Collection Number: 00324

Collection Title: Hayes Collection, 1694-1928

This collection has access restrictions. For details, please see the restrictions.

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the Duplication Policy section for more information.


This collection was processed with support from the sponsorship of a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, Office of Preservation, Washington, D.C., 1990-1993.

This collection was microfilmed with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Historical Publications and Records Commission.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Collection Overview

Size 32.0 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 20,000 items)
Abstract The Hayes Collection documents three generations of the white Johnston family and two generations of the white Wood family who owned and managed Hayes in Chowan County, Caledonia in Halifax County, and Poplar Plains, Body, and Salem in Pasquotank County, as well as the people who were enslaved by these families and supplied the labor, knowledge, and skill at their plantations. The collection consists of correspondence, diaries, financial materials (bills of sale for enslaved people and other receipts, contracts for the hiring out of enslaved people, lists of enslaved people, account books, bonds), legal materials (wills, agreements, indentures, deeds of property and land, petitions, judgments, and suits), and photographs. Topics include politics, particularly of the colonial era, the American Revolution, and the early United States; the development and management of several plantations, as well as several fisheries, of which Greenfield in Chowan County was most prominent; the enslaved labor system, including the trafficking of enslaved people through purchase and hiring out of their labor, and enslaved people working as foremen and overseers; self-emancipation by running away, work slow-downs, and other acts of resistance by enslaved people; merchants and mercantilism; banking and finance; trade and shipping; the homefront during the Civil War; the fishing industry during the Civil War; Reconstruction and the transition to a tenant labor and sharecropping system; contemporary family life and social customs; men's education, including higher education at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), the University of Virginia and the University of North Carolina; women's education; health, mental illness, and medical treatments of white and enslaved people; travel; the economy; and the law, particularly estate administration. Pictures include photographs of portraits of Johnston and Wood family members and others, and images of the Hayes plantation house.
Creator Johnston family.



Wood family.
Curatorial Unit University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection.
Language English
Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Information For Users

Restrictions to Access
No restrictions. Openn for research.
Restrictions to Use
No usage restrictions.
Copyright Notice
Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the Hayes Collection #324, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Alternate Form of Material
Part of this collection is available on microfilm (filmed September 1977).
Alternate Form of Material
Some digitized portions of this collection may be transcribed and are available through From the Page: Hayes Collection.
Acquisitions Information
Received on deposit from John Gilliam Wood in 1977 (Acc. 77094, 81027); as gift from John Gilliam Wood, John Gilliam Wood Jr., Edward Wood, and Heide Wood in 1983; from James P. Dees of Statesville, N.C., in May 1988 (Acc. 88064); and from in July 2015 (Acc. 102276).
Additional Descriptive Resources
Original description of microfilm edition of the Hayes Collection and index of personal names and subjects as pdf files. The index cards used to create the attached index can be found in boxes 78 and 79.
Sensitive Materials Statement
Manuscript collections and archival records may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations, the North Carolina Public Records Act (N.C.G.S. § 132 1 et seq.), and Article 7 of the North Carolina State Personnel Act (Privacy of State Employee Personnel Records, N.C.G.S. § 126-22 et seq.). Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill assumes no responsibility.
Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subject Headings

The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.

Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Related Collections

Wilson Special Collections Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

North Carolina Division of Archives and History

Rubenstein Library, Duke University

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Biographical Information

Gabriel Johnston (1699-1752) was born in Scotland, but moved to North Carolina in 1734 following his appointment as royal governor to the colony. He married Penelope Golland, step-daughter of Governor Charles Eden and widow of William Maule, John Lovick, and George Phenney. They had one daughter, Penelope, who in 1758 married John Dawson, son of the president of William and Mary College. Gabriel Johnston also had children named Polly, Caroline, Isabel, and Henry, although their mother's identity is unclear. Following his wife Penelope's death, Gabriel Johnston married Frances Button, who after Gabriel's death would later marry John Rutherford. During his political career Gabriel Johnston worked to improve the collection of quitrents and negotiated a partial settlement of the boundary dispute between North and South Carolina. He also acquired over a thousand acres of land, including the Possum Quarter and Fishing Creek plantations in Granville County, N.C.; Conahoe in Tyrell County, N.C.; and Mount Gallant in Northampton County, N.C. He lived at Eden House on the Chowan River in Bertie County, N.C., where he died in 1752.

Gabriel Johnston's brother, Samuel Johnston (1702-1757), moved to North Carolina in 1735 after having been appointed surveyor-general of the colony. At his death, he owned over 10,000 acres of land in Craven County, N.C., and Onslow County, N.C. He grew corn and indigo and made tar. Prior to leaving Scotland, Samuel Johnston married Helen Scrymsoure and with her had several children: Jean, who married George Blair, an Edenton merchant; Hannah, who married James Iredell, Edenton lawyer and later United States Supreme Court justice; and Isabella, who was engaged to Joseph Hewes, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, but died before the marriage took place.

Samuel and Helen's son, Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), a lawyer, politician, plantation owner, and enslaver, was born in Dundee, Scotland, on 15 December 1733 and came with his parents to North Carolina when he was two years old. He left the colony in 1750 to study in New Haven, Conn., and was later admitted to the law school at Yale College in 1751. He returned to Edenton in the fall of 1753 to read law under Thomas Barker. In May 1755, Johnston was appointed clerk of the Court of Oyer and Terminer and General Gaol Delivery for the Edenton district, and, on 16 October 1756, he was admitted to the bar. He was elected to the Colonial Assembly in 1759 and purchased the post of deputy naval officer of the colony in 1770. He served in both positions until 1775. During the Revolutionary War, Samuel Johnston served in a number of political capacities. He was a member of the First and Second Provincial Congresses, served as president for the Third and Fourth Provincial Congresses, and acted as treasurer of the Northern District between 1775 and 1777. Johnston was consulted in the drafting of the state constitution and served as paymaster of troops for the Edenton district. In 1779, he served as state senator for Chowan County, but left the position in 1780 to serve as one of North Carolina's delegates to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, Pa. In 1782, Johnston returned to his law practice, which he had closed prior to the war, and again served as state senator for Chowan County from 1783 to 1784. He was elected governor of North Carolina in 1787, and served in that capacity until 1789. As president of North Carolina's constitutional conventions of 1788 and 1789, he assisted in the ratification of the United States Constitution. In 1790, he moved to Philadelphia, Pa., where he served in Congress for three years. Between 1800 and 1803, he was a judge on the North Carolina Superior Court of Law and Equity. Johnston had extensive landholdings, most significant were his three plantations that were dependent on enslaved labor, knowledge, and skill: Hayes in Chowan County, Caledonia in Halifax County, and Hermitage in Martin County. He also owned acreage in Pasquotank, Currituck, Tyrell, and Bertie counties. He married Frances Cathcart, daughter of Dr. William Cathcart, in May 1770. He and his wife had nine children, only four of whom survived to adulthood: Penelope, who married John Swann; Frances; Helen; and James Cathcart.

James Cathcart Johnston (1782-1865), plantation owner, enslaver, and businessman, was born 25 June 1782, in Edenton, N.C. He studied at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University), from which he graduated in 1799. He returned to North Carolina to read law under his father's direction, and received a license to practice on 11 April 1804. Politics and law, however, did not interest him as it did his father, and Johnston chose to work in agriculture and trade, becoming one of the wealthiest North Carolina plantation owners, using forced labor to cultivate familial lands at Hayes, Caledonia, and Poplar Plains, as well as others that he purchased over the years. His main cash crop was corn, but he also grew wheat and cotton. The first plantation that Johnston managed was Poplar Plains, his father's Pasquotank County plantation on the Pasquotank River four miles below Elizabeth City. In 1804, he began extended visits to the plantation to oversee its development, including construction of a two-story house, a kitchen, a smokehouse, and three barns. In all, he farmed 2740 acres at Poplar Plains and at adjoining Pasquotank plantations called Body and Salem, the latter purchased from Joseph Blount in 1819. The largest of Johnston's plantations was Caledonia, located in Halifax County along the Roanoke River and inherited from his father. By 1860, there were 271 enslaved people providing the labor, knowledge, and skill on 7834 acres at Caledonia. Johnston's plantations were managed by a succession of overseers, among them William B. Hathaway and Henry J. Futrell, as well as Peter, Aaron, and Ben, enslaved people who served as foremen or overseers at Poplar Plains, Hayes, and Body respectively.

James Cathcart Johnston received Hayes Plantation by deed of gift dated 29 December 1814 from his father, who in his will instructed James to build a residence there for himself and his sisters. Johnston commissioned William Nichols, an English architect living in Edenton, to design the plantation house. Construction began in the fall of 1815, with enslaved and free artisans and laborers working alongside white craftsmen and workers to build Johnston's fashionable house. The Johnstons were living in it two years later. In 1860, James C. Johnston owned 1374 acres of land at Hayes and enslaved 103 people. Johnston lived at Hayes, but spent much of his time traveling to Caledonia and Poplar Plains to oversee personally their operation. His largest money crop was corn, and he also grew cotton and wheat. He raised some livestock, mostly hogs, sheep, and cattle. The plantation products to be sold were floated downriver on his own boats to storage firms at Plymouth, Elizabeth City, or Edenton. Then they were shipped, often by James's own schooners or canal boats to markets in New York, Baltimore, Norfolk, Charleston, or Savannah. Commission merchants in these cities handled James' profits, buying supplies for the plantations or investing the money in bank stocks and treasury notes for him. Johnston was keenly interested in agricultural reform and experimented with many inventions in agricultural machinery. At Hayes, he constructed a windmill that he later dismantled and replaced with steam engine-powered saw, grist, and flour mills. These proved to be worthwhile investments, producing lumber, flour, and corn meal. He experimented with the Cornell machine that made barrel staves, bought cotton gins and steam-powered threshing machines, and used fertilizers. He supported construction of canals as inland waterways over which to ship his products to market. He also had a vested interest in the shipping and ship building industries, owning many of the boats and schooners used to move his product to market. In addition to the profits made from his plantations, he invested heavily in bank stocks and treasury notes. Johnston never married but did have four daughters, Mary Virginia (1815-1840), Caroline, Louisa, and Annie Edith (1831-1879), with Edith ("Edy") Wood (1795-1846), an enslaved woman he had purchased in the late 1820s and then manumitted along with their children in 1832.* Johnston's nephew of the same name, James Cathcart Johnston, and his nephew's wife lived with him at Hayes for some time, and he financially supported a number of other relatives. Johnston doubted that any of his relatives could adequately run the plantations, and therefore bequeathed his properties to three friends: Christopher W. Hollowell, Henry J. Futrell, and Edward Wood.

Edward Wood (1820-1872), a plantation owner, enslaver, and businessman, ran several steam mills and fisheries prior to inheriting Hayes Plantation. In 1843, he opened a sawmill in Gatesville, N.C., where he made barrel headings and staves in addition to shingles. In 1844, he established Montpelier, a fishery on the Albemarle Sound. A year later, he had accumulated enough capital to purchase several enslaved people, several town lots in Gatesville, and 800 acres of land belonging to his father-in-law's estate. During the 1840s, Wood moved to Greenfield Plantation in Chowan County where he grew wheat, corn, and oats, and raised cattle, hogs, and sheep. In 1850, he acquired partial ownership in a steam mill at Hertford. In 1856, he bought town lots in Edenton and became a co-partner in the mercantile firm of J. M. Cox and Company of Hertford. Wood also was president of the Albemarle Sound Navigation Company, which owned steamboats and schooners that carried freight and passengers. During the Civil War, Wood was arrested and held hostage pending the release of a Confederate prisoner. It was during this time that he met James Cathcart Johnston, who participated in negotiations to free him. Shortly thereafter, Johnston selected Wood to be one of his heirs and co-executor of his estate. Following James Cathcart Johnston's death on 9 May 1865, Wood obtained the Hayes Plantation, including its plantation house and furnishings; Johnston's stock; and all the money Johnston had at his death. Towards the end of his life, Wood managed over 5000 acres at Hayes, Belvedere, Mulberry Hill, Atholl, Greenfield, Somerset, Ashland, Winslow, and Spruill farms, and had major crops in cotton, corn, wheat, orchard fruits, and vegetables. He also owned successful fisheries at Skinner Point, Greenfield, Montpelier, Frying Pan, and Drummond Point. Wood married Caroline Moore Gilliam (1824-1886) and with her had ten children: Mary Francis (born and died in 1845), Sarah Elizabeth (1846-1876), who married Octavius Coke, a North Carolina secretary of state, in 1906; Mary Moore (1848-1893); Edward (1851-1898); John Gilliam (1853-1920); James (1856-1876); Francis (1858-1926); Annie Augusta (b. 1861); Julian Gilliam (b. 1863); and Henry Gilliam (b. 1868). He also reportedly fathered a daughter, Mariah, by an enslaved woman.

