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|Size||6.0 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 500 items)|
|Abstract||The papers of white businessman and public figure Julian Shakespeare Carr (1845-1924) of Chapel Hill and Durham, N.C., document his financial interests in tobacco, textiles, and banking; affiliations with the Methodist Church, the Democratic Party in North Carolina, and organizations commemorating the Confederacy; and philanthropic support of institutions of higher education, particularly the University of North Carolina (UNC). Papers include letters, printed items, business records, legal documents, diaries, photographs, lessons for Sunday school, and addresses written and delivered by Carr. The rhetoric in many addresses reflects Carr’s positions on what he and his contemporaries called "the race problem." In keeping with white supremacy movements in North Carolina at the turn of the twentieth century, Carr defended the institution of slavery, claiming it had been beneficial to the enslaved, and argued for denying full citizenship rights to African Americans. Included are Carr's 1899 speech supporting an amendment to the North Carolina constitution that disenfranchised African Americans and his address at the 1913 dedication of the Confederate monument later known as "Silent Sam" on the UNC campus.|
|Creator||Carr, Julian Shakespeare.|
|Curatorial Unit||University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection.|
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|1845||Born 12 October in Chapel Hill, N.C., to John Wesley Carr and Eliza Bullock Carr.|
|1862||Matriculated at the University of North Carolina (UNC).|
|1864||Enlisted in the Confederate States of America Army. Served with the 3rd North Carolina Cavalry, C.S.A.|
|1865||Present at Appomattox where Lee surrendered to Grant.|
|1865-1866||Enrolled at UNC.|
|1868-1870||Resided in Little Rock, Ark.|
|1870s||Returned to North Carolina and purchased interest in tobacco manufacturing with W.T. Blackwell and Company in Durham, N.C.|
|1873||Married Nannie Graham Parrish.|
|1883||Elected as a trustee at Trinity College, later Duke University.|
|1898||Sold his tobacco interests to the American Tobacco Company.|
|1900||Nominated for Vice President of the United States by North Carolina delegates at the Democratic National Convention.|
|1909||Purchased the Alberta Textile Mill in the town later named for him, Carrboro, N.C.|
|1913||Delivered dedication address at the "Unveiling of Confederate Monument" later known as "Silent Sam" on UNC's campus.|
|1924||Died on 29 April.|
The following is the original biographical note compiled by staff in the Southern Historical Collection in 1988.
The third son of John Wesley and Eliza Bullock Carr, Julian Shakespeare Carr was born in Chapel Hill, N.C., on 12 October 1845. John Carr was a prosperous shopkeeper on Franklin Street, the main artery adjacent to the University of North Carolina. With a childhood spent near the University, among whose faculty his father was well-respected, it seemed natural that "Jule," as his father referred to him, should matriculate there in 1862.
In 1864, Julian Shakespeare Carr enlisted in the Confederate army, where he served with the Third North Carolina Cavalry. After witnessing the surrender at Appomattox, he returned to Chapel Hill, where he enrolled for the 1865-1866 term at UNC.
Carr spent 1868 to 1870 in Little Rock, Ark., where he had entered into business with an uncle. Returning to North Carolina, he received four thousand dollars from his father to purchase a one-third interest in the tobacco manufacturing firm of W. T. Blackwell and Company in Durham, N.C. Business boomed, primarily as a result of the pioneering advertising campaign that promoted the company's product under its trademark, Bull Durham, which soon became a household word. Carr bought out his partners, only to sell the business in 1898 to the American Tobacco Company. With this capital, Carr engaged in a wide range of business interests: banking, hosiery mills, the Durham-Roxboro Railroad, electric and telephone companies, and a Durham newspaper.
Successful in most of his endeavors, Carr was also said to have given away a fortune during his lifetime. To the Methodist church, the Confederate veterans, and the University of North Carolina, he was quite generous. A trustee of the University and of Greensboro College, he was also a benefactor of Davidson, Wake Forest, St. Mary's, Elon and Trinity colleges. As Commander of the United Confederate Veterans in North Carolina, Carr had the honorary rank of major general, and was often referred to as "General." An active Democrat, he supported the party financially and served as a delegate to its conventions, though he was never elected to office.
Carr married Nannie Graham Parrish in 1873. He died on 29 April 1924.
The papers of white businessman and public figure Julian Shakespeare Carr (1845-1924) of Chapel Hill and Durham, N.C., document his financial interests in tobacco, textiles, and banking; affiliations with the Methodist Church, the Democratic Party in North Carolina, and organizations commemorating the Confederacy; and philanthropic support of institutions of higher education, particularly the University of North Carolina (UNC). Papers include letters, printed items, business records, legal documents, diaries, photographs, lessons for Sunday school, and addresses written and delivered by Carr. The rhetoric in many addresses reflects Carr’s positions on what he and his contemporaries called "the race problem." In keeping with white supremacy movements in North Carolina at the turn of the twentieth century, Carr defended the institution of slavery, claiming it had been beneficial to the enslaved, and argued for denying full citizenship rights to African Americans. Included are Carr's 1899 speech supporting an amendment to the North Carolina constitution that disenfranchised African Americans and his address at the 1913 dedication of the Confederate monument later known as "Silent Sam" on the UNC campus.Back to Top
Arrangement: chronological and by type.
Letters, telegrams, printed announcements, programs, and pamphlets, business and legal documents, maps, and newspaper clippings pertaining to Carr's business and personal affairs. The letters chiefly concern banking, farming, and family matters, but Carr's interests in the in the Civil War and the United Confederate Veterans and in the Methodist Church are also reflected.
|Extra Oversize Paper Folder XOPF-141/1||
Extra-oversize papers, 1900-1907 and undated #00141, Series: "1. Correspondence and Other Papers, 1890-1923 and undated." XOPF-141/1
Two oversize maps and a poster for a Confederate Veterans' Fourth of July celebration at which Julian S. Carr is listed as a speaker.
