameron heard as a Superior Court judge. Other items may have come into the family's possession in the course of land transactions.

Duncan Cameron's legal work on behalf of clients represented in these papers includes debt collection, drawing up legal documents such as wills and deeds, administering and settling estates, and representing clients in court. Cameron collected debts for North Carolina and Virginia merchants. Materials relating to Watson and Ebenezer Stott Company, Gracie Anderson Company, and Buchanan Dunlop Company are particularly numerous.

Many of Cameron's friends, neighbors, and employees also turned to him for legal aid, including Joseph Gales, Bishop John Ravenscroft, Young Dortch, Richard Henderson, Walter Alves and many others. The settlement of the estate of Absolum Tatum, a Tennessee resident, is the most completely documented of Duncan Cameron's accounts in this subseries. Cameron worked on the account with two other North Carolina lawyers, Abram Maury and Samuel Goodwin.

For letters from clients and other lawyers, as well as for occasional manuscript copies of Duncan Cameron's outgoing correspondence relating to his legal business, see Series 1.

For documentation of fees paid Cameron, see Subseries 2.1.

For volumes relating to Duncan Cameron's legal practice, see Series 6.

Processing notes:

The arrangement of this subseries and the appellation "client files" are artificial and were imposed during processing. Papers are filed under the name of the person or company with which the documents are primarily concerned, i.e. the "client". There are exceptions: when the papers pertain to a court case, the documents are filed under the defendant's name. When a document mentions two parties, as with a deed, the document is filed under the first party's name.

In 2023, archivists reviewed this series to uncover more information about the lived experience of enslaved and free Black people. Folders that include materials related to enslaved and free Black people during the antebellum period, the institution of slavery, or freed people after the Civil War are indicated as "Records of enslavement" or "Records of Reconstruction." People were presumed to be enslaved if identified only by a first name or if described with a racial term (but not otherwise identifed as a free person of color) or as "hands."

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Client files: A

Folder 2222: Records of enslavement:

  • May 1815: Gideon Alexander and Malachi Jackson, concerning the sale of unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2226: Records of enslavement:

  • April [1815?]: Adm. James Allen vs. Alexander Pedan in New Hanover County, N.C., concerning the emancipation of Jane(?) and Bella, who were identified as the mixed race children of an unidentified enslaved woman claimed as property by James Allen.

Folder 2227: Records of enslavement:

  • May 1797: Indenture between Nathaniel Allen and Samuel Dickinson in Edenton, N.C., about the property of the Lake Company(?) of Nathaniel Allen purchased by Samuel Dickinson, including the unidentified enslaved people totaling 32 men, 31 women, and 21 boys and girls. Also mentions the trafficking of Penn, John, Patience, and Bett, all of whom were enslaved. Improvements discussed were to be completed through the trafficked labor of Hardy, [Tow?], Tom, Jim, Ross, Pegg, Nancy, Mourning, Jenny, and Rose, all of whom were enslaved.

Folder 2245: Records of enslavement:

  • 17 February 1801: A memorandum between John Randolph Archer of Petersburg, Va., and Frances Cook Tabb of Amelia County, Va., concerning about 35 identified enslaved people.

Folder 2247: Records of enslavement:

  • 1845: Margaret Armstrong and Thomas Simonton in Iredell County, N.C., executors concerning the trafficking of the enslaved family of Aggy and her children Hannah, Isaac, and Lucinda.

Folder 2248: Records of enslavement:

  • 10 June 1806: Inventory of Silas W. Arnett, including Meriba, an approximately 40 year old enslaved woman he claimed as property.
Oversize Paper OP-133/70

Client files: A, 20 December 1796

Indenture between Lodwick Alford and David Malone.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/73

Client files: A, 18 September 1812

Indenture between Walter and Amelia Alves and Richard Henderson, 5075 acres in Orange County, N.C. Encapsulated.

Extra Oversize Paper XOP-133/74

Client files: A, 18 September 1812

Indenture between Walter Alves and Richard Henderson, 5075 acres in Orange County, N.C. Second copy. Encapsulated.