At Wood's death in 1872, his wife Caroline and his brother William C. Wood took over the management of his properties. Caroline was active in running the Hayes Farm and had extensive correspondence with the wholesalers in the northern markets. Following the death of William C. Wood, Caroline was assisted by her sons, Edward and John Gilliam, who were educated at the University of Virginia, and Frank, who attended the University of North Carolina. Edward and Frank were instrumental in running the fisheries, while John Gilliam spent most of his time administering to the farms. Upon the decline of the fishing industry in the Albemarle Sound region, John Gilliam and Frank enlarged the farms to grow cotton, peanuts, and fruits. They were involved in the establishment of the Edenton Peanut Company, the Chowan Cotton Oil and Fertilizer Company, and the Edenton Cotton Mill Company, of which Frank became the president. He also served on the Chowan County Board of Commissioners and on the North Carolina Board of Agriculture. He and John Gilliam were directors of the Bank of Edenton, founded in 1894 by their brother Julian Gilliam.

The enslaved community at the Johnston and Wood family plantations numbered in the hundreds, if not more than 1000 people, over the period of 1735-1865. As of 1860, the U.S. federal census slave schedule indicates that James Cathcart Johnston enslaved 271 individuals, and Edward Wood enslaved 46 individuals. Lists of enslaved people and bills of sale for enslaved people may help to create a census of the individuals and families enslaved by the Johnstons and Wood. Many of the enslaved individuals at Hayes were engaged in planting and harvesting cotton and food crops, fishing, raising livestock, felling and milling trees for lumber, and running the house and kitchen. Enslaved people also grew their own crops and livestock, ennabling them to trade with merchants on credit brokered through Johnston's accounts. Corrrespondence and hiring out contracts may provide insights into the occupations and health of individuals.

*Biographical information about James Cathcart Johnston was updated in July 2022 to include information about Edith Wood and her children with Johnston based on research by Mary Maillard published in "'Faithfully Drawn from Real Life': Autobiographical Elements in Frank J. Webb's The Garies and Their Friends," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography Vol. 137, No. 3 (July 2013), pp. 261-300.

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Scope and Content

The Hayes Collection documents three generations of the white Johnston family and two generations of the white Wood family who owned and managed Hayes in Chowan County, Caledonia in Halifax County, and Poplar Plains, Body, and Salem in Pasquotank County, as well as the people who were enslaved by these families and supplied the labor, knowledge, and skill at their plantations. The collection consists of correspondence, diaries, financial materials (bills of sale for enslaved people and other receipts, contracts for the hiring out of enslaved people, lists of enslaved people, account books, bonds), legal materials (wills, agreements, indentures, deeds of property and land, petitions, judgments, and suits), and photographs. Topics include politics, particularly of the colonial era, the American Revolution, and the early United States; the development and management of several plantations, as well as several fisheries, of which Greenfield in Chowan County was most prominent; the enslaved labor system, including the trafficking of enslaved people through purchase and hiring out of their labor, and enslaved people working as foremen and overseers; self-emancipation by running away, work slow-downs, and other acts of resistance by enslaved people; merchants and mercantilism; banking and finance; trade and shipping; the homefront during the Civil War; the fishing industry before and during the Civil War; Reconstruction and the transition to a tenant labor and sharecropping system; contemporary family life and social customs; men's education, including higher education at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), the University of Virginia and the University of North Carolina; women's education; health, mental illness, and medical treatments of white and enslaved people; travel; the economy; and the law, particularly estate administration. Pictures include photographs of portraits of Johnston and Wood family members and others, and images of the Hayes plantation house.

Processing Notes

Parts of the collection were microfilmed in the 1980s, at which time the collection was divided into two subgroups identified as microfilmed or unmicrofilmed materials. Each subgroup is divided into Johnston or Wood family series. Materials donated after the microfilming of the collection can be found in the unmicrofilmed series.

In October 2022, information about enslaved people found in the index to the microfilmed part of this collection was added to the finding aid at the folder level. Archivists have standardized the spelling of names of enslaved people, enslavers, and others who participated in the trafficking of enslaved people wherever possible to facilitate searching within this finding aid. We recognize the complexity of this issue and welcome feedback on this decision at wilsonlibrary@unc.edu.

Back to Top

Contents list

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series Quick Links

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subgroup 1. Microfilmed materials.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 1. Johnston Family, 1694-1865 and undated.

About 11,450 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Correspondence and financial and legal materials documenting three generations of the white Johnston family of North Carolina and others, including the people enslaved by them. Of note are materials relating to Gabriel Johnston (1699-1752), royal governor of the colony of North Carolina; and his brother, Samuel Johnston (1702-1757), plantation owner, enslaver, and surveyor-general of the colony of North Carolina; Samuel Johnston's son, Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), lawyer, governor, United States senator, judge, plantation owner, and enslaver; and Samuel Johnston's (1733-1816) son, James Cathcart Johnston (1782-1865), plantation owner, enslaver, and businessman. Enslaved people are documented in tax lists, bills of sale, hiring out contracts, and in correspondence. There are some letters written by enslaved people, but the majority of letters that report on the lives of enslaved people are written from the perspective of white people. These letters often provide the names of enslaved people and describe the work they performed, their acts of resistance, and health concerns.

Materials provide insight into North Carolina and United States history from the colonial period through the Civil War. Researchers will find the series rich in information on government and politics at both a state and national level; antebellum plantation management, including crop production and agricultural reform, sales and trade, overseers' roles, and the slave labor system; contemporary family life and social customs; education and school life; health, mental illness, and medical treatment; law, particularly estate administration; merchants and mercantilism; and banking and finance.

This series has been divided into two subseries based on material type. The first subseries contains loose papers while the second contains bound volumes, both of which have been arranged chronologically.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.1. Johnston Family Papers 1694-1865.

About 11,350 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Personal, business, and political correspondence, and financial and legal materials documenting the lives of three generations of the white Johnston family of Edenton, N.C., the people enslaved by them, and early North Carolina and United States history. Researchers will find the series rich in information on government and politics at both a state and national level during the Colonial period, the Revolutionary War, and the early United States; antebellum plantation management including crop production and agricultural reform, shipping and trade, overseers' roles, and the slave labor system; contemporary family life and social customs; education and school life; health, mental illness, and medical treatment; law, particularly estate administration; merchants and mercantilism; and banking and finance. Legal and financial materials include indentures, deeds, surveys, wills, judgments and suits, bills of lading, receipts, bills of sale for enslaved people, account sheets and ledgers, and inventories.

Enslaved people are documented in tax lists, bills of sale, hiring out contracts, and in correspondence. There are some letters written by enslaved people, but the majority of letters that report on the lives of enslaved people are written from the perspective of white people. These letters often provide the names of enslaved people and describe the work they performed, their acts of resistance, and health concerns.

The series has been divided into three descriptive sections based on significant shifts that signal a change in the cast of characters and/or the subjects treated during a specific time span.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.1.1. Johnston Family Papers, 1694-1759.

About 150 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Financial papers and legal documents include agreements and indentures, deeds of land, legal suits, and wills that relate to Gabriel Johnston and his wife Penelope, step-daughter of Governor Charles Eden and the widow of William Maule, John Lovick, and George Phenney. The bulk of the materials relate to estate settlements for all of Penelope's previous husbands. However, there are a few land surveys that may have been prepared by Samuel Johnston (1705-1757). Materials relating to Gabriel Johnston's political career are few, although there are papers relating to the collection of quitrents, the dispute over the North and South Carolina border, and a 1748 address to the House of Burgesses. Some land grants date from the 1850s.

Materials documenting enslaved people include a list of enslaved people and a deed.

Folder 1

1694

Folder 2

1709

Folder 3

1712

Unedited transcriptions are available for some of the digitized versions of items in this folder at From the Page: Hayes Collection: folder 003: 1712.

Folder 4

1713

Folder 5

1714

Folder 6

1715

Folder 7

1716

Folder 8

1717

Folder 9

1718

Folder 10

1720

Folder 11

1721

Folder 12

1722

Folder 13

1723

Folder 14

1725-1726

Folder 15

1727

Folder 16

1729

Folder 17

1730

Folder 18

1735

Folder 19

1736

Unedited transcriptions are available for some of the digitized versions of items in this folder at From the Page: Hayes Collection: folder 019: 1736.

June 23: List of enslaved people.

Folder 20

1737

Folder 21

1738

Folder 22

1739

Folder 23

1740

November 18: Deed, in which Dinah, an enslaved girl, was transferred as property from Stephen Williams of Currituck County, N.C., to Thomas Williams.

Folder 24

1741

Folder 25

1742

Folder 26

1743

Folder 27

1744

Folder 28

1745

Folder 29

1746

Folder 30

1747

Folder 31

1748

Folder 32

1749

Oversize Paper Folder OPF-324/1

Land grants, 1721-1759

Extra Oversize Paper Folder XOPF-324/1

Miscellaneous papers

Includes land grants, 18th century; plats; a diploma; printed advertisements; and other materials.

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.1.2. Johnston Family Papers, 1750-1810.

About 2,950 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Papers relating chiefly to Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), including personal, business, and political correspondence; financial papers, including account sheets, bills and receipts, inventories, and merchandise ledgers; and legal documents, such as judgments and suits, agreements and indentures, deeds of land and property, and wills. Papers highlight a broad spectrum of subjects, including early North Carolina and United States politics and government; social, economic, and military developments during wartime; law, especially estate administration; family life and social customs; health; education and school life; plantation administration, including slavery; and mercantilism.

From 1750 to 1757, letters from Samuel Johnston (1702-1757) to his son Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), deal with the younger Johnston's financial situation, his law education, and his procurement of a superior court clerkship. A 1757 letter concerns the death of Helen, the older Johnston's wife, in child birth.

Following Governor Gabriel Johnston's death in 1752, there is extensive correspondence, legal notes and petitions, receipts, and land surveys and deeds pertaining to the settlement of his estate. Starting in 1756, there was a long series of court disputes over the settlement of the estate. In the first one, his executors brought Gabriel's widow Frances Rutherford to court for having failed to release Gabriel's land and personal effects to his daughter and Frances' stepdaughter Penelope. Penelope lived with her stepmother until 1854, when Frances married John Rutherford. Shortly thereafter, Penelope was removed from the guardianship of the Rutherfords and sent to live with Dr. William Cathcart. Later she lived with Governor Robert Dinwiddie in Williamsburg, Va., where she met John Dawson, whom she married in 1758. These events are well documented in the correspondence of this series.

The remainder of the settlement disputes involve the distribution of money that Gabriel left to his relatives. Henry Laurens was extensively involved in obtaining the money for the executors, and his letters reveal the difficulties in fulfilling the stipulations of Gabriel's will. Other individuals involved in the settlement were Gabriel Johnston's other daughter, Isabel Johnston, and members of the Ferrier (sometimes spelled Ferriar) family in Largo, Scotland.

Correspondence with the Ferrier family, chiefly Elizabeth "Eliza" Ferrier, Gabriel Johnston's sister, her husband John Ferrier, and their sons James Ferrier and Robert Ferrier, begins in 1757. Although many of the letters refer to developments in the Gabriel Johnston estate settlement, a broad range of topics also are discussed, including Ferrier/Ferriar and Johnston family genealogy, local politics and social attitudes towards government, economic concerns, business and trade, and health issues, including a letter describing the death of Gabriel Johnston's son Henry from the "bloody flux" in Edinburgh on 6 December 1771.

Correspondence with Penelope Johnston Dawson, Samuel Johnston's (1733-1816) cousin, begins in the late 1750s and continues throughout this subseries. Her letters detail family and social life, social customs such as marriage and courtship, education of children, and health concerns, particularly the ague fever and an outbreak of small pox at Hayes in 1773. Following the death of her husband, Penelope also sought Johnston's advice in regards to plantation business, such as the selling of tar and livestock and the purchase of sundry goods. In 1772, she wrote several letters criticizing an overseer's treatment of enslaved people and asked Johnston to intercede.

Correspondence with business partners and friends also discuss plantation management. Letters provide insight into the functioning of Samuel Johnston's three major plantations--Hayes in Chowan County, Caledonia in Halifax County, and Hermitage in Martin County--and mention trafficking of enslaved people through selling, purchasing, and hiring-out; overseer recommendations; and general concerns regarding livestock and planting. Samuel Johnston's personal financial materials, including account sheets, receipts, inventories, and surveys for his various plantations, are also a rich source of information on plantation management. Beginning in the early 1780s there are annual statements of taxable property for Johnston's land holdings, which often include lists of enslaved people. Other materials documenting enslaved people include bills of sale and receipts for medical treatment for enslaved people and hiring out of enslaved labor.

