Collection Number: 00141

Collection Title: Julian Shakespeare Carr Papers, 1892-1923

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the Duplication Policy section for more information.


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Size 6.0 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 500 items)
Abstract The papers of white businessman and public figure Julian Shakespeare Carr (1845-1924) of Chapel Hill and Durham, N.C., document his financial interests in tobacco, textiles, and banking; affiliations with the Methodist Church, the Democratic Party in North Carolina, and organizations commemorating the Confederacy; and philanthropic support of institutions of higher education, particularly the University of North Carolina (UNC). Papers include letters, printed items, business records, legal documents, diaries, photographs, lessons for Sunday school, and addresses written and delivered by Carr. The rhetoric in many addresses reflects Carr’s positions on what he and his contemporaries called "the race problem." In keeping with white supremacy movements in North Carolina at the turn of the twentieth century, Carr defended the institution of slavery, claiming it had been beneficial to the enslaved, and argued for denying full citizenship rights to African Americans. Included are Carr's 1899 speech supporting an amendment to the North Carolina constitution that disenfranchised African Americans and his address at the 1913 dedication of the Confederate monument later known as "Silent Sam" on the UNC campus.
Creator Carr, Julian Shakespeare.
Language English
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Restrictions to Access
No restrictions. Open for research.
Copyright Notice
Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the Julian Shakespeare Carr Papers #141, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Acquisitions Information
Gift of Claiborn and Will Carr before 1940 and Joseph Julian Carr in 1992.
Sensitive Materials Statement
Manuscript collections and archival records may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations, the North Carolina Public Records Act (N.C.G.S. § 132 1 et seq.), and Article 7 of the North Carolina State Personnel Act (Privacy of State Employee Personnel Records, N.C.G.S. § 126-22 et seq.). Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill assumes no responsibility.
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The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.

Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Biographical Information

1845 Born 12 October in Chapel Hill, N.C., to John Wesley Carr and Eliza Bullock Carr.
1862 Matriculated at the University of North Carolina (UNC).
1864 Enlisted in the Confederate States of America Army. Served with the 3rd North Carolina Cavalry, C.S.A.
1865 Present at Appomattox where Lee surrendered to Grant.
1865-1866 Enrolled at UNC.
1868-1870 Resided in Little Rock, Ark.
1870s Returned to North Carolina and purchased interest in tobacco manufacturing with W.T. Blackwell and Company in Durham, N.C.
1873 Married Nannie Graham Parrish.
1883 Elected as a trustee at Trinity College, later Duke University.
1898 Sold his tobacco interests to the American Tobacco Company.
1900 Nominated for Vice President of the United States by North Carolina delegates at the Democratic National Convention.
1909 Purchased the Alberta Textile Mill in the town later named for him, Carrboro, N.C.
1913 Delivered dedication address at the "Unveiling of Confederate Monument" later known as "Silent Sam" on UNC's campus.
1924 Died on 29 April.

The following is the original biographical note compiled by staff in the Southern Historical Collection in 1988.

The third son of John Wesley and Eliza Bullock Carr, Julian Shakespeare Carr was born in Chapel Hill, N.C., on 12 October 1845. John Carr was a prosperous shopkeeper on Franklin Street, the main artery adjacent to the University of North Carolina. With a childhood spent near the University, among whose faculty his father was well-respected, it seemed natural that "Jule," as his father referred to him, should matriculate there in 1862.

In 1864, Julian Shakespeare Carr enlisted in the Confederate army, where he served with the Third North Carolina Cavalry. After witnessing the surrender at Appomattox, he returned to Chapel Hill, where he enrolled for the 1865-1866 term at UNC.

Carr spent 1868 to 1870 in Little Rock, Ark., where he had entered into business with an uncle. Returning to North Carolina, he received four thousand dollars from his father to purchase a one-third interest in the tobacco manufacturing firm of W. T. Blackwell and Company in Durham, N.C. Business boomed, primarily as a result of the pioneering advertising campaign that promoted the company's product under its trademark, Bull Durham, which soon became a household word. Carr bought out his partners, only to sell the business in 1898 to the American Tobacco Company. With this capital, Carr engaged in a wide range of business interests: banking, hosiery mills, the Durham-Roxboro Railroad, electric and telephone companies, and a Durham newspaper.