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Client files: B

Folder 2269: Records of enslavement:

  • 14 September 1805: A deed between Thomas Barnett and Joseph Barnett concerning unidentified enslaved people claimed as property. (Damage in the section concerning enslaved people.)

Folder 2271: Records of enslavement:

  • 21 December 1806: An agreement between Theodorias Barrister of Petersburg, Va. and Frances Tabb, of Amelia County, Va. concerning the trafficking of about 55 identified enslaved people claimed as property.

Folder 2275: Records of enslavement:

  • 6 April 1784: Document concerning Sam, an enslaved man claimed as property by James Belches. Sam self-emancipated by running away from Cabin Point in Surry county, Va., in 1780 and later was found in New Bern, N.C., in the possession of John Smith.

Folder 2276: Records of enslavement:

  • 19 July 1807: A will of John Craven of Wake County, N.C., in which he requested that his executors emancipate the enslaved people he claimed as property, [Priscilla?]; Hannah, the daughter of Cherry; and Dilcy, daughter of Hannah. He also willed land to James Turner, Nathaniel Macon, and John Hall in trust for Hannah and Dilcy. He willed to his sister Margaret Craven about 20 identified enslaved people he claimed as property. To Elizabeth Haywood he willed Francis, an enslaved man he claimed as property. He willed in trust to James Turner, Nathaniel Macon(?), and John Hall about 30 identified slaves to be emancipated. After the death of his sister Margaret Craven he willed the plantation to the enslaved people previously identified.
  • Undated: A list of 39 identified enslaved people claimed as property by John Craven of Wake County, N.C.

Folder 2280: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 August 1805: A complaint filed concerning the ownership of unidentified enslaved people claimed as property by Robert Bell/Thomas Bell in Hillsborough, N.C.

Folder 2281: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 January 1804: A response to a bill of complaint in which John Bellamy of Halifax District, N.C. lent Beth, Lucy, Jane, Hannah, Sarah, Beck, Jim, Dave, and Tom, who were enslaved people he claimed as property, to his wife Sally Bellamy.

Folder 2288: Records of enslavement:

  • 21 October 1790: A will of Jesse Benton of Orange County, N.C., in which he bequeathed Jack, Milly, and Rose, who were enslaved people he claimed as property, to his wife Nancy Benton. He willed the rest of the enslaved people he claimed as property to his children.

Folder 2292: Records of enslavement:

  • 10 April 1806: A will of Samuel Benton of Granville County, N.C., in which he bequeathed Sambo, Gabriel, and Sarah, the enslaved people he claimed as property, to his wife Frances Benton. He also willed Linda, a young enslaved child, to his daughter Penny. Benton expresses his desire for the purchase of another young enslaved child to be the property of his daughter Patty.

Folder 2294: Records of enslavement:

  • 31 January 1806: Berry vs. McCallister, concerning the work on a rice machine located on Callea Belville, conducted by 65 unidentified enslaved people as well as the hire of more enslaved people.

Folder 2299: Records of enslavement:

  • April 1815: Bishop Moses vs. David Coffield in Halifax County, N.C., concerning the ownership of unidentified enslaved people mentioned in a writ by the plaintiff, excluding Phillip, an enslaved perso who had died since the writing of the writ.

Folder 2312: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: Thomas Booth vs. E. B. Holeway, concerning the trafficking of Ede and her three children (Cayill, Delilah, and an unidentified child), who were an enslaved family claimed as property.

Folder 2326: Records of enslavement:

  • 14 May 1804: An inventory of William Binkley in Halifax County, N.C., including 3 unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2330: Records of enslavement:

  • 18 March 1810: A will of Thomas Brooks of Hillsborough, N.C., in which he bequeathed Milly, her child, and her future children, who were the enslaved people he claimed as property, to his son Andrew Brooks. He willed Nancy and her child Elsy, who were enslaved people he claimed as property, to his son William Brooks. He willed Bill, who was an enslaved child, to his daughter Susannah Jack. To his grandson James Brooks, he willed John, an enslaved child,to be trafficked through hiring out. He requested that the enslaved woman, Pegg, be trafficked through sale. He willed that Julia, an enslaved person, be trafficked through sale after the death of his wife Elizabeth Brooks.