Political and military developments of the 18th century are frequently discussed in the correspondence. Several letters mention events surrounding the French and Indian War. Also included are a description of a bill for the protection of the colonies against the French (October 1755) and Henry Johnston's recount of Major James Grant's battle at Fort Duquesne, Pa. (20 September 1758).

Later correspondence documents events leading up to the American Revolution and include a letter regarding the repeal of the Stamp Act (1765) and a 10 June 1771 account of an engagement during the War of the Regulation (possibly the Battle of Alamance). Additionally, correspondence, particularly that with Thomas Barker, Samuel Johnston's agent in England during the 1760s and 1770s, discuss the escalating tension between Great Britain and the colonies and provide insight into how the general population, both in America and Great Britain, viewed the declining relations.

During the Revolutionary War period, letters document the establishment and training of militia troops, particularly the Independent Company of Edenton and the activities of Colonel Andrew Knox; the procurement of gun powder, turpentine, tar, arms and other supplies, particularly drums and fifes and a flag with the words "Liberty or Death" (29 June 1775); and covert intelligence activities. Letters also describe events in North Carolina, such as resistance from the Regulators and others living in the western part of the state, defense of the coast and port closures, and public backlash against individuals who were not friendly to the American cause, including several instances of tar and feathering.

Political developments of this era are documented, including the election of officials to the Provincial Congress and the General Congress in Philadelphia, Pa., and the drafting of the Constitution. Following the war, correspondence provides insight into Johnston's activities while acting as the governor, and later, senator of North Carolina.

Following his term in the Senate, Johnston returned to Hermitage Plantation in Martin County, N.C. He continued to correspond with Joseph Anthony and John Maybin, his business contacts in Philadelphia, and their letters give accounts of the plantation products sold for Johnston; of commodities, foodstuffs, and bank stock bought for him; and of political and economic developments throughout the nation. Similar letters also were received from the merchant and investor Robert Lenox and his philanthropist son, John Lenox, both of New York City. Materials related to George Blair and Hindley and Needham, a large mercantile firm, reveal much about merchants and trade at that time.

After the war, Johnston's correspondence with relatives and business agents in Great Britain, particularly Alexander Elmsley and Peter Elmsley of England, discuss foreign market news, the growing conflict between England and France, the French Revolution, and American anxiety over the Louisiana Territory (14 August 1802).

Also of note are estate and bankruptcy settlements handled by Johnston. Of particular interest are those materials related to Sir Nathaniel Duckenfield and his mother Margaret Pearson, for whom Samuel tried to recover land confiscated during the Revolutionary War.

Materials of James Cathcart Johnston (1782-1865) begin around 1793 and consist of letters written to his father while attending the College of New Jersey. Between 1799 and 1805, correspondence between James Cathcart Johnston and his classmates touches on such topics as business, courtship, dueling, and suicide.

Folder 33

1750

Folder 34

1751

Folder 35

1752

Folder 36

1753

Folder 37

1754

Folder 38

1755

Folder 39

1756

Unedited transcriptions are available for some of the digitized versions of items in this folder at From the Page: Hayes Collection: folder 039: 1756.

February 20: List of enslaved people.

November 30: List of enslaved people.

Folder 40

January-June 1757

Folder 41

July-December 1757

December (undated): List of enslaved people.

Folder 42

January-June 1758

Unedited transcriptions are available for some of the digitized versions of items in this folder at From the Page: Hayes Collection: folder 042: January-June 1758.

March 28: Letter from Caroline Johnson in Roanoke to Samuel Johnston, concerning Titus, an enslaved person, and the conditions required for him to be hired out.

Folder 43

July-December 1758

Folder 44

1759

Unedited transcriptions are available for some of the digitized versions of items in this folder at From the Page: Hayes Collection: folder 044: 1759.

October 24: List of enslaved people.

Folder 45

1760

Folder 46

1761

Unedited transcriptions are available for some of the digitized versions of items in this folder at From the Page: Hayes Collection: folder 046: 1761.

Folder 47

January-August 1762

Folder 48

September-December 1762

Unedited transcriptions are available for some of the digitized versions of items in this folder at From the Page: Hayes Collection: folder 048: September-December 1762.

September (undated): List of enslaved people.

Oversize Paper Folder OPF-324/2

Financial and legal papers, 1762-1781

Includes lists of enslaved people; land grants; and miscellaneous other legal documents.

Folder 49

1763

April 25: Bill of Sale for Rose and her infant child, enslaved people who were sold by Susannah Fullerton and the estate of her deceased husband Matthew Fullerton to Samuel Johnston.

September (undated): List of enslaved people.

Folder 50

1764

October 31: Bill of sale for Dinah, an enslaved person, and Jack, Charles, and Edsy, enslaved children, who were sold by William Williams in Currituck County, N.C., to Samuel Johnston in Chowan County, N.C.

Folder 51

1765

Folder 52

1766

August 15: Bill of sale for Charles, an enslaved boy who was sold by George Wells, a physic surgery practitioner in Edenton, to William Meredith of Chowan County, N.C. Meredith then trafficked Charles to Samuel Johnston.

December 3: Letter from Samuel Johnston, in which he mentioned Tom, an enslaved person who he intended to sell.

Folder 53

January-June 1767

Folder 54

July-December 1767

Folder 55

January-June 1768

Folder 56

August-December 1768

Folder 57

January-April 1769

Unedited transcriptions are available for some of the digitized versions of items in this folder at From the Page: Hayes Collection: folder 057: January-April 1769.

March 6: List of enslaved people.

Folder 58

May-August 1769

Folder 59

September-December 1769

November 6: Bill of sale for Esther, an enslaved woman, and her enslaved children Mary-Anne, Milly, and Lucy, who were sold by Anne Swift and the estate of her deceased husband Samuel Swift in Edenton, N.C., to Samuel Johnston.

November 21: Legal opinion on slavery and the leasehold estate.

Folder 60

January-April 1770

Folder 61

May-August 1770

May 28: Bill of sale for Kate and Dinah, enslaved people who were sold by N. Buchanan through Thomas Gilchrist, who brokered the trafficking of Kate and Dinah up the James River.

July 1: Letter from Will Cathcart, who may have been formerly enslaved, to Samuel Johnston. Cathcart sent greetings.

July 6: Letter from Will Cathcart, who may have been formerly enslaved, acknowledging Peggy, who was enslaved to Samuel Johnston, as the carrier of the letter. Cathcart sent greetings.

July 6: Letter from Penelope Dawson to her cousin Samuel Johnston at Hayes, concerning accusations by the enslaved people that the overseer was withholding provisions.

Folder 62

September-December 1770

December 24: List of enslaved people.

Folder 63

January-February 1771

January 21: List of enslaved people.

Folder 64

March-April 1771

April 24: List of enslaved people.

April 29: List of enslaved people.

April 30: List of enslaved people.

Folder 65

May-June 1771

May 31: Bill of sale for Joe, an enslaved person who was sold by Richard Bond of Chowan County, N.C., to Samuel Johnston.

Folder 66

July-August 1771

July 19: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 67

September-October 1771

Folder 68

November-December 1771

Folder 69

January-February 1772

January 9: Bill of sale for Dick, an enslaved man who was sold by J. W. Campbell to Samuel Johnston.

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Folder 70

March-April 1772

March 18: Bill of sale for Teeny, an enslaved woman who was sold by William Houghton to Samuel Johnston.

April 24: Letter from Will Cathcart to Samuel Johnston, acknowledging Homer, an enslaved person, as the carrier of the letter. The letter also reports that Rose, an enslaved woman, had eloped toward Edenton, N.C.

Folder 71

May-June 1772

June 10: List of enslaved people.

Folder 72

July-August 1772

July 17: Letter from Penelope Dawson to Samuel Johnston, reporting that Jack and an unnamed younger person, both of whom were enslaved, had reported harsh treatment by the overseer to her.

Folder 73

September-October 1772

Folder 74

November-December 1772

Folder 75

January-April 1773

January 8: Bill of sale for Molly, an enslaved woman who was sold by Joseph Hewit(?) to Samuel Johnston .

April 2: Bill of sale for Tom, Cato, and Jack, enslaved people who were sold by the estate of the father of Thomas Stevenson in Perquimons County, N.C., to Ambrose Knox.

Folder 76

May-August 1773

May 27: Bill of sale for Dick, an enslaved man sold by Lowther, Hardy & Little to Samuel Johnston.

Folder 77

September-December 1773

September 11: Bill of sale for Major, an enslaved man sold by William Lowther to Samuel Johnston. The receipt is witnessed by Andrew Little in Edenboro.

Folder 78

January-April 1774

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Folder 79

May-August 1774

Folder 80

September-December 1774

October 31: Bill of sale for Pill (Philip), an enslaved child sold by the estate of John Baker to Samuel Johnston.

November 28: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

December 17: Letter from Penelope Dawson at Eden House to Mr. Johnston, in which she wrote that Callum, who was enslaved by Johnston, requested that his wife who had been hired out be returned to the plantation.

Folder 81

January-February 1775

Undated: List of enslaved people.

January 29: Letter to S. Dickinson in which Nathaniel Dukenfield expressed a preference against the sale of enslaved people to pay debts.

Folder 82

March-April 1775

Folder 83

May-June 1775

May 23: Letter from Robert Smith in Edenton to Joseph Hewes, reporting that enslaved people were rumored to be planning rebellion.

Folder 84

July-August 1775

Folder 85

September-October 1775

Unedited transcriptions are available for some of the digitized versions of items in this folder at From the Page: Hayes Collection: folder 085: September-October 1775.

September 26: Bill of sale for Will, an enslaved person sold by Lawrence Lipley to Andrew Knox. Payment was made through Thomas Newby.

October undated: Letter (unsigned) from a financial agent to Elizabeth Tunstall, reporting that 100 or more people were known to be enslaved by her father.

Folder 86

November-December 1775

Folder 87

January-February 1776

Folder 88

March-April 1776

April 17: Correspondence describing insurrection by enslaved people.

Folder 89

May-June 1776

June 16: Bill of sale for two unnamed enslaved people who were purchased by Samuel Johnston for Hannah Johnston Iredell on the day of her wedding. The purchase of the enslaved people was in fulfillment of Gabriel Johnston's will.

Folder 90

July-August 1776

Folder 91

September-December 1776

Folder 92

1777

August 10: Bill of sale for Robin, an enslaved man who was sold by Abner Eason to P. Travers, and then trafficked by Travers to W. James Sumner.

Folder 93

1778

Folder 94

1779

Folder 95

1780

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Folder 96

1781

Folder 97

1782

Folder 98

January-July 1783

February 1: List of enslaved people.

Folder 99

August-December 1783

Folder 100

January-April 1784

Folder 101

May-August 1784

June (undated): List of enslaved people.

Folder 102

September-December 1784

Folder 103

January-March 1785

January (undated): List of enslaved people.

Folder 104

April-June 1785

Folder 105

July-September 1785

Folder 106

October-December 1785

October 14: Bill of sale for Plato, an enslaved child who was sold by Samuel Hall to Samuel Johnston.

November 2: Bill of sale for Phebe, an enslaved person who was sold by the estate of Aaron Moon to Zebulon Snowden.

November 29: Bill of sale for Hardy, an enslaved child who was sold by Thomas Jarman of Onslow County, N.C., to Samuel Johnston. Hardy was the son of Sarah, an enslaved woman.

Oversize Paper Folder OPF-324/3

Financial and legal papers, 1785-1820 and undated

Includes wills; lists of land prices; a diploma; and miscellaneous other materials.

Folder 107

January-June 1786

Undated: Samuel Johnston's Taxable Property, including 46 enslaved people between 12 and 50 years of age; additionally, Johnston reported 13 enslaved people between the ages of 13 and 50 who were the property of Margaret Pearson (deceased).

January 12: Bill of sale for Phebe, an enslaved woman who was sold by Zebulon Snowden to Samuel Johnston. Phebe had previously been enslaved by the estate of Aaron Moon.

Folder 108

July-December 1786

October 16: List of enslaved people.

December 13: Letter from Nathaniel Duckenfield to Samuel Johnston, mentioning Duckenfield's distress at the sale of Johnston's enslaved people. Suckey, an enslaved woman at the plantation that had been sold to Ryan, reportedly had attempted suicide but was being treated by a physician.

Folder 109

January-June 1787

Folder 110

July-December 1787

Folder 111

January-June 1788

Folder 112

July-December 1788

Folder 113

January-May 1789

Undated: List of enslaved people.

January 29: List of enslaved people.