Typescript and manuscript lessons for Sunday school classes taught by Carr in Durham, N.C., and addresses delivered by Carr on various occasions, chiefly in North Carolina cities and towns.
Lectures based on scripture and liturgy for adult Sunday school lessons taught by Carr at Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church, South in Durham, N.C.
Speeches written and delivered by Carr for various occasions, including dedications of Confederate monuments, meetings of Confederate veteran and commemoration groups such as chapters of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, school commencements, and convocations such as University Day at the University of North Carolina. In his oratory, Carr often extolled what he viewed as the virtues of southern white women during the Civil War, the bravery of Confederate soldiers, the gallantry of Confederate generals especially Robert E. Lee, and the cause of states' rights. In addressing what contemporaries called "the race problem" or "the Negro problem," Carr's rhetoric reflected the era's white supremacy movements in North Carolina. For example, he argued for the disenfranchisement of African Americans.
In one 1898 address given in Concord, N.C., at the laying of a cornerstone, Carr opined about the "future of the negro." "If we can but succeed in weaning the negro from believing that Politics is there [sic] calling ... and turn the bent of his mind into the development of manufacturing industries, what will the end be? Whereas, if the negro is to continue to make Politics his chief aim and object, there can be but one ending....I need not tell the most intelligent of you, that whatever of opportunities have come to you, except a few high schools established by Northern people, have come through the voluntary taxation of the 200,000 white tax payers of the State."
In another address , Carr advocated under "the banner of white supremacy" for an amendment to the North Carolina constitution that established a literacy test to disenfranchise African Americans. "The Amendment proposes to eliminate the vote of the ignorant negro and thereby increase the dignity and power of the white man's ballot."
Contains several addresses delivered at dedications of Confederate monuments erected in North Carolina cities and towns including Shelby, Mount Airy, and Morganton.
Includes a 1903 address to a carpenters' union in Durham, N.C. Carr praised the organization, but warned them: "When the counsel of the wise, and the conservative of your organization are set at nought, and the vicious and the reckless rule, then you invite troubles upon your own heads."
Includes a 12 October 1906 address delivered at the University Day convocation at the University of North Carolina.
Includes an April 1910 address Carr delivered at the "Colored Presbytery" in Durham, N.C. In it, Carr claimed to be "the constant friend of the colored man" while defending slavery, which he called a "Divine institution." He praised the efforts of African American educator James E. Shepard of Durham, N.C., Shepard's Chautauqua for preachers, and Durham's "good colored people," pointing to the black-owned North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company in Durham as an example of their success. Carr also mentioned the work of Booker T. Washington and the Tuskegee Institute in this address.
Includes an address titled "Unveiling of Confederate Monument at University," that Carr delivered on 2 June 1913 at the dedication of the monument later known as "Silent Sam" on the University of North Carolina campus. Carr discussed the motives and morale of Confederate soldiers; the devotion and sacrifices of women on the Confederate home front; military service by students and North Carolinians; and the protection of the "Anglo Saxon race" during Reconstruction. Carr also described whipping a "negro wench" in front of federal soldiers in Chapel Hill shortly after he returned from Appomattox because the woman had publicly insulted a "Southern lady."
Includes a 1916 address delivered in Lexington, Va., at an event celebrating Jefferson Davis's birthday. In the speech, Carr venerated the Confederate cause and defended the institution of slavery. "The South was not responsible for African slavery in this hemispher [sic] and slavery at the South was the gentlest and the most beneficent servitude mankind has ever known."
Includes a 1919 address to the Methodist Centenary in Columbus, Ohio in which Carr defended the reputation of the South in response to those in the North who held Uncle Tom's Cabin as their "Prayer Book" and claimed that "no where on earth do two races dwell together in more harmony."
Includes a 1923 address to the Confederate Veterans Association in New York in which Carr asserted that the conflict that started the Civil War was not slavery, but a different interpretation of the Constitution with regard to states' rights. "It is mendaciously vaunted that the South drew the sword solely to perpetuate African Slavery."
In one address delivered in Alamance County, N.C. in circa 1900, Carr argued for the disenfranchisement of African Americans. "Show me the man of any party, who in cold blood, can vote for the continued domination of the negro race: who would continue North Carolina as the only spot on the globe in which a hundred thousand negroes can be used as a great political weight ... and used against every interest the white man holds dear."
In another address [circa 1899], Carr discussed mob violence and lynching. "The Northern man reads the revolting story of the lynching, with its attendant ferocity which he doesn't know is born of devotion to womanhood and not love of blood." Speaking to an unidentified group of African Americans, Carr explained how their leadership would in his view end mob violence. "Frown upon any who would excuse the crime or give protection to the brute, and create a public sentiment that will compel all your race to follow your example. Is this more than you can do? Do you shrink from it? If so, you are not worthy to be teachers and leaders of your race....The negro preacher and teacher who sits still and says nothing when an outrage is committed by a brute of his race, but comes out in strong denunciation when a mob has lynched the offender, is a moral coward who is an enemy to the uplifting of his race, and the moral elevation of his country."
Seven personal diaries and five letterbooks briefly documenting Carr's personal life, chiefly his travels and personal associations; Carr's daughter Eliza's wedding album, 1895; and a Carr family history by Joseph Julian Carr, 1991.
|Image Folder PF-141/1||
Processed by: David Weber, January 1988
Encoded by: ByteManagers Inc., 2008
Updated by: Kathryn Michaelis, June 2010
Updated by: Laura Hart, December 2018Back to Top