Folder 2342: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: A list of property taken by Alexander Tate, deputy marshal for the district of North Carolina, from Richard Simpson, to satisfy an execution issued in favor of Buchannan Dunlop, including Sam, Jack, Peter, London, Daniel, Mall, Rachel, Jenny, Helia, Hannibal, Isaac, and Chinia, all of whom were enslaved. Enslaved families were also listed: Big Jenny and her nine children, Grace and her three children, and Hannah and her child Aggy.

Folder 2343: Records of enslavement:

  • July 1771-December 1774: James Allen's account list in which he charged Absalom Merit for the purchase of Kitt, an enslaved person.

Folder 2347: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: Schedule of property which includes 19 unidentified enslaved people claimed as property by John Buford.

Folder 2351: Records of enslavement:

  • May 1798: An inventory of the property of Len Henly Bullock of Warren County, N.C., that includes 54 unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2352: Records of enslavement:

  • 7 April 1806: A will of Len Henly (Henley) Bullock of Warren County, N.C., in which to his wife Susanna Henly his bequeathed his plantation including the unidentified enslaved people he claimed as property. He also willed to his son Richard and his daughter Agnes an equal amount of unidentified enslaved people. He willed Mack, an enslaved child who was the son of Cloe, to his grandson Henry Lyne. To his grandson Len Henly Lyne he willed Edmund, an enslaved child who was the son of Cloe. He also stated that after his death, Danniel, an enslaved man, should be given his freedom and 50 acres of land.

Folder 2354: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: A bill in equity between Lockey and Wilhoit and John Holt, concerning the trafficking of Jim, Jack, and Harry, who were enslaved people claimed as property.

Folder 2356: Records of enslavement:

  • 16 October 1828: A receipt of a payment by Richard Bullock to James Laws in Orange County, N.C., for the sale of Phill, an enslaved man about 22 or 23 years old.

Folder 2360: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: Jerald Burrow vs. Dobson Burrow, concerning the trafficking of Robin, an enslaved person who was the son of Sue, and Betty, who were claimed as property by John Burrow. Robin was willed to Phillip Burrow after the death of John Burrow.
  • Undated (after 1797): Depositions concerning the trafficking of Robin, an enslaved person.

Folder 2361: Records of enslavement:

  • 1785: A will of Charles Burton in Caswell County,, N.C., in which he bequeathed Sam, Jack, Anaka, Lucy, and "little Hannah," who were enslaved people he claimed as property, to his wife, Jean Burton. He willed Ben, an enslaved child, to his daughter Dolly Burton. He willed that the rest of the enslaved people (who are not identified by name in the will) not devised be kept together for the use of his sons, Charles, Theoderick, and Robert when they come of age.

Folder 2366: Records of enslavement:

  • 1 October 1807: Guilford County, N.C.- A document concerning the trafficking of Will, Phill, Sarah, Kate, Ann, [Lasio?], Enoch, Delila, Violet, and an infant child, all of whom were enslaved people claimed as property by the estate of Abraham Bush.
Oversize Paper OP-133/40

Client files: B, 17 August 1765

Indenture between Patrick Bogan and John Ray, 225 acres in Orange County, N.C.

Oversize Paper OP-133/46

Client files: B, 18 August 1760

Indenture between Margaret Boggan and James Boggan.

Oversize Paper OP-133/48

Client files: B, 22 July 1762

Indenture between Patrick Bogan and John Ray.

Oversize Paper OP-133/49

Client files: B, 19 January 1763

Indenture between James Bogan and Olsson Martin.

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Client files: C-Cle

Folder 2389: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: James Campbell vs. Wm. and N. Nowlett, mentioning an unidentified person enslaved by David Holloway.

Folder 2392: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: An appeal of the case James Carotners vs. Joseph Smith in which the trafficking of unidentified enslaved people is discussed.