Folder 114

June-December 1789

June 30: Letter from Nathaniel Duckenfield to Samuel Johnston, reporting that London, Bet, and Suckey, who were enslaved people, were purchased by him. Duckenfield also mentioned Toney, an enslaved person, and that Mers (?) and his wife and children, enslaved people, had been purchased by William Dawson.

Folder 115

January-May 1790

Folder 116

June-December 1790

Folder 117

January-March 1791

Folder 118

April-December 1791

July 16: Census of the people, including a category for enslaved people, living in Edenton, New Bern, Wilmington, Fayette, Halifax, Hillsborough, Salisbury, and Morgan.

Folder 119

January-April 1792

March 23: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 120

May-August 1792

Folder 121

September-December 1792

Folder 122

January-June 1793

1793 Undated: List of enslaved people.

May 16: Receipt for clothing, mending, and services provided by John Watts for George, Cato, Helen, Rose, George, and Betty, who were enslaved by Samuel Johnston.

June 11: Record documenting Penny, an enslaved girl, who was sold by William Jordan to John Swann.

Folder 123

July-December 1793

December 20: Receipt documenting payment from the estate of John Swann to Thomas Nichols for a midwife fee for Dolley, an enslaved woman, for services she provided to Violet, an enslaved woman, to deliver her baby.

Folder 124

January-April 1794

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Folder 125

May-August 1794

August 23: Record of hiring out of Mark and Bob, enslaved people whose labor had been purchased from the estate of W. John Swann by Samuel Johnston. Mark and Bob had been in the possession of Mary Blount, presumably because she previously had hired their labor.

Folder 126

September-December 1794

Folder 127

January-April 1795

April 15: Record of hiring out of George, an enslaved person whose labor had been purchased from the estate of John Swann by Samuel Johnston.

Folder 128

May-July 1795

Folder 129

September-December 1795

Folder 130

James C. Johnston's essays written at Woodbury School, 1793-1796

Folder 131

January-April 1796

Undated: List of enslaved people.

February 21: Letter from Nathaniel Duckenfield at Williamston to "Madam," discussing disposition of the W. Pollock's estate, which included enslaved people.

Folder 132

May-December 1796

October 29: Record of hiring out of Milley and her children, enslaved people whose labor had been purchased from the estate of John Swann by Samuel Johnston.

Folder 133

January-June 1797

Folder 134

July-December 1797

Folder 135

January-April 1798

Undated: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 136

May-August 1798

May 14: Legal document certifying that Anthony Darlet, at his death in 1798, enslaved 8 people, 1 of whom had been sold by Darlet in his lifetime but there had been no bill of sale until after his death.

Folder 137

September-December 1798

Folder 138

James C. Johnston's essays written at Princeton College, 1796-1799

Folder 139

James C. Johnston's essays written at Princeton College, 1796-1799

Folder 140

January-February 1799

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Folder 141

March-April 1799

Folder 142

May-June 1799

Folder 143

July-August 1799

August 17: List of enslaved people.

Folder 144

September-October 1799

Folder 145

November-December 1799

Folder 146

January-February 1800

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Folder 147

March-April 1800

Folder 148

May-June 1800

Folder 149

July-August 1800

Folder 150

September-October 1800

Folder 151

November-December 1800

Folder 152

January-March 1801

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Folder 153

April-June 1801

Folder 154

July-September 1801

Folder 155

October-December 1801

December 1: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 156

January-March 1802

Undated: Tax receipt indicating Samuel Johnston enslaved 63 people in different counties and owned 567 acres in Martin County, N.C.

March 2: Bill of sale for Patt, an enslaved woman who was sold by William Blunt through Jonas Crump to William McIntyre.

Folder 157

April-June 1802

June 10: Correspondence describing insurrection by enslaved people.

Folder 158

July-September 1802

Folder 159

October-December 1802

November 2: Record of James, who was enslaved by Samuel Johnston, in account with Josiah Relfe.

Folder 160

January-March 1803

January 25: Bill of sale for Solomon, an enslaved man of about 22 years of age who was sold by Edmund Chancy of Pasquotank County, N.C., to Samuel Johnston in Martin County, N.C.

Folder 161

April-June 1803

Folder 162

July-September 1803

Folder 163

October-December 1803

Folder 164

January-March 1804

Undated: List of enslaved people.

January 3: Record of hiring out of Bowden, an enslaved person whose labor had been purchased from the estate of Henry Joyner through the executor Benjamin Pope by Samuel Johnston.

January 7: Bill of sale for Hannah, an enslaved person sold by the estate of Abraham Wiley through its executor William T. Muse of Pasquotank County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston in Martin County, N.C.

January 24: Record of hiring out of an enslaved person whose labor was purchased through Kenneth Clark by W. Smith for William McKenzie. The enslaver may have been Thomas Rhodes.

February 1: Record of hiring out of Sue, an enslaved woman whose labor had been purchased from Edward Byrd by William McKenzie.

February 14: Letter from John Beasley in Edenton concerning the hiring out of Ronden, who was enslaved to the estate of D. Dickinson.

Folder 165

April-June 1804

Folder 166

July-September 1804

Folder 167

October-December 1804

Folder 168

January-February 1805

Folder 169

March-April 1805

Folder 170

May-June 1805

Folder 171

July 1805

Folder 172

September-October 1805

Folder 173

November-December 1805

Folder 174

January-March 1806

Folder 175

April-June 1806

Folder 176

July-September 1806

Folder 177

October-December 1806

October 15: Bill of sale for Tom, an enslaved person who was sold by John McDonald of Pasquotank County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston of Martin County, N.C.

Folder 178

January-March 1807

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Folder 179

April-June 1807

Folder 180

July-September 1807

Folder 181

October-December 1807

October (undated): List of articles purchased for James Cathcart Johnston in New York, including blankets for enslaved people.

October 3: Receipt indicating that William M. Clark had received 100 dollars belonging to John Butler, a free person of color, to keep for him. William McKenzie transferred Butler's money to Clark.

Folder 182

January-April 1808

February 3: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

Folder 183

May-August 1808

Folder 184

September-December 1808

Folder 185

January-April 1809

Folder 186

May-August 1809

August 11: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

August 14: Account record documenting hiring out of Cancer, an enslaved person whose labor was purchased from William Smith by James Cathcart Johnston.

August 22: Record of hiring out of Mike, an enslaved person whose labor was purchased from Dr. A. Knox by William McKenzie. William Clark brokered the trafficking of Mike.

Folder 187

September-December 1809

November 7: Bill of sale for Mingo, an enslaved person who was purchased from Thomas Bennett of Martin County, N.C., by Samuel Johnston of Martin County, N.C.

December 9: Bill of sale for Jacob, an enslaved person who was purchased from R. Whitaker by William McKenzie. The sale originally took place 1 March 1809.

December 26: Letter of contract from Josiah White, Abraham Symons, and H. P. Redding to Penelope Swan, in which they pledged to serve as guarantors for Hannibal, an enslaved person who was purchasing his freedom from Swan.

December 27: Bill of sale for Davis, an enslaved blacksmith who was purchased from William M. Clark of Martin County, N.C., by Samuel Johnston of Martin County, N.C.

Folder 188

January-March 1810

Unedited transcriptions are available for some of the digitized versions of items in this folder at From the Page: Hayes Collection: folder 188: January-March 1810.

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Undated: List of enslaved people.

January 2: Letter from a lawyer in Williamston to W. J. Muse, providing legal counsel as to how to transfer ownership of Hannibal from Penelope Swann to Josiah White, Abraham Symons, and H. P. Redding so that they might emancipate him.

January 2: Receipt for purchase of shoes for enslaved people by James Johnston from William Watts.

Folder 189

April-June 1810

Folder 190

July-September 1810

Folder 191

October-December 1810

December 6: List of enslaved people.

December 10: Promissory note related to the sale of Dinah, who was enslaved to the estate of John B. Hunter in Martin County, N.C., and sold to Margaret McKenzie. James Cathcart Johnston and Winifred W. Hunter brokered the trafficking of Dinah.

December 14: Bill of sale for Sarah and her four children, an enslaved family who were sold by the estate of John B. Hunter in Martin County, N.C., by Margaret McKenzie.

December 15: Bill of sale for Dinah, an enslaved person who was sold by the estate of John B. Hunter in Martin County, N.C., to Margaret McKenzie. Winifred W. Hunter brokered the trafficking of Dinah.

December 17: Promissory note related to the sale of Sarah and her four children, an enslaved family who were sold by the estate of John B. Hunter in Martin County, N.C., by Margaret McKenzie. James Cathcart Johnston and Winifred W. Hunter brokered the trafficking of Sarah and her children.

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.1.3. Johnston Family Papers, 1811-1865.

About 8,250 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Chiefly business and personal correspondence and financial and legal papers concerning the operation of James Cathcart Johnston's plantations and his involvement in the shipping industry. Financial materials include account sheets; inventories; bills of sale for enslaved people; bills of lading; receipts for overseers wages and medical treatments for both Johnston's family and the people he enslaved; hiring out contracts for the labor of enslaved people; and tax information, including lists of enslaved people. Legal documents include land surveys and deeds, agreements and indentures, judgments and suits, and wills.

Letters of overseers, shippers, and merchants to Johnston reveal many details of plantation administration, such as farming procedures, planting and harvesting of crops, the volume of production each season, delivery of crops to various local storage firms, payments of accounts, and the supplies needed to run the plantation. Materials also document individual enslaved people and give some insights into the lived experience of enslaved people at Johnston's plantations, although chiefly from the perspective of white people. Enslaved people, for example, were permitted to raise and sell crops from their own garden plots, and often were supervised by an enslaved foreman while Johnston vacationed or took trips to his other plantations. Records also document the provision of shoes, hats, blankets, and medical care. There are also some letters and bills that indicate that enslaved people engaged in acts of resistance, including theft and self-emancipation by running away, that sometimes ended in jail time or acts of violence against them. There are some letters written by the enslaved people who were working as foremen and overseers for Johnston. Correspondence between Johnston and foremen and overseers frequently include the names of enslaved people and describe the work they performed.

Johnston's letters also discuss the successes and failures of many of his agricultural and machinery experiments. Construction projects, such as buildings at Poplar Plains (1811-1815), a new residence at Hayes, and a windmill at Hayes that was later dismantled and replaced with steam engine-powered saw, grist and flour mills, are also well documented.

Letters document the hiring of trading vessels and shipping contracts, insurance and compensation for damaged goods, interruptions in trade, market conditions and prices, and investment of profits. Other financial concerns include Johnston's investments in bank stock and treasury notes, the decline of banks and currency during the 1820s and 1830s, and the success of Johnston's lumber mill and the sale of timber.

Notable business correspondents include the following people and firms: John Wilkes, Zachariah Howell, William B. Hathaway, Henry J. Futrell, James Palmer, John Spears, and C. W. Hollowell, all overseers or managers on the plantations; Aaron, Nixon, Ben, and Peter, who were enslaved by Johnston and who acted as foremen and overseers; Angelo Garibaldo, Johnston's private river captain and shipper; Clark, Carnal and Co., John Popelston, John C. Ehringhaus, Clark, Cox and Co., James Gordon and Jacob N. Gordon, Bryan & Clark Co., J. and O. Fearing, Samuel Kissam, Bryan & Maitland Co., all wholesale houses in Plymouth, Elizabeth City and Edenton, N.C., that stored and shipped products to market; Hardy Brothers, Maitland, Kennedy and Co., commission merchants in Norfolk, Va.; Whedbee & Dickinson, commission merchants in Baltimore, M; Robert Lenox  & Son, Blount & Jackson Co., Bryan  & Maitland Co., Sawyer & Whedbee Co., Hicks and Smith Co., Brown and DeRosset Co., Williams, Bee and Co., John S. Bryan and Co., J. G. Hicks Co., commission merchants in New York City.

Johnston's family life is most evident in letters relating to the financial support and education provided for various relatives. Johnston paid for the education of many relatives and friends, particularly the Iredell grandchildren of his aunt Hannah Iredell and the Alston and Johnston grandchildren of his uncle John Johnston. Letters from Thomas Johnston detail the life of a student at the University of North Carolina between 1819 and 1821 and his apprenticeship to study medicine in Hillsborough. In 1820, Wooton Wright Hawkes wrote about his education and his impression of the people in Paris. Annie Iredell wrote several letters in 1831 describing her courses of study while in Philadelphia, Pa.

Beginning in 1838 correspondence focuses on Joseph Blount, who suffered from mental illness. Letters provide insight into the medical treatment of and social attitudes towards mental illness during this period. Charles Evans of the Friends Asylum in Philadelphia, Pa., detailed Blount's mental health and treatments, and provided recommendations for his future well-being. Blount wrote many letters concerning his health and daily activities, and Johnston received reports from family members and friends that expressed concern regarding Blount's outward behavior.