Successful in most of his endeavors, Carr was also said to have given away a fortune during his lifetime. To the Methodist church, the Confederate veterans, and the University of North Carolina, he was quite generous. A trustee of the University and of Greensboro College, he was also a benefactor of Davidson, Wake Forest, St. Mary's, Elon and Trinity colleges. As Commander of the United Confederate Veterans in North Carolina, Carr had the honorary rank of major general, and was often referred to as "General." An active Democrat, he supported the party financially and served as a delegate to its conventions, though he was never elected to office.

Carr married Nannie Graham Parrish in 1873. He died on 29 April 1924.

CHART I

CHART II

CHART III

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Scope and Content

The papers of white businessman and public figure Julian Shakespeare Carr (1845-1924) of Chapel Hill and Durham, N.C., document his financial interests in tobacco, textiles, and banking; affiliations with the Methodist Church, the Democratic Party in North Carolina, and organizations commemorating the Confederacy; and philanthropic support of institutions of higher education, particularly the University of North Carolina (UNC). Papers include letters, printed items, business records, legal documents, diaries, photographs, lessons for Sunday school, and addresses written and delivered by Carr. The rhetoric in many addresses reflects Carr’s positions on what he and his contemporaries called "the race problem." In keeping with white supremacy movements in North Carolina at the turn of the twentieth century, Carr defended the institution of slavery, claiming it had been beneficial to the enslaved, and argued for denying full citizenship rights to African Americans. Included are Carr's 1899 speech supporting an amendment to the North Carolina constitution that disenfranchised African Americans and his address at the 1913 dedication of the Confederate monument later known as "Silent Sam" on the UNC campus.

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Contents list

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series Quick Links

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated.

About 220 items.

Arrangement: chronological and by type.

Letters, telegrams, printed announcements, programs, and pamphlets, business and legal documents, maps, and newspaper clippings pertaining to Carr's business and personal affairs. The letters chiefly concern banking, farming, and family matters, but Carr's interests in the in the Civil War and the United Confederate Veterans and in the Methodist Church are also reflected.

Folder 1

1892-1898 #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." Folder 1

Extra Oversize Paper Folder XOPF-141/1

Extra-oversize papers, 1900-1907 and undated #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." XOPF-141/1

Two oversize maps and a poster for a Confederate Veterans' Fourth of July celebration at which Julian S. Carr is listed as a speaker.

Folder 2

1901-1907 #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." Folder 2

Folder 3

1908-1911 #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." Folder 3

Folder 4

1912-1923 #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." Folder 4

Folder 5

Undated #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." Folder 5

Folder 6

Printed Maps #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." Folder 6

Folder 7

Printed Advertisements #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." Folder 7

Folder 8

Programs and Meeting Announcements #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." Folder 8

Folder 9

Lists #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." Folder 9

Folder 10-11

Folder 10

Folder 11

Clippings #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." Folder 10-11

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 2. Sunday School Lessons and Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated.

Typescript and manuscript lessons for Sunday school classes taught by Carr in Durham, N.C., and addresses delivered by Carr on various occasions, chiefly in North Carolina cities and towns.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated.

About 125 items.

Lectures based on scripture and liturgy for adult Sunday school lessons taught by Carr at Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church, South in Durham, N.C.

Arrangement: chronological.

Folder 12a

Sunday school lessons, 1896-1897 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 12a

Folder 12b

Sunday school lessons, 1898 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 12b

Folder 13a

Sunday school lessons, 1904-1905 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 13a

Folder 13b

Sunday school lessons, 1906 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 13b

Folder 13c

Sunday school lessons, 1907 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 13c

Folder 14a

Sunday school lessons, 1908 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 14a

Folder 14b

Sunday school lessons, 1909 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 14b

Folder 15a

Sunday school lessons, 1911 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 15a

Folder 15b

Sunday school lessons, 1912 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 15b

Folder 16a

Sunday school lessons, January-March 1914 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 16a

Folder 16b

Sunday school lessons, April-December 1914 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 16b

Folder 17

Sunday school lessons, 1915-1921 #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 17

Folder 18a

Sunday school lessons, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 18a

Folder 18b

Sunday school lessons, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 18b

Folder 19a

Sunday school lessons, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 19a

Folder 19b

Sunday school lessons, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 19b

Folder 20a

Sunday school lessons, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 20a

Folder 20b

Sunday school lessons, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.1. Sunday School Lessons, 1896-1921 and undated." Folder 20b

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated.