Folder 2408: Records of enslavement:

  • 10 December 1805: Various depositions concerning Robert Chambers, who moved from Berkeley County, Va. to Kentucky, and the trafficking of unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2427: Records of enslavement:

  • 15 September 1831: An agreement between John H. Adkins and John Scott in Orange County, N.C., concerning the trafficking of Stephen, [Chrescy?], Phebe, Thomas, Rachael, Pompey, William, Honey, Kit and Mary, who were enslaved people in the possession of George Laws.
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Client files: Cli-Cu

Folder 2440: Records of enslavement:

  • 24 May 1805: An inventory of the estate of William Locke Senior(?), including 5 unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2455: Records of enslavement:

  • April 1815: Cullen Cotton vs. Lewis Powell, concerning the trafficking of unidentified enslaved people who were sent to the home of the plaintiff by John Wall.

Folder 2460: Records of enslavement:

  • 1804: A document concerning the judgement obtained by William Crutchfield against Archibald Campbell from the Orange Court of Orange County, N.C., concerning the trafficking of unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2463: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: A deed of release according to the will of Robert Cummins, in which he bequeathed Austan (Auston), an enslaved person he claimed as property, to his daughter Rachel. He willed Mime and her children Sally and Thankfull, who were an enslaved family, to his daughter Anna.

Folder 2464: Records of enslavement:

  • 30 December 1808: A will of Thomas Cummins of Guilford County, N.C., in which he bequeathed Auston (Austan), an enslaved child he claimed as property, to his daughter Rachel. He willed Mime(?) and her children Sally and Thankfull, who were an enslaved family, to his daughter, Anna. He also willed Isaac, who was an enslaved person, to his daughter Margat.
  • 15 August 1808: A bill of sale for the trafficking of Auston (Austan), who was an enslaved person claimed as property by Thomas Kemmons. Austan was trafficked through sale to Edward Kemmons, with the condition that he stay in the service of his daughter Rachel. According to the document, Austan was meant to remain in Guilford County.
  • 7 February 1809: A bill of sale to Thomas Kimmons and Thomas Kimmons, the sons of Robert Kimmons and Samuel Kimmons respectively, for Mime, an enslaved woman claimed as property by Thomas Kimmons in Guilford County, N.C., as well as her future children, at the death of Anney Kimmons.

Folder 2466: Records of enslavement:

  • 17 December 1820: An indenture made between John and Sophia Buford, James Cunningham, and John Shipwith, in county(?) concerning the trafficking of about 30 identified enslaved people claimed as property by John Buford.
Oversize Paper OP-133/54

Client files: Cli-Cu, 7 June 1773

Indenture between William Cothrell and McCall Elliot, probably Orange County, N.C. land. Laminated.

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Client files: D

Folder 2471: Records of enslavement:

  • 22 December 1825: A document concerning the trafficking of unidentified enslaved people overseen by Thomas Daniel, in Halifax county, N.C.

Folder 2475: Records of enslavement:

  • 7 June 1791: A will of Woodson Daniel of Wake County in which he bequeathed Jacob, Isabella, and Dinah, who were enslaved people he claimed as property, to his wife Nancy Daniel. He willed Will and Milly, who were enslaved people, to his son John Daniel. He willed Patt and Nathan, who were enslaved people, to his daughter Elizabeth Clements and his son-in-law William Clements. He also willed the enslaved people named Alice and Hannah to his daughter Charlotte Parker and his son-in-law James Parker. He willed the enslaved people named Ben and Patt, who was the daughter of Bef(?), to his son David Daniel. He willed the enslaved people named Tabith and Isaac to his daughter Winny Tally and his son-in-law Spencer Tally. He willed the enslaved people named Betty and Willis to his son James Daniel. He willed the enslaved people named Rebecah and Jim, who was the son of Jude, to his daughter Franky Daniel. He willed the enslaved people named Cook and Isabella, the daughter of Dinah, to his daughter Polly Daniel. He willed the enslaved people named Bess, Hubbard, and Daniel to his son William Daniel.
  • 12 November 1791: An inventory of the estate of Woodson Daniel that includes 14 unidentified enslaved people he claimed as property, who were divided among, his wife Nancy Daniel, John Daniel, William Clements, James Parker, David Daniel, William Cain, and Spencer Tally.
  • 28 October 1794: An account of Woodson Daniel's estate sale in Wake County, N.C. including the trafficking through sale of Reuben (bonded), who was an enslaved person, to Starling Tally; Gabe, who was an enslaved person, to Shandy Tabby; Martin, who was an enslaved person, to John Daniel; Rachell, who was an enslaved person to Nancy (Widow) Daniel; Jim, who was an enslaved person, to Banny Grimes; Fan, who was an enslaved woman, and her child to Richard Dickins; and Tom, an enslaved person, to Edward Wortham.