Other notable personal correspondents include members of the Alston and John T. Johnston families, who migrated to Tennessee and Mississippi in the 1830s and wrote of their experiences; Ebenezer Pettigrew and William S. Pettigrew, who often wrote of their opinions on local politics, plantation management, and slavery; and James Johnston Pettigrew, who gave detailed accounts of his European tour and his opinions on antebellum Charleston society.

During his leisure hours, Johnston traveled a great deal. He frequently journeyed to New York City and Saratoga Springs to visit friends. In 1845, he leased a cabin at White Sulphur Springs in Greenbrier County, Va., and thereafter became a regular summer and fall visitor to this and other fashionable mountain resorts in Virginia. In 1859, he bought a farm at Cedar Creek in Bath County, Va., built a house and log cabins, and began planting crops. However, the outbreak of the Civil War curtailed his plans to create a mountain retreat.

Beginning in 1860, correspondence documents the social unrest caused by political tensions between the North and the South. As early as June, James Johnston Pettigrew wrote of his fear that this discord would eventually erupt in war. Letters from correspondents in New York and Baltimore reflect the state of politics and the disruptions in trade as early as November. Johnston's letters to friends and business partners are highly critical of the Secession Movement of 1860-1861.

In 1861, letters concern banks and banking, stocks and bonds, and the fluctuations in the value of currency. Frequent letters from Captain Angelo Gariboldo document the state of trade and shipping during the early years of the war.

Letters from overseers continue to document the management of Johnston's various plantations throughout the war, with references to acts of resistance by enslaved people, including self-emancipation and work reductions. Later correspondence mentions the drafting of enslaved people to fight in the Confederate States Army. Johnston's correspondence with Henry Futrell and C. W. Hollowell share opinions on the war and slavery.

There are very few letters from soldiers, but letters from business associates and family members describe military engagements and reflect on the effects of the war on society. Letters from William Hardy of Norfolk, Va., document the burning of the Naval yard, blockade of the harbor, and arrival of troops in 1861. Letters from women, particularly of the Iredell family, often relay news received from sons on the battlefield.

Throughout the Civil War, James C. Johnston lived at Hayes with his cousin, James Cathcart Johnston Jr., and his wife, who helped with the management of the plantation. Edenton, like many other southern towns, suffered from pillaging by "Buffaloes" (civilians with Union allegiances), Union soldiers, and Confederate guerrillas, and fear of these attacks lead James Cathcart Johnston Jr. and his wife to flee the plantation on three separate occasions. In 1863, following the third such incident, Johnston hired a man to help him manage his mills, farmed with the help of friends, and bought small lots of land to get rid of his worthless paper securities. He also wrote his will, in which he gave his real and personal property to three friends and made them co-executors of his estate. Edward Wood, an Edenton businessman, received his Chowan County property, including Hayes. Christopher W. Hollowell, a resident of Pasquotank County who had managed Johnston's farms in that area was given Poplar Plains and the other Pasquotank properties. Caledonia's manager, Henry J. Futrell, inherited the property in Halifax and Northampton counties.

In the summer of 1864, Union forces raided Hayes. Johnston subsequently demanded protection and the military government issued him a safeguard. It stated that Johnston was a "loyal and well disposed citizen" and that the Union forces were to respect his person and property. At the end of the war, most of Johnston's properties emerged relatively unscathed.

Johnston died in 1865. His cousins challenged the legitimacy of his will and its accompanying letters of instruction written to the executors, claiming that Johnston had been mentally unstable when he had written the will and the letters. The will was finally established as legal in 1867, but the estate was not settled until 1871 because additional suits were brought against its executors. For more information on the settling of the Johnston estate see the Wood family papers (Series 2.1.1).

Folder 192

January 1811

January 5: Bill of sale for Jerry, Priscilla (otherwise "Silla") and her children James and Ferebee, enslaved people who were sold by William T. Muse of Pasquotank County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston of Martin County. Muse had purchased Jerry, Priscilla, James, and Ferebee from the estate of Frederick Davis.

Undated: List of enslaved people with amounts of credit next to names.

Folder 193

February 1811

Folder 194

March 1811

March 2: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 195

April 1811

Folder 196

May 1811

Folder 197

June 1811

June 16: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston in Williamston, N.C., to Abel Hines Jr., a hatter in New Milford, Conn., requesting a supply of wool hats for enslaved people. Verso of the letter includes a list of 40 enslaved people; 1 of the females is noted to have 3 children; 4 other females are noted with either an age or the number of children they have.

June 29: List of enslaved people, with names; for some individuals, work skills, number of children, and disability are noted.

Folder 198

July 1811

Folder 199

August 1811

August 7: Letter from Abel Hine Jr., a hatter in New Millford, Conn., to James Cathcart Johnston in Williamston, N.C., confirming that he will send 12 dozen wool hats for enslaved people.

Folder 200

September 1811

September 9: Receipt for labor of Pompy and bricks that James Cathcart Johnston bought from James Cunningham, a free Black businessman in Edenton.

Folder 201

October 1811

Folder 202

November 1811

November 20: List of enslaved people.

Folder 203

December 1811

Folder 204

January 1812

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Folder 205

February 1812

Undated: List of enslaved people.

February 13: Letter from John B. Blount in Edenton to James Cathcart Johnston at Hermitage near Williamston, regarding Miller, an enslaved person who was sold by Dr. Knox through Mr. Bush of Halifax County, N.C. and J. Clark, to Mrs. W. Kinzer. The letter also states that Miller was mortgaged by Dr. Knox to Mr. Muse.

February 23: Letter from William J. Muse at Pasquotonk to James Cathcart Johnston at Williamston, regarding refusal of Penelope Swann to accept the bill of sale for Hannibal, an enslaved person, and the resulting complications to his emancipation.

February 24: Receipt for interest paid on the purchase of enslaved people by James Cathcart Johnston from Penelope Swann.

February 28: Bill of sale for Robin, Tom, Charles, York, Cancer, George, Levi, Ishmael, Sam, Isaiah, James, Edmound, Stephen, Tamer and six children, Milly and three children, Lemon and three children, Julia, Mary, Penny and two children, Betsy, "Old" Cancer, John Violet, Patima, Currituck, James, Isaac, Reuben, Dick, Moses, and Jerry, all of whom were enslaved people who were sold by Penelope Swann in Martin County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston in Martin County, N.C.

Folder 206

March 1812

Folder 207

April 1812

Folder 208

May 1812

May 9: Receipt for court fees related to the emancipation of Hannibal that were payed by James Cathcart Johnston to H. B. Hunter.

May 23: List of people enslaved by Will Blair, including Geof, Ben, Pomp, Jacob, Will, Atlas, Edmund, Jude, Pat and her three children (George, Marianne, and Serena), and Suk and her two children (Abraham and Maria). Blair noted that one of the people enslaved by him was not listed as he had self-emancipated.

Folder 209

June 1812

Folder 210

July 1812

Folder 211

August 1812

Folder 212

September 1812

September 8: Record of James Cathcart Johnston in account with Booz Barrod for purchases of shoes and shoe repairs for enslaved people who are listed by name.

Folder 213

November 1812

Folder 214

December 1812

December 28: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 215

January-March 1813

January 25: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

January 27: Record of hiring out of Cato, who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnston, to Benjamin Folks and to Richard Poindexter.

Folder 216

April-June 1813

April 19: Letter from George Blair in Edenton to James Cathcart Johnston, mentioning George and Sam, who were enslaved by Johnston, and that some of the enslaved people there had been sick. George also described the work done on the plantation.

April 20: Letter from George Blair in Edenton to James Cathcart Johnston, asking for further communication, and mentioning an enclosed memorandum from Sam, who was enslaved by Johnston.

April 26: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 217

July-September 1813

July 8: Letter from Sam to his enslaver James Cathcart Johnston in Williamston, discussing communications with the bricklayer who would work on the chimney and the poor condition of the crops due to drought.

September 22: Letter from Robert H. Smith to James Cathcart Johnston, mentioning Field, an enslaved person who was married to Penney. Smith inquired about purchasing Penney and her youngest child.

Folder 218

October-December 1813

October 9: Letter from Peter B. Martin in Cedar Landing to James Cathcart Johnston in Edenton, regarding the hiring of Cato, who was enslaved to Johnston, by Mrs. Folks. Cato was hired as a builder.

Folder 219

January-March 1814

February 16: List of enslaved people.

March (undated): List of enslaved people.

Folder 220

April-June 1814

Folder 221

July-September 1814

July 1: Bill of sale for James, an enslaved person who was sold by Myles Davis of Pasquotank County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston in Martin County, N.C.

Folder 222

October-December 1814

November 4: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 223

January-March 1815

Folder 224

April-June 1815

May (undated): List of enslaved people.

May 4: List of enslaved people.

Folder 225

July-September 1815

Folder 226

October-December 1815

Folder 227

January-April 1816

Undated: John Parker's receipt for payment for protection of people enslaved by James Cathcart Johnston.

Undated: 3 lists of enslaved people and amount of corn harvested by each.

Folder 228

May-August 1816

Folder 229

September-December 1816

November (undated): List of enslaved people.

Folder 230

January-February 1817

Undated: Tax list documenting that James Cathcart Johnston enslaved 42 people in Halifax County, and Margaret McKenzie enslaved 20 people.

January 6: Record of provisions provided to Hanah, Milley, and Pegey(?), who were enslaved by James Cathcart Johnston.

January 7: Record of hiring out of Dave, an enslaved person whose labor was purchased from Reuban Cavnal (?) by James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 231

March-April 1817

March 19: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

April 7: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 232

May-June 1817

June 5: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 233

July-August 1817

Folder 234

September-October 1817

October 27: Bill of sale for Tom, an enslaved person sold by Durham Davis of Martin County, N.C., to Penelope Swann. James Cathcart Johnston brokered the trafficking of Tom.

Folder 235

November-December 1817

November 10: Receipt for the hiring out of London and Hannibal, enslaved people whose labor was purchased from D. McDonald by James Cathcart Johnston.

November 11: Bill of sale for Shaderick, an enslaved boy who was sold by Maragret McKenzie to James Cathcart Johnston.

November 24: Message from James Cathcart Johnston to James R. Creery, requesting flannel be sent with Mingo, an enslaved person who carried messages and goods for Johnston.

Folder 236

January 1818

January 1: Record of hiring out of Harry, an enslaved person whose labor was purchased from Edmond Hoskins by James Cathcart Johnston.

January 29: Bill of sale for Dick, an enslaved boy who was sold by John W. Littlejohn and John Little, executors of the estate of William Littlejohn, to James Cathcart Johnston.

Undated: Letter (fragment), that mentions that the will, possibly that of Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), intended for the plantations and enslaved people to be kept together.

Undated: List of enslaved people and corn made and delivered by each.

Folder 237

February 1818

Folder 238

March 1818

Folder 239

April 1818

Folder 240

May 1818

Folder 241

June 1818

Folder 242

July 1818

July 22: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 243

August 1818

Folder 244

September 1818

Folder 245

October 1818

October 6: Letter from William LesGray to James Catchart Johnston, reporting that a woman enslaved by Amos Ragner wished to be purchased by Johnston or LesGray in order to be closer to her husband.

Folder 246

November 1818

November 21: Letter from Charlton Y. Mowby in Northampton County to James Cathcart Johnston in Edenton, concerning Jim, Isaac, and Frank, enslaved people who had self-emancipated but had been captured and returned to Northampton County, N.C. Frank was enslaved by Johnston and was found at Connoconary Swamp. It is not clear to whom Jim and Isaac were enslaved. At the time of this letter, two enslaved women who also had self-emancipated remained at liberty.

Folder 247

December 1818

Folder 248

January 1819

Folder 249

February 1819

February 16: a receipt for prison charges for a woman enslaved by James C. Johnston. The fee was paid to Joshua Daffin by Charlton Yellowby.

Folder 250

March 1819

Folder 251

April 1819

Folder 252

May 1819

Folder 253

June 1819

Folder 254

July 1819

Folder 255

August 1819

Folder 256

September 1819

Folder 257

October 1819

October 10: Record of clothing and household furnishings for enslaved people.

October 15: Bill for medical care provided by Dr. Griffith to Stephen, who was enslaved by James Cathcart Johnson, while Stephen was jailed at Norfolk County, N.C.

October 15: Bill from William Barnard of Norfolk County for expenses relating to advertising, apprehension, and jailing of Stephen, who was enslaved by James Cathcart Johnstson.

Folder 258

November 1819

Folder 259

December 1819

December 4: Letter from Thomas B. Littlejohn in Oxford, N.C., to James Johnston at Hayes, requesting information about hiring out of Guy, a sawyer who was enslaved to Mrs. Alston in Edenton. At the time Guy's labor was already hired out to Moses Watkins, a free Black person.