About 125 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Speeches written and delivered by Carr for various occasions, including dedications of Confederate monuments, meetings of Confederate veteran and commemoration groups such as chapters of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, school commencements, and convocations such as University Day at the University of North Carolina. In his oratory, Carr often extolled what he viewed as the virtues of southern white women during the Civil War, the bravery of Confederate soldiers, the gallantry of Confederate generals especially Robert E. Lee, and the cause of states' rights. In addressing what contemporaries called "the race problem" or "the Negro problem," Carr's rhetoric reflected the era's white supremacy movements in North Carolina. For example, he argued for the disenfranchisement of African Americans.

Folder 21

Addresses, 1896-1899 #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 21

In one 1898 address given in Concord, N.C., at the laying of a cornerstone, Carr opined about the "future of the negro." "If we can but succeed in weaning the negro from believing that Politics is there [sic] calling ... and turn the bent of his mind into the development of manufacturing industries, what will the end be? Whereas, if the negro is to continue to make Politics his chief aim and object, there can be but one ending....I need not tell the most intelligent of you, that whatever of opportunities have come to you, except a few high schools established by Northern people, have come through the voluntary taxation of the 200,000 white tax payers of the State."

In another address [1899], Carr advocated under "the banner of white supremacy" for an amendment to the North Carolina constitution that established a literacy test to disenfranchise African Americans. "The Amendment proposes to eliminate the vote of the ignorant negro and thereby increase the dignity and power of the white man's ballot."

Folder 22

Addresses, 1900-1902 #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 22

Contains several addresses delivered at dedications of Confederate monuments erected in North Carolina cities and towns including Shelby, Mount Airy, and Morganton.

Folder 23

Addresses, 1903-1905 #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 23

Includes a 1903 address to a carpenters' union in Durham, N.C. Carr praised the organization, but warned them: "When the counsel of the wise, and the conservative of your organization are set at nought, and the vicious and the reckless rule, then you invite troubles upon your own heads."

Folder 24

Addresses, 1906-1908 #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 24

Includes a 12 October 1906 address delivered at the University Day convocation at the University of North Carolina.

Folder 25

Addresses, 1909-1911 #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 25

Includes an April 1910 address Carr delivered at the "Colored Presbytery" in Durham, N.C. In it, Carr claimed to be "the constant friend of the colored man" while defending slavery, which he called a "Divine institution." He praised the efforts of African American educator James E. Shepard of Durham, N.C., Shepard's Chautauqua for preachers, and Durham's "good colored people," pointing to the black-owned North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company in Durham as an example of their success. Carr also mentioned the work of Booker T. Washington and the Tuskegee Institute in this address.

Folder 26

Addresses, 1912-1914 #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 26

Includes an address titled "Unveiling of Confederate Monument at University," that Carr delivered on 2 June 1913 at the dedication of the monument later known as "Silent Sam" on the University of North Carolina campus. Carr discussed the motives and morale of Confederate soldiers; the devotion and sacrifices of women on the Confederate home front; military service by students and North Carolinians; and the protection of the "Anglo Saxon race" during Reconstruction. Carr also described whipping a "negro wench" in front of federal soldiers in Chapel Hill shortly after he returned from Appomattox because the woman had publicly insulted a "Southern lady."

Folder 27

Addresses, 1915-1918 #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 27

Includes a 1916 address delivered in Lexington, Va., at an event celebrating Jefferson Davis's birthday. In the speech, Carr venerated the Confederate cause and defended the institution of slavery. "The South was not responsible for African slavery in this hemispher [sic] and slavery at the South was the gentlest and the most beneficent servitude mankind has ever known."

Folder 28

Addresses, 1919-1922 #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 28

Includes a 1919 address to the Methodist Centenary in Columbus, Ohio in which Carr defended the reputation of the South in response to those in the North who held Uncle Tom's Cabin as their "Prayer Book" and claimed that "no where on earth do two races dwell together in more harmony."

Folder 29

Addresses, 1923 #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 29

Includes a 1923 address to the Confederate Veterans Association in New York in which Carr asserted that the conflict that started the Civil War was not slavery, but a different interpretation of the Constitution with regard to states' rights. "It is mendaciously vaunted that the South drew the sword solely to perpetuate African Slavery."