Folder 2486: Records of enslavement:

  • 11 March 1805: A petition of Micajah and Mary Debuler, Wiliam and Anna Matthews, Seymour and Priscilla (Folder says Sussane), and William and Susanah Wilkins, against William Hicks, Abner Hicks and Benjamin Hester, the executors of the will of William Hicks of Granville County, N.C. The petition concerns the trafficking of Lewis, Hanah, and [Flushing?], who were enslaved people who had been bequeathed to Abner Hicks; Ned, an enslaved person who had been willed to Priscilla(?) Duncan; Sam, the enslaved person who he had willed to his daughter Martha Faton; Mina and Isiah, enslaved people, who were intended to be trafficked through sale.

Folder 2490: Records of enslavement:

  • October 1802: A case concerning the death of John Dickinson in Hillsborough District, N.C. and his estate, including 50 unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2502: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: Document concerning the trafficking of an unidentified enslaved person claimed as property by John Dickinson(?).

Folder 2503: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 December 1802: A will of Samuel Dickinson of Benton, N.C., in which he bequeathed Amelia, Big Micrah(?), Pegg, Nancy, Little George, Davey, Yellow Peter, Gabe, Big George, Ray, Washington, Will, Juash(?), Sethine, Betty, Frank, Young Suck(?), and Mima, who were enslaved people he claimed as property, to his wife Elizabeth Penelope Dickinson.

Folder 2510: Records of enslavement:

  • 17 (?) 1778: A will of Henry Dixon in Caswell(?) County, N.C. in which he bequeathed Hannah, who was an enslaved woman, to his wife Martha Dixon. He also directed the remainder of the enslaved people he claimed as property to be divided equally among his wife and children.

Folder 2514: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: A document on the case of John Dobbin vs. Hugh Dobbins, concerning the trafficking of Ben, who was an enslaved person.
  • Undated(?) 179-: A complaint from John Dobbin in (?) County, N.C. concerning the trafficking of identified and unidentified enslaved people he claimed as property.

Folder 2515: Records of enslavement:

  • August 1801: William Dobson vs. James Sampson in the Salisbury District Court, N.C., concerning the trafficking of Phillis, who was an enslaved person claimed as property by Robert Cawthers.
  • September 1807: William Dobson vs. James Sampson in Salisbury District Court, N.C., concerning the trafficking of Phillis, an enslaved woman, and her daughter, Venus.
  • Undated: William Dobson vs. James Sampson, concerning the trafficking of Phillis, an enslaved woman, and her daughter, Venus.

Folder 2518: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: Debts due to Donald Mackenzie & Co. concerning the trafficking of unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2525: Records of enslavement:

  • 20 May 1821: An indenture made between Young Dortch and Jonathan P. Sneed & Co. in Orange County, N.C. concerning the trafficking of Jenny, an enslaved chiled about 12 years old, and Dilcy, an enslaved child about 11 years old, who were claimed as property by Thomas Hargis.

Folder 2537: Records of enslavement:

  • 15 February 1812: Bill of sale for Jiney, an enslaved person, who was trafficked through sale between Ashly (Ashley) Dunnage and James Jackson in Orange County, N.C.