December 26: Record with terms of hiring out of enslaved people from the estate of Samuel Johnston by William Britton.

December 26: Record of clothing and household furnishings for enslaved people.

Folder 260

January 1820

Folder 261

February 1820

Folder 262

March 1820

March 18: Bill of sale for Jinny, an enslaved woman sold by Mary R. Hardison of Washington County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston of Chowan County, N.C.

Folder 263

April 1820

April 24: Receipt for expenses related to ferriage of an enslaved boy to Plymouth, N.C.

Folder 264

May 1820

May 4: Bill for supporting Poll and her three children, who were enslaved to the orphaned heirs of Samuel W. Johnston.

May 27: Letter from John Johnston at Plymouth to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, discussing hiring terms for a person enslaved to his father's estate who suffered from a cancer on his foot. The enslaved person's labor had been hired out to Benjamin T. Slade.

Folder 265

June 1820

June 17: Letter from Joseph Bount to James C. Johnston, concerning Stephen, an enslaved person who had self-emancipated but had been captured and jailed at Norfolk. The letter explains the terms of gaining Stephen's release from the jail.

Folder 266

July 1820

Folder 267

August 1820

August (undated): List of enslaved people.

Folder 268

September 1820

Folder 269

October 1820

October 30: Letter from John Hollowell at Poplar Plains to James Cathcart Johnston near Edenton, reporting that Sam, who was enslaved by Johnston, apparently had engaged in acts of resistance and was thought to be intending to self-emancipate by running away to Juniper Swamp until Hollowell had him jailed. The letter was carried to Johnston by London, who was enslaved by Johnston.

Folder 270

November 1820

Folder 271

December 1820

December 25: List of enslaved people; record of clothing and household furnishings for enslaved people.

Folder 272

Jannuary 1821

Folder 273

February 1821

February 27: Letter from John Hollowell at Poplar Plains to James Cathcart Johnston in Chowan County, concerning Jack, an enslaved person at Salem, who reportedly self-emancipated on February 10, possibly to Edenton to see Lucy, who already was in a romantic relationship with Abraham. Jack, presumably another person enslaved by Johnston, and George, who was enslaved by Mrs. Blount, are also mentioned.

Folder 274

March 1821

Folder 275

April 1821

Folder 276

May 1821

May 3: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 277

June 1821

June 22: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 278

July 1821

Folder 279

August 1821

Folder 280

September 1821

Folder 281

October 1821

Folder 282

November 1821

Folder 283

December 1821

Folder 284

1-15 January 1822

January 5: Record of terms of hiring out of labor of people enslaved to the estate of Samuel Johnston to various individuals.

January 10: Inventory documenting that James Cathcart Johnston enslaved 145 people on the Roanoke River in Halifax County: 47 enslaved people were at the upper plantation; 60 enslaved people were at the middle plantation; and 38 enslaved people were at the lower plantation.

Folder 285

16-31 January 1822

Folder 286

February 1822

Folder 287

March 1822

March 11: Record of clothing and household furnishings for enslaved people.

Folder 288

April 1822

Folder 289

May 1822

Folder 290

June 1822

June 27: List of enslaved people related to taxes paid in Pasquotank County.

Folder 291

July 1822

Folder 292

August 1822

Folder 293

September 1822

Folder 294

October 1822

Folder 295

November 1822

Folder 296

December 1822

Folder 297

January-February 1823

Folder 298

March-April 1823

March 20: Letter from John C. Ehringhaus in Elizabeth City to James Cathcart Johnston at Edenton, describing a trial that occurred as a result of an encounter between Barnes Jackson, the son of Malachi Jackson, and four enslaved people, including Jim, who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnston, on a road between the Hollowell's house and the slave quarters at Poplar Plains. Jim allegedly fought Barnes Jackson when Jackson attempted to take the enslaved woman into his custody and then allegedly stole the saddle from Jackson's horse. Includes discussion of legal considerations of jailing and bail for an enslaved person.

March 24: Letter from Lemuel Long to James Cathcart Johnston, advising that Jim, an enslaved person who was sold by William McKenzie to Long's father, had sued for his freedom in the high court of chancery in Richmond district.

March 25: Letter from John Hollowell at Poplar Plains to James Cathcart Johnston, with further discussion of the case, or lack thereof, against Jim, who was enslaved to Johnston. Hollowell also reported that he had sent equipment by Jim, presumably a different person who was enslaved to Johnston.

April 7: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 299

May-June 1823

Folder 300

July-August 1823

July 16: List of enslaved people.

Folder 301

September-October 1823

Folder 302

November-December 1823

Folder 303

1-15 January 1824

Folder 304

16-31 January 1824

Folder 305

February 1824

Folder 306

March 1824

Folder 307

April 1824

Folder 308

May 1824

Folder 309

1-15 June 1824

Folder 310

16-30 June 1824

Folder 311

July 1824

Folder 312

August 1824

Folder 313

September 1824

Folder 314

October 1824

Folder 315

November 1824

Folder 316

December 1824

Folder 317

January 1825

Undated: List of enslaved people.

January 13: Bill of sale for Jacob, an enslaved person who was sold from the estate of William T. Muse in Pasquotank County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston in Chowan County, N.C. William Gregory, the sheriff, brokered the trafficking of Jacob through a public auction.

Folder 318

1-15 February 1825

Folder 319

16-28 February 1825

Folder 320

March 1825

Folder 321

April 1825

April 11: Bill of sale for Jacob, an enslaved person who was sold by the estate of William J. Muse at auction to James Cathcart Johnston. William Gregory, the sheriff of Pasquotank County, N.C., brokered the trafficking of Jacob.

Folder 322

May 1825

Folder 323

June 1825

Folder 324

July 1825

Folder 325

August 1825

Folder 326

September 1825

Folder 327

October 1825

Folder 328

November 1825

Folder 329

December 1825

Folder 330

January-February 1826

January 23: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston to John Branch, defending the institution of slavery and decrying the corrupting influence of manufacturing.

Folder 331

March-April 1826

Folder 332

May-June 1826

June 2: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 333

July-August 1826

Folder 334

September-October 1826

October 22: Bill of sale for Davis, an enslaved man sold by Sarah Knox from the estate of Andrew Knox, to James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 335

November-December 1826

Folder 336

January 1827

Folder 337

February 1827

Folder 338

March 1827

Folder 339

April 1827

Folder 340

May 1827

Folder 341

June 1827

Folder 342

July 1827

Folder 343

August 1827

Folder 344

September 1827

Folder 345

October 1827

Folder 346

November 1827

Folder 347

December 1827

December 15: Letter from Samuel Hyman to James Cathcart Johnston, concerning expenses for Dinah, an enslaved person whose labor had been hired out by Johnston to Hyman in Williamston. The letter mentiones that Dinah's husband was a recently freed Black person.

December 18: David Perry, a Black man who captained a ferry, received payment for transporting pine timber near Plymouth, N.C.

December 20: An account sheet of James Cathcart Johnston with John S. Bryan that includes names of enslaved people and amounts paid to them in merchandise.

Folder 348

January 1828

Folder 349

February 1828

February 10: Copies of letters from James Cathcart Johnston to Ebenezar Pettigrew and James Iredell regarding purchase of enslaved people from Tredwell through Iredell. James Cathcart Johnston offered to advance the cash for the purchase.

Folder 350

March 1828

Folder 351

April 1828

Folder 352

May 1828

Folder 353

June 1828

Folder 354

July 1828

July 21: Letter from James Cathacart Johnston to Robert Lenox in which he defended slavery against the ills of manufacturing.

Folder 355

August 1828

Folder 356

September 1828

Folder 357

October 1828

Folder 358

November 1828

Folder 359

December 1828

Folder 360

1-15 January 1829

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Folder 361

16-31 January 1829

Folder 362

February 1829

Folder 363

March 1829

Folder 364

April 1829

Folder 365

May 1829

Folder 366

June 1829

Folder 367

July 1829

Folder 368

August 1829

August 4: Letter from James Iredell in Raleigh, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston in Halifax County, N.C., discussing sale of some of the enslaved people from the Tredwell family to Johnston and the possibility of selling other enslaved people to a speculator.

August 12: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Caledonia to James Iredell confirming that he would purchase the enslaved people who had been from the Tredwell family and settle them near Edenton. He also mentioned that Peggy, who was enslaved by him, had two sons that she wanted to learn a trade. Johnston discussed training them as house carpenters and millwrights, and doing the same for the sons of Mariam, another woman enslaved by him.

August 18: Letter from James Simmons to James Cathcart Johnston, documenting that Allen, Rose, Hailey, and Henry, all enslaved children, were purchased for Johnston and sent to Long's by Simmons.

Folder 369

September 1829

September 21: Bill of sale for Maryann, Tom, and Allen, who were enslaved people sold by James Iredell of Chowan County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 370

October 1829

Folder 371

November 1829

Folder 372

December 1829

Folder 373

January-February 1830

January 14: Bill of sale for Dempsey and Jacob, enslaved boys who were sold by Josiah McKist to James Cathcart Johnston.

Undated: List of enslaved people.

Folder 374

March-April 1830

April 25: Bill of sale for Abraham and Sam, enslaved people who were sold by Samuel Long(?) through James Simmons at the court in Halifax County to James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 375

May-June 1830

Folder 376

July-August 1830

July 3: Bill of sale for Cromwell, an enslaved person who was sold by John Cox in Chowan County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston.

July 4: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to Robert Lenox, complaining about slavery.

Folder 377

September-October 1830

Folder 378

November-December 1830

December 13: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to Robert Lenox, complaining about northern firebrands who would instigate rebellion among enslaved people. Johnston mentioned the "Salem murder," a reference to the murder of Captain Joseph White, who had been involved in the trafficking of enslaved people.

Folder 379

January-February 1831

January 4: Bill of sale for Jerry, an enslaved person who was sold by William R. Norcom to James Cathcart Johnston.

February 26: Letter from Thomas Haughton to James Cathcart Johnston, indicating that he had purchased Sarah, an enslaved woman who was the mother of Lucy, a girl who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnston and the carrier of the letter.

Folder 380

March-April 1831

April 14: Bill from George Sam, a jailor, for fees for the jailing of a person enslaved by James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 381

May-June 1831

Folder 382

July-August 1831

Folder 383

September-October 1831

Folder 384

November-December 1831

Folder 385

January-February 1832

Folder 386

March-April 1832

Folder 387

May-June 1832

Folder 388

July-August 1832

Folder 389

September-October 1832

Folder 390

November-December 1832

Folder 391

January-February 1833

February 11: Receipt, indicating that Jack, who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnston, had been jailed. John Gatlin, F. E. White, and Miles Elliot are mentioned on the receipt.

Folder 392

March-April 1833

Folder 393

May-June 1833

June 22: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

Folder 394

July-August 1833

July 5: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

July 8: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to Hicks & Smith, seeking their procurement of blankets and wool hats for enslaved people.

July 14: Legal record witnessing that Sam, who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnson, appeared in court for being at liberty without a permit.

July 15: Letter, probably from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, mentioning dismissal of white overseers and relying on Black overseers to save on expenses.

July 22: Letter from Ebenezer Pettigrew at Lake Phelps to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, explaining his reticence to increasing the number of enslaved people on his land.

Folder 395

September-October 1833

October 7: Record of hiring out of George, Daniel, Dundee, Tom, Allen, and Rachel, enslaved people whose labor was purchased from Helen Iredell by James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 396

November-December 1833

December 16: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to Robert Lenox, acknowledging that most of his land and some of the people enslaved by him had been inherited from his grandfather William Cathcart.

Folder 397

January-March 1834

Folder 398

April-June 1834

May 9: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 399

July-September 1834

Folder 400

October-December 1834

October 27: Receipt for payment of fees associated with jailing of Lidia, who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnston. Payment was made for food, blankets, and release from jail to William D. Roscoe, sheriff, in Edenton.

November 7: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

Folder 401

January 1835

Folder 402

February 1835

Folder 403

March 1835

Folder 404

April 1835

April 1: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 405

May 1835

Folder 406

June 1835

Folder 407

July 1835

Folder 408

August 1835

August 8: Letter from John T. Johnston in Hillsborough, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, commenting on the insurrection by enslaved people in Mississippi.

August 31: Receipt for payment of fees associated with jailing of Harvey, who was enslaved by James Cathcart Johnston. Payment was received by James Pruden.

Folder 409

September 1835

Folder 410

October 1835

Folder 411

November 1835

Folder 412

December 1835

December 29: Bill of sale for Sarah and her children Harry and Penelope, enslaved people who were sold by the estate of William B. Roberts in Chowan County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston of Chowan County, N.C. William D. Roscoe and James Wills as executors of the estate brokered the trafficking of Sarah and her children.