Folder 30a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 30a

Folder 30b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 30b

In one address delivered in Alamance County, N.C. in circa 1900, Carr argued for the disenfranchisement of African Americans. "Show me the man of any party, who in cold blood, can vote for the continued domination of the negro race: who would continue North Carolina as the only spot on the globe in which a hundred thousand negroes can be used as a great political weight ... and used against every interest the white man holds dear."

In another address [circa 1899], Carr discussed mob violence and lynching. "The Northern man reads the revolting story of the lynching, with its attendant ferocity which he doesn't know is born of devotion to womanhood and not love of blood." Speaking to an unidentified group of African Americans, Carr explained how their leadership would in his view end mob violence. "Frown upon any who would excuse the crime or give protection to the brute, and create a public sentiment that will compel all your race to follow your example. Is this more than you can do? Do you shrink from it? If so, you are not worthy to be teachers and leaders of your race....The negro preacher and teacher who sits still and says nothing when an outrage is committed by a brute of his race, but comes out in strong denunciation when a mob has lynched the offender, is a moral coward who is an enemy to the uplifting of his race, and the moral elevation of his country."

Folder 31a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 31a

Folder 31b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 31b

Folder 32a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 32a

Folder 32b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 32b

Folder 33a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 33a

Folder 33b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 33b

Folder 34a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 34a

Folder 34b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 34b

Folder 35a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 35a

Folder 35b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 35b

Folder 36a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 36a

Folder 36b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 36b

Folder 37a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 37a

Folder 37b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 37b

Folder 38a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 38a

Folder 38b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 38b

Folder 39a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 39a

Folder 39b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 39b

Folder 40a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 40a

Folder 40b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 40b

Folder 41a

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 41a

Folder 41b

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 41b

Folder 41c

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 41c

Folder 41d

Addresses, undated #00141, Subseries: "2.2. Addresses, 1896-1923 and undated." Folder 41d

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 3. Volumes, 1907-1921.

Seven personal diaries and five letterbooks briefly documenting Carr's personal life, chiefly his travels and personal associations; Carr's daughter Eliza's wedding album, 1895; and a Carr family history by Joseph Julian Carr, 1991.

Folder 42

Volume 1a. Diary, 1907 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 42

Folder 43

Volume 1b. Diary, 1911 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 43

Folder 44

Volume 1c. Diary, 1912 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 44

Folder 45

Volume 1d. Diary, 1913 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 45

Folder 46

Volume 2. Diary, 1914 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 46

Folder 47

Volume 3a. Diary, 1916 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 47

Folder 48

Volume 3b. Diary, 1917 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 48

Folder 49

Volume 4. Letterbook, January-May 1919 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 49

Folder 50

Volume 5. Letterbook, May-October 1919 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 50

Folder 51

Volume 6. Letterbook, October 1919-May 1920 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 51

Folder 52

Volume 7. Letterbook, May 1920-June 1921 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 52

Folder 53

Volume 8. Letterbook, June 1921-October 1922 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 53

Folder 54

Volume 9. Wedding Album, 18 December 1895 #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 54

Folder 55

Volume 10. "The Carr Family of Loudoun County, Virginia" by Joseph Julian Carr, 1991. #00141, Series: "3. Volumes, 1907-1921." Folder 55

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 4. Images, circa 1875-1917.

Image Folder PF-141/1

Photographs #00141, Series: "4. Images, circa 1875-1917." PF-141/1

  • Julian Shakespeare Carr, circa 1875. Carte-de-visite. Photographer: W. Shelburn, Durham, N.C. Subject's cheeks have been hand-tinted.
  • Julian Shakespeare Carr, circa 1890. Cabinet card. Photographer: Fredericks, New York, N.Y.
  • Julian Shakespeare Carr, circa 1910.
  • F. R. Mitchell, December 1897. Cabinet card. Photographer: Jordan, New Bedford, Mass.
  • Lois Kimsey Marshall and Ellen Axson Wilson, wives of vice-president Thomas Marshall and president Woodrow Wilson, circa 1912.
  • Woman identified only as "Walton," 1917.
  • Three unidentified little girls, circa 1912.
  • Unidentified girl and baby, 1909. Photographer: Miss Reineke, Kansas City.
  • Unidentified domestic bird coop, circa 1900. Inscription: "This is the bird I am keeping for you--General."
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Processing Information

Processed by: David Weber, January 1988

Encoded by: ByteManagers Inc., 2008

Updated by: Kathryn Michaelis, June 2010

Updated by: Laura Hart, December 2018

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