Folder 2538: Records of enslavement:

  • March 1815: Henry Dunwoodie's executors vs. George Carrington in Orange County, N.C., concerning the trafficking of Jude, Sylvia, Poll, Peter, and Henderson, who were enslaved by the estate of Henry Dunwoodie.

Folder 2539: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: A statement of contract between Nathaniel Durham and Thomas Dalton concerning the trafficking of an unidentified enslaved man.

Folder 2541: Records of enslavement:

  • March 1806: Dysart vs. Hamilton, concerning the trafficking of an unidentified enslaved man.
Oversize Paper OP-133/68

Client files: D, 25 March 1790

Indenture between Robert Dickins and John Commons, 319 acres in Caswell County.

Folder 2542-2559

Folder 2542

Folder 2543

Folder 2544

Folder 2545

Folder 2546

Folder 2547

Folder 2548

Folder 2549

Folder 2550

Folder 2551

Folder 2552

Folder 2553

Folder 2554

Folder 2555

Folder 2556

Folder 2557

Folder 2558

Folder 2559

Client files: E

Folder 2542: Records of enslavement:

  • April 1812, October 1812: William Eaton vs. Charles Field in Warren County, N.C., concerning the trafficking of Sal, Kitt and her husband (possibly Abner), and Patty, all of whom were enslaved people claimed as property.

Folder 2543: Records of enslavement:

  • 26 November 1796: Document concerning the trafficking of Ceaser, Bob, Milly, Isbel, Lucy, Tom, Anna, Nilly, and Molly, all of whom were enslaved people who were trafficked through sale from the estate of Edward Wades to Charles Edwards. The document also concerns the trafficking of Rachel, an enslaved person claimed as property by Richard Simpson(?), and Grace, an enslaved woman claimed as property by Martin Gillispee.

Folder 2545: Records of enslavement:

  • 16 September 1807: James Edwards vs. Stephen Harrington and Robert Wade in Hillsborough District, N.C., concerning the trafficking of unidentified enslaved people claimed as property by James R. Leonard.

Folder 2547: Records of enslavement:

  • Unknown: Document concerning the trafficking of [Giles?] and other enslaved people claimed as property by James R. Leonard. The enslaved people are identified on page 22. Significant damage to the item.

Folder 2550: Records of enslavement:

  • 26 January 1799: James and Leonard Edwards vs. Duncan Hunt and Letty Cheatham in Hillsborough District, N.C., concerning the trafficking of unidentified enslaved people.

Folder 2555: Records of enslavement:

  • 5 April 1781: Auditors report on the case of Alexander Erwin vs. Sarah Neal, which includes the trafficking of unidentified enslaved people and the sale of Frank, Charity, and Isaac, who were enslaved people claimed as property by [Ro Arthurs?].

Folder 2558: Records of enslavement:

  • 30 March 1800: Venditioni Exponas to the Sheriff in Martin County N.C., on the case of Joseph Erwin vs. John Stewart, concerning the trafficking of Salem, Bevton(?), and Gideon, who were enslaved people.
Folder 2560-2588

Folder 2560

Folder 2561

Folder 2562

Folder 2563

Folder 2564

Folder 2565

Folder 2566

Folder 2567

Folder 2568

Folder 2569

Folder 2570

Folder 2571

Folder 2572

Folder 2573

Folder 2574

Folder 2575

Folder 2576

Folder 2577

Folder 2578

Folder 2579

Folder 2580

Folder 2581

Folder 2582

Folder 2583

Folder 2584

Folder 2585

Folder 2586

Folder 2587

Folder 2588

Client files: F

Folder 2576: Records of enslavement:

  • Unknown: John Foster vs. George Foster's executors, concerning the trafficking of Milly, an enslaved person.