Folder 413

January 1836

Folder 414

February 1836

Folder 415

March 1836

Folder 416

1-15 April 1836

Folder 417

16-30 April 1836

April 24: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

Folder 418

1-15 May 1836

Folder 419

16-31 May 1836

Folder 420

June 1836

Folder 421

July 1836

July 16: List of names of enslaved people is written on a letter from Bryan Marlton in Plymouth to James Cathcart Johnston in Edenton.

Folder 422

August 1836

Folder 423

September 1836

September 8: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to John I. Bryan and Co., seeking procurement of 12 dozen hats and 16 dozen blankets for enslaved people, as well as other goods.

Folder 424

October 1836

Folder 425

November 1836

Folder 426

December 1836

Folder 427

January 1837

Folder 428

February 1837

Folder 429

March 1837

March 28: Record of the hiring out and then the sale of Ned, who was enslaved to the estate of Ann Clark, to James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 430

April 1837

Folder 431

May 1837

May 22: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 432

June 1837

Folder 433

July 1837

Folder 434

1-15 August 1837

August 3: Letter from Michael Ferrall at Halifax to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, reporting that Mr. Garris and people enslaved by Johnston had been in town making purchases for the summer. Ferrall reported on what he observed of the enslaved people and what he heard from Garris, including that Peggy, an enslaved woman, had absented herself from work, but turned herself in to Ferrall, who had returned her to Caledonia.

August 8: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 435

16-31 August 1837

Folder 436

September 1837

Folder 437

October 1837

Folder 438

November 1837

Folder 439

December 1837

Folder 440

January 1838

Folder 441

February 1838

Folder 442

March 1838

Folder 443

April 1838

Folder 444

May 1838

Folder 445

June 1838

Folder 446

July 1838

July 16: Letter from Ebenezer Pettigrew at Lake Phelps to James Cathcart Johnston, discussing his perspective on the effect of religion on the conduct of enslaved people at the Lake.

Folder 447

August 1838

August 23: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 448

September 1838

Folder 449

October 1838

Folder 450

November 1838

November 21: Bill of sale of Jack, an enslaved person who was sold by William J. Muse of Chowan County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 451

December 1838

Folder 452

January-February 1839

Folder 453

March-April 1839

Folder 454

May-June 1839

Folder 455

July-August 1839

August 6: Letter from James Blount Cheshire in Flat Rock to James Cathcart Johnston, reporting that he would bring the Christian faith to the enslaved people at Deveraux's plantation.

Folder 456

September-October 1839

Folder 457

November-December 1839

Folder 458

January-March 1840

Folder 459

April-June 1840

May 9: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 460

July-September 1840

Folder 461

October-December 1840

Folder 462

January-March 1841

Folder 463

April-June 1841

Folder 464

July-September 1841

Folder 465

October-December 1841

Folder 466

January-February 1842

Folder 467

March-April 1842

Folder 468

May-June 1842

Folder 469

July-August 1842

Folder 470

September-October 1842

Folder 471

November-December 1842

Folder 472

January-March 1843

January 25: Letter from Charles Evans in Philadelphia to James Cathcart Johnston in Edenton, discussing resettlement conditions for free Black people in Liberia, Trinidad, and Jamaica. Fred Hinton, a free Black man, is mentioned as leading an agency discontinued for lack of interest in emigration among the Black population of the city. Other resettlement communities mentioned include Wilberforce, Canada; Mercer County, Ohio; Grand River, Michigan; and a settlement near to Cincinnati, Ohio.

Folder 473

April-June 1843

Folder 474

July-September 1843

Folder 475

October-December 1843

November 3: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 476

January-February 1844

January 5: List of enslaved people, with amount of credit available to them to purchase goods from J. and O. Fearing in Elizabeth City.

January 22: Letter from Charles Evans in Philadelphia to James Cathcart Johnston in Edenton, discussing resettlement conditions for Black people in Cape Palmas, Liberia.

Folder 477

March-April 1844

Folder 478

May-June 1844

May 20: Letter from Ebenezer Pettigrew at Magnolia to James Cathcart Johnston, mentioning that there were enslaved and white people who were confirmed at the chapel at Lake Scuppernong.

Folder 479

July-August 1844

July 12: List of enslaved people with itemized purchases from Barney Tisdale in Elizabeth City.

Folder 480

September-October 1844

Folder 481

November-December 1844

Folder 482

January 1845

Undated: List of enslaved people on Chowan County, N.C., tax receipt for 1844.

Folder 483

February 1845

Folder 484

March 1845

Folder 485

April 1845

Folder 486

May 1845

Folder 487

June 1845

Folder 488

July 1845

Folder 489

August 1845

Folder 490

September 1845

September 11: Letter from Hardy & Rioche at Norfolk to James Cathcart Johnston at Barnum's Hotel in Baltimore, responding to Johnston's request for blankets for enslaved people. Description of the blanket is provided.

Folder 491

October 1845

Folder 492

November 1845

Folder 493

December 1845

December 31: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Belgradia to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, mentioning Peter, who was enslaved by Johnston and worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County.

Folder 494

January-February 1846

Folder 495

March-April 1846

Folder 496

May-June 1846

May 21: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Belgradia to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, commenting on the community of enslaved people at Pasquotank.

Folder 497

July-August 1846

July 25: Record of James Cathcart Johnston in account with R. Howell & Son, for clothing purchased for enslaved people. Hanible, Mary, Sophy, Pinkey, Allen, London, Silvey, Billy, Nancy, Cat, Davy, Solomon, Alfred, Alphus, Astin, Wiley, Peter, Tom, George, Jim, Ned, and Nixon, all of whom were enslaved by Johnston, are mentioned.

Folder 498

September-October 1846

Folder 499

November-December 1846

Folder 500

January 1847

January 24: Letter from W. J. Hardy in Norfolk to James Cathcart Johnston, mentioning Peter, who was enslaved by Johnston and worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County.

Folder 501

February 1847

Folder 502

March 1847

Folder 503

April 1847

Folder 504

May 1847

Folder 505

June 1847

Folder 506

July 1847

July 5: Letter from W. J. Hardy in Norfolk to James Cathcart Johnston, mentioning Peter, who was enslaved by Johnston and worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank.

July 24: Accounting sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with names of enslaved people and the goods acquired on Johnston's credit at Howell & Son.

Folder 507

August 1847

Folder 508

September 1847

Folder 509

October 1847

Folder 510

November 1847

Folder 511

December 1847

Folder 512

January-February 1848

Folder 513

March-April 1848

Folder 514

May-June 1848

June 18: Letter from Peter to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. His letter reports on work at the plantation and mentions Osbourne, Nixon, Bithy(?), and Hannah, who also were enslaved by Johnston.

Folder 515

July-August 1848

Folder 516

September-October 1848

September 21: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Magnolia to James Cathcart Johnston at Norfolk explaining his intention of becoming better acquainted with the community of enslaved people after his father had died. Pettigrew also reported on the terms of his father's estate.

Folder 517

November-December 1848

December 7: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Belgrade to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, mentioning Henry, an enslaved overseer at Magnolia, and Moses, an enslaved overseer at Belgrade. Pettigrew also explained his preference for not hiring white overseers.

Folder 518

January 1849

January 2: Account sheet for Jack Johnson, a free Black person, with Dr. James Norcom.

January 6: Account sheet for Jack Johnston, a free Black person, with R. Howell & Son.

January 6: List of enslaved people with credit at R. Howell & Son.

January 8: Record of medical treatment by William C. Warren of people enslaved by James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 519

February 1849

Folder 520

March 1849

Folder 521

April 1849

April 7: Letter from Peter to his enslaver James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. His letter reports on work at the plantation and mentions Prince, Daniel, and Nixon, who were also enslaved by Johnston.

April 16: Letter from James Johnston Pettigrew at Charleston to James Cathcart Johnston, mentioning slavery meetings and disunion speeches, wine, armed guards to protect against a Black-led resistance, and repercussions for Black people caught out without a pass.

Folder 522

May 1849

May 13: Letter from W. B. Hathaway to James Cathcart Johnston at Edenton, mentioning Duke and his son Tom, and Betsy, who were enslaved people.

Folder 523

June 1849

Folder 524

July 1849

July 30: Accounting sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with names of enslaved people and the goods acquired on Johnston's credit at Howell & Son.

July 29: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

Folder 525

August 1849

Folder 526

September 1849

September 1: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Magnolia to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes in which Jim, who was enslaved by William S. Pettigrew, is identified as a carpenter. Pettigrew reported on cholera and plans to build more housing for enslaved people, and commented on the impact of climate on plantation management.

Folder 527

October 1849

October 10: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

October 27: Letter from Peter to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. His letter describes work on the plantation and also mentions Ben, who was enslaved by Johnston.

Folder 528

November 1849

November 6: Letter from Peter to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter reported on slavery patrollers who had harrassed him after violently attacking Solomon and Moses, who were enslaved people. He named Martin Cochrane and James Cartwright as the patrollers. Dinah, an enslaved person, is also mentioned in the letter.

Folder 529

December 1849

Folder 530

January 1850

Folder 531

February 1850

Folder 532

March 1850

March 7: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

Folder 533

April 1850

April 5: Letter from Peter to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston from Poplar Plains. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter wrote about the illness of fellow enslaved persons and the conditions on the plantation.

Folder 534

May 1850

Folder 535

June 1850

June 1: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. His letter reports on conditions at the plantation and also mentions Dinah, who was enslaved to Johnston.

June 15: Letter from James to his cousin James Cathcart Johnston, seemingly in the place of a customary letter from Peter, an enlsaved person who worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. James mentioned that many enslaved people were experiencing bowel complaints and noted the conditions on the plantation.

June 22: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter wrote about the improving health of his fellow enslaved people, the conditions on the plantation (including the Sawyer field) and a Mr. Watkins who borrowed his horse.

June 29: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter wrote about the sickness of his fellow enslaved persons and the conditions on the plantation (including the Sawyer field). Peter also mentioned his own crops of corn and oats.

June 29: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Magnolia to James Cathcart Johnston at Edenton describing work on his plantation by enslaved people.

Folder 536

1-15 July 1850

July 13: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. His letter reports on conditions at the plantation.

July 13: Letter from James Sawyer at Poplar Plains to James Cathcart Johnston at White Sulphur Springs, Greenbriar County, Va., in which many enslaved people are identified and the work they performed July 6-12 is described.

July 15: Letter from S. J. Johnston in Edenton to James Cathcart Johnston at White Sulphur Springs in Green Brier County, Va., reporting that Joe and Betty, who were enslaved to W. Bockover, had been accused of stealing 12,000 dollars from their enslaver. George Lowther, who was enslaved to W. Lowther, was accused of being an accomplice.

Folder 537

16-31 July 1850

July 23: Letter from Aaron at Hayes near Edenton to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Aaron worked as a foreman or overseer at Hayes. Aaron wrote about the health of his fellow enslaved people, including that of Mother, Polly, Mary, Eliza and his father. He also noted the conditions on the plantation and mentioned Margaret Johnston.

July 27: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County, N.C. Peter wrote that he and his fellow enslaved people were sick. He mentioned his own crop of corn, which he was packing and shipping. Peter also wrote about his oats and peas, and that the wet weather, though impeding planting, gave him time to get better.

July 28: Letter from Margaret Ann Johnston at Hayes to her enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Margaret wrote that her mother was sick and that her sister Betsy who was at Nags Head wished to come see her. Margaret also noted the conditions her Uncle Jacob was facing after a storm and that Elizabeth had received a piece of cloth after getting married. Betty, Maria, Aaron, Elizabeth, Eliza, Lida, Jacob, and Osbourne are also mentioned.

Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter wrote to clarify an issue that had arisen between Mr. Sawyer and himself. He noted that Sawyer was giving Manuel, an enslaved person, and himself trouble. However, Peter assured Johnston that he could manage the problem until Johnston's return. Peter included a letter to Hardy Brothers about his corn shipment bound for Norfolk. Peter mentioned visiting Mr. Hollowell who was recently sick but since recovered.

Folder 538

August 1850

August 3: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County, N.C. Peter wrote about the conditions on the plantation and his work with six other unnamed enslaved people to plough a field. Peter noted that some of his fellow enslaved people were sick but had since recovered. He mentioned his own crop of corn, oats and peas and recounted using his hogs in the oat patch after harvest.

August 8: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

August 11: Letter from Peter to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter wrote about labor, crops, and conditions at the plantation.

August 18: Letter from Peter to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter wrote about labor, crops, and conditions at the plantation.

August 18: Letter from John C. Ehringhaus to James Cathcart Johnston at Bath, mentioning Peter.