Folder 2588: Records of enslavement:

  • February 1793: A will of Samuel Fuller of Granville County, N.C., in which he bequeathed Ceaser, Fanny, Patience, and Allen, who were enslaved people he claimed as property, to his wife [Foeby?] Fuller. He willed Joe(?), Charles, Patt, and Cherry, who were enslaved people he claimed as property, to his son William Fuller. To his son Washington Fuller, he willed Jacob, John, and Anacea(?), who were enslaved people he claimed as property.
  • 12 March 1803: Inventory of Samuel Fuller of Granville County, N.C., including Ceasor, Fanny, Joe, Charles, Jacob, Bellcy, John, Patience, Cherry, Pat, Hester(?), Annekey(?), and Allen, who were the enslaved people he claimed as property.
  • Unknown: Parts of a will of Samuel Fuller of Granville County, N.C., concerning the trafficking of the enslaved people who were claimed as property by Fuller.
Oversize Paper OP-133/56

Client files: F, 22 December 1773

Indenture between William Fletcher and McCall Elliot, 400 acres in Orange County, N.C.

Oversize Paper OP-133/64

Client files: F, 23 May 1786

Indenture between James Freeland and Edward Harris.

Folder 2589-2643

Folder 2589

Folder 2590

Folder 2591

Folder 2592

Folder 2593

Folder 2594

Folder 2595

Folder 2596

Folder 2597

Folder 2598

Folder 2599

Folder 2600

Folder 2601

Folder 2602

Folder 2603

Folder 2604

Folder 2605

Folder 2606

Folder 2607

Folder 2608

Folder 2609

Folder 2610

Folder 2611

Folder 2612

Folder 2613

Folder 2614

Folder 2615

Folder 2616

Folder 2617

Folder 2618

Folder 2619

Folder 2620

Folder 2621

Folder 2622

Folder 2623

Folder 2624

Folder 2625

Folder 2626

Folder 2627

Folder 2628

Folder 2629

Folder 2630

Folder 2631

Folder 2632

Folder 2633

Folder 2634

Folder 2635

Folder 2636

Folder 2637

Folder 2638

Folder 2639

Folder 2640

Folder 2641

Folder 2642

Folder 2643

Client files: G

Folder 2593: Records of enslavement:

  • November 1800: Sales of the personal property of James Galloway including the trafficking through sale of Aggie, Abraham, Morning, Elise, Adam, Nancie, Rachel, Aggie and her three children, and Peter and his wife, all of whom were enslaved people claimed as property by Galloway.

Folder 2614: Records of enslavement:

  • 1788, April 1801: Barker's executors vs. G__(?) Adnos(?) concerning the trafficking of Hannah and Peter, who were enslaved people claimed as property. Another portion of the document pertains to the case Jesse Gober vs. [Elisa?] Gober concerning the free status of a man in April 1801.
Oversize Paper OP-133/41

Client files: G, 26 April 1753

Indenture with attached plat, between Earl Granville and John Dunnagen, 640 acres in Granville County, N.C.

Oversize Paper OP-133/42

Client files: G, 8 May 1756

Indenture with attached plat, between Earl Granville and Osborne Jeffreys, 302 acres in Orange County, N.C.

Oversize Paper OP-133/43

Client files: G, 12 May 1755

Indenture with attached plat, between Earl Granville and Osborne Jeffreys, 126 acres in Orange County, N.C.

Oversize Paper OP-133/57

Client files: G, 15 February 1775

Indenture between John Garrand and James Harris, 200 acres in Orange County, N.C.

Oversize Paper OP-133/59

Client files: G, 12 May 1755

Indenture between Earl Granville and Osborne Jeffreys, 65 acres in Orange County, N.C.

Folder 2644-2703

Folder 2644

Folder 2645

Folder 2646

Folder 2647

Folder 2648

Folder 2649

Folder 2650

Folder 2651

Folder 2652

Folder 2653

Folder 2654

Folder 2655

Folder 2656

Folder 2657

Folder 2658

Folder 2659

Folder 2660

Folder 2661

Folder 2662

Folder 2663

Folder 2664

Folder 2665

Folder 2666

Folder 2667

Folder 2668

Folder 2669

Folder 2670

Folder 2671

Folder 2672

Folder 2673

Folder 2674

Folder 2675

Folder 2676

Folder 2677

Folder 2678

Folder 2679

Folder 2680

Folder 2681

Folder 2682

Folder 2683

Folder 2684

Folder 2685

Folder 2686

Folder 2687

Folder 2688

Folder 2689

Folder 2690

Folder 2691

Folder 2692

Folder 2693

Folder 2694

Folder 2695

Folder 2696

Folder 2697

Folder 2698

Folder 2699

Folder 2700

Folder 2701

Folder 2702

Folder 2703

Client files: H-Hend

Folder 2645: Records of enslavement:

  • 1799: John Hall in account with William Pannill, including an entry for lunch for Dick, an enslaved person.
  • 1800-1802: John Hall in account with William Pannill, including entries that mention Bob and Rich, who were enslaved people.

Folder 2649: Records of enslavement:

  • 1799(?): A memo between Hamilton and Saunders in Wake County, N.C., concerning the trafficking of an unidentified enslaved woman.

Folder 2655: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: Hammond vs. Doak, concerning collection by Doak of the value of an unidentified enslaved person.

Folder 2656: Records of enslavement:

  • 2 December 1842: A notice for the trafficking through sale of Larry, Mary, William, Jack, and Julia, who were enslaved people, by John Hancock in Orange County, N.C.

Folder 2677: Records of enslavement:

  • Undated: Harrold vs. Dry, concerning the trafficking of unidentified enslaved people claimed as property by Mr. [Young?].

Folder 2682: Records of enslavement:

  • 10 February 1831: Balance of the account of John D. Hawkins from Asa. B. Mina to be collected by A. Robertson, the sheriff of Nottoway County, Va. which includes the tax on unidentified enslaved people claimed as property.

Folder 2686: Records of enslavement:

  • 18 December 1797(?): James Hayes vs. Martin, concerning the trafficking of [Wemey?], an enslaved woman who was purchased in Salisbury, N.C.

Folder 2700: Records of enslavement:

  • 24 December 1801(?): A bill in equity for injunction in the case of Thomas and Samuel Burton vs. John Sandeford and Edmund Burton, concerning the trafficking through purchase of unidentified enslaved people from the estate of John M. Grigger by Burton is mentioned.

Folder 2702: Records of enslavement:

  • Unknown: A brief of the Thomas Henderson vs. Johnston, concerning the will of William Astin in which he bequeathed Icipio(?), an enslaved person he claimed as property, to his wife Rebecca Astin.
  • 17 March 1792: A will of William Astin of Rockingham County, N.C., in which he bequeathed Jack and Lucy and their five children and Sillar and her sons Thom and Lewis. (The will is damaged and missing pieces.)
  • 3 February 1802: A will of William Astin in Rockingham County, N.C in which he bequeathed the enslaved family of Jack, Lucy and their children Daniel, Jinny, Sam, Polly, and Lucy, to his wife Rebecca Astin. He willed Lewis, an enslaved child who was the son of Sillar, to Richard Henderson. He willed James, an enslaved child who was the son of Sillar, to Thomas Henderson. To William Henderson, he willed Thom, an enslaved child who was the son of Sillar. He willed Sillar to Molly Oliver and after Molly's death to her daughter Rebecca Oliver. Astin willed that Icipio(?), an enslaved man he claimed as property, be trafficked through sale by his executors.
Oversize Paper OP-133/45

Client files: H-Hend, 2 February 1760

Indenture between Thomas Harris and Tyree Harris, 200 acres in Orange County, N.C.

This land eventually was bought by Richard Bennehan.

Oversize Paper OP-133/51

Client files: He-Hend, 5 May 1767

Indenture between Nathaniel Harris and Tyree Harris, 300 acres in Orange County, N.C.

This land eventually was bought by Richard Bennehan.

Oversize Paper OP-133/60

Client files: H-Hend, 4 October 1775

Indenture between James Harris and William Wallace, 129 acres in Orange County, N.C.

This land eventually was bought by Richard Bennehan.

Folder 2704-2755

Folder 2704

Folder 2705

Folder 2706

Folder 2707