August 18: Letter from James Sawyer to James Cathcart Johnston at Bath, Va., in which many enslaved people are identified and the work they performed at Poplar Plains is described.

August 25: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter wrote about work completed and planned at the plantation. Andrew, Washington, Hannibal, and Tom are mentioned.

August 28: Letter from Aaron at Hayes near Edenton to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Aaron worked as a foreman or overseer at Hayes. Aaron wrote about the conditions on the plantation and the health of the enslaved people there, including that of Nixon, Nancy and her grandchild. Aaron also mentioned the work Nixon and his father had been doing.

Folder 539

1-15 September 1850

September 1: Letter from Peter to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as the foreman at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter wrote about labor, crops, and conditions at the plantation.

September 14: Plantation journal entry in which enslaved people (and possibly free Black people) are identified and the work they performed, probably at Poplar Plains. The entry was written by James Sawyer.

September 15: Letter from Sam I. Johnston in Edenton to James Cathcart Johnston. Osbourne, Aaron, and Maria, who were enslaved by James Cathcart Johnston, are mentioned as providing nursing care to Sam I. Johnston while he was sick.

September 15: Letter from Peter to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter wrote about the work, crops, and conditions at Poplar Plains plantation. He also reported that Miles, an enslaved person, had been jailed and punished with physical violence for fighting with his wife and another man who was enslaved to Mr. Lee.

Folder 540

16-30 September 1850

September 16: Letter from Aaron at Hayes to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Aaron worked as a foreman or overseer at Hayes. Aaron wrote about the work, crops, and conditions at the plantation.

September 22: Letter and plantation journal entry from James Sawyer at Poplar Plains to James Cathcart Johnston in New York, in which enslaved people are identified and the work they perfomed at the plantation is described.

September 22: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County, N.C. Peter discussed a project to build a barn and said that he and Osbourne, an enslaved person, could complete the work together. He also mentioned that Osbourne, Hendersen and Charles had arrived Monday evening. Peter wrote that Handsome, Anthony, and Ann were sick but had recovered.

September 25: Letter from Peter to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter wrote about the work, crops, and conditions at the plantation and mentioned Handsome, Anthony, and Aaron, who also were enslaved to Johnston.

September 28: Letter from Aaron at Hayes, to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Aaron worked as a foreman or overseer at Hayes. Aaron wrote about the work, crops, and conditions at the plantation.

September 29: Letter from James Sawyer at Poplar Plains to James Cathcart Johnston in New York, in which enslaved people are identified and the work they perfomed at the plantation is described.

September 29: Letter from Peter to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter wrote about the work, crops, and conditions at the plantation.

Folder 541

1-10 October 1850

October 1: Letter from Margaret Johnston to her enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston, in Baltimore. Margaret wrote about conditions and mentioned Peter, Osbourne, and Aaron.

October 4: Letter from Eliza Johnston, who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnston, reporting on the health of the enslaved people at Hayes.

October 5: Letter from Aaron at Hayes to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Aaron worked as a foreman or overseer at Hayes. Aaron mentioned the death of one of Sally's children and that other children, including Mother Polly's son Hanibal, were sick. Aaron mentioned Nixon, Maria, Margaret, his father and his brother. Aaron also described the conditions on the plantation and the outbreak of fever in Edenton.

October 6: Letter from Aaron at Hayes, to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Aaron wrote about the work, crops, and conditions at the plantation.

October 6: Letter from Peter to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. He wrote about the work, crops, and conditions at the plantation and mentioned Josiah and Mathias, who were also enslaved to Johnston.

Folder 542

11-31 October 1850

October 11: Letter from Peter to his enslaver James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. He wrote about the work, crops, and conditions at the plantation.

October 11: Letter from W. B. Hathaway to James Cathcart Johnston at Baltimore, reporting on sickness and death in the enslaved community at the plantation.

October 13: Letter from James Sawyer at Poplar Plains to James Cathcart Johnston at Baltimore. The letter identifies enslaved people and the work they performed at the plantation.

October 14: Letter from Aaron at Hayes to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston, in Baltimore. Aaron worked as a foreman or overseer at Hayes. Aaron wrote about work performed at the plantation.

October 15: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

October 23: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

October 24: Letter from Hardy & Brothers in Norfolk, Va., to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, including a list documenting the purchase of 500 blankets for enslaved people and wool hats for Peter.

Folder 543

November 1850

Folder 544

December 1850

December 12: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

Folder 545

January 1851

January 4: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter mentioned that his fellow enslaved people had been sick, including Ben and Manuel who were away from Poplar Plains. Peter described the conditions on the plantation, including harvesting his and Ben's hogs.

Folder 546

February 1851

February 27: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

Folder 547

March 1851

Folder 548

April 1851

Folder 549

May 1851

May 3: Receipt indicating that James Cathcart Johnston had paid 1000 dollars for the resettlement of Betty Johnson, the widow of Jack Johnson, and their five children, in Ohio.

Folder 550

June 1851

Folder 551

July 1851

July 4: Letter from Aaron at Hayes to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Aaron worked as a foreman or overseer at Hayes. Aaron mentioned that he had been sick and that Osbourne had gone to Nags Head. Nixon is also mentioned.

Folder 552

August 1851

August 4: Record of sale of Miles, who was a carpenter, Joe, and Jim (James), all of whom were enslaved to the estate of Margaret P. Tredwell, to James Cathcart Johnston. John Thompson and T. S. Hoskins, a sheriff, brokered the trafficking of Miles, Joe, and Jim.

Folder 553

September 1851

Folder 554

October 1851

October 12: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter mentioned that some enslaved spinners and children had been sick. Peter also wrote about Ben, a person enslaved by Johnston, and described getting leather to make shoes for his fellow enslaved people.

Folder 555

November 1851

Folder 556

December 1851

Undated: List of enslaved people with amounts credited for pork and fodder.

December 3: Shipping and Commercial list with handwritten list of enslaved people and credits on verso.

December 13: Letter from Peter to his enslaver James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter mentioned Ben and Mathias, who were enslaved to Johnston.

December 22: List of enslaved people with weight of hogs.

Folder 557

January 1852

January 18: Letter from Betty Johnston in Columbus, Ohio, to her former enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston in Chowan County, N.C. Betty wrote about her traveling expenses and purchasing a house and lot. She mentioned Martha as a dressmaker, Mary as a tailor, and that Noah had been hired to dray wood.

January 19: List of expenses related to Betty Johnston's travel from Edenton, N.C., to Columbus, Ohio.

January 31: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter mentioned Ben, a person enslaved by Johnston, and described the conditions on the plantation, including having his hogs butchered.

Folder 558

February 1852

Folder 559

March 1852

Folder 560

April 1852

Folder 561

May 1852

Folder 562

June 1852

June 16: Accounting sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with names of enslaved people and the goods acquired on Johnston's credit with Cleveland Sawyer.

June 26: Letter from an enslaved person (NOTE: This item is missing as of October 2022.)

Folder 563

July 1852

Folder 564

August 1852

Folder 565

September 1852

Folder 566

October 1852

Folder 567

November 1852

November 12: Accounting sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with names of enslaved people and the goods acquired on Johnston's credit with Cleveland Sawyer.

Folder 568

December 1852

December 23: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Belgrade to James Cathcart Johnston, describing a rumored insurrection by enslaved people against their enslavers, Williams S. and Charles Pettigrew, and public acts of rebellion in Plymouth by people enslaved by Josiah Collins. Jim, who was enslaved by William S. Pettigrew, is mentioned as someone who should be regarded as capable of acts of rebellion against white people.

Folder 569

January 1853

Undated: Accounting sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with names of enslaved people and goods by order.

January 27: Letter from William S. Pettigrew to James Cathcart Johnston, denying the rumor that people enslaved by him had killed his father, Ebenezer Pettigrew, by poison. There is some discussion of the enslaved community at Magnolia and Belgrade from the perspective of the white enslaver. The motivations of the overseer, "Mr. C.," are also discussed. Jim, who was enslaved to William S. Pettigrew, is mentioned as someone who should be regarded as capable of acts of rebellion against white people.

Folder 570

February 1853

Folder 571

March 1853

March 10: Accounting sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with names of enslaved people and the goods acquired on Johnston's credit with Cleveland Sawyer.

Folder 572

April 1853

Folder 573

May 1853

Folder 574

June 1853

Folder 575

July 1853

Folder 576

August 1853

Folder 577

September 1853

Folder 578

October 1853

October 27: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Magnolia to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, in which he described a foot injury and dog bite that made him very sick.

October 27: Letter from James Johnston Pettigrew in Charleston, S.C., in which he commented on a captain of his acquaintance who trafficked in the slave trade on the Coast of Africa. Pettigrew noted the captain's perspective on the middle passage, which was at odds with the prevailing understanding of it. He also mentioned attending a dramatization of Uncle Tom's Cabin in Philadelphia.

Folder 579

November 1853

Folder 580

December 1853

Folder 581

January-April 1854

Folder 582

May-August 1854

June 1: List of people enslaved as of 28 December 1853.

June 1: Accounting sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with names of enslaved people and the goods acquired on Johnston's credit with Cleveland Sawyer.

June 3: Receipt for jail fees paid to Joseph Godphry for Wiley, who was enslaved by James Cathcart Johnston.

June 10: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Magnolia to James Cathcart Johnston at Elizabeth City, N.C., in which Pettigrew mentioned purchasing five enslaved women to be wives for men already enslaved by him, in an attempt to keep them from finding wives away from his plantations.

August 12: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Belgrade to James Cathcart Johnston, describing the circumstances in which Wilson, who worked in the house and was enslaved to Pettigrew at Magnolia, allegedly stole money from him.

Folder 583

September-December 1854

September 2: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Belgrade to James Cathcart Johnston, discussing further the robbery allegedly committed by Wilson, who was enslaved to Pettigrew at Magnolia.

October 3: Letter from Hardy Rioche in Norfolk, Va., to James Cathcart Johnston in Baltimore, mentioning Peter, who was enslaved to Johnston, in his role as foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County.

October 30: Accounting sheet for Aaron Johnston, who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnston, with the goods acquired on credit with Cleveland Sawyer.

December (undated): Accounting sheet with names of people enslaved at Hayes and amount of orders for trade for cash, pork, fodder.

Folder 584

January-February 1855

January 1: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

January 1: Accounting sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with names of enslaved people and the goods acquired on Johnston's credit with Cleveland Sawyer.

Folder 585

March-April 1855

Folder 586

May-June 1855

Folder 587

July-August 1855

August 11: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Belgrade to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, commenting on behavior of enslaved people and expectations of enslavers.

Folder 588

September-October 1855

Folder 589

November-December 1855

November 7: Letter from Joseph G. Godfrey in Edenton, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston, seeking payment for jailing London, who was enslaved to Johnston. London reportedly had engaged in conflict with his wife at Mr. Howell's. Godfrey also charged Johnston for policing people enslaved by him in town, except for when they were permitted to attend church on Sunday.

Folder 590

January 1856

January 5: Bill of sale for Anthony, a 28 year old enslaved person who was sold by the estate of Joshua Skinner in Chowan County, to James Cathcart Johnston in Chowan County, N.C. T. L. Skinner as executor of the estate brokered the trafficking of Anthony.

Folder 591

February 1856

Folder 592

March 1856

March 14: Letter from James Johnston Pettigrew in Charleston, S.C., to James Johnston Pettigrew, discussing the controversy over slavery.

Folder 593

April 1856

Folder 594

May 1856

May 11: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Belgrade to James Cathcart Johnston, describing the conduct of the people he enslaved at Magnolia and Belgrade. Moses, an enslaved man working as the overseer, is mentioned.

Folder 595

June 1856

Folder 596

July 1856

July 4: Letter from James C. Johnston Jr. at Hayes to his uncle James Cathcart Johnston, who was visiting the Pettigrews, mentioning Nixon and Osbourne, who were enslaved to the elder Johnston, and the work they performed.

Folder 597

August 1856

Folder 598

September 1856

Folder 599

October 1856

Folder 600

November 1856

November 13: Letter from John Williams in Baltimore (?) to James Cathcart Johnston, regarding the transfer of money, possibly in relation to indentured labor.

Folder 601

December 1856

Folder 602

January 1857

January 1: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

January 1: Accounting sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with names of enslaved people and the goods acquired on Johnston's credit with Cleveland Sawyer.

January 1: Accounting sheet for Nixon Johnston, who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnston, with Cleveland Sawyer and Bro.

January 1: Accounting sheet of James Cathcart Johnston with W. C. Warren and Son, with entries for medical care provided to enslaved people who are listed by name. Some enslaved family relationships are noted.

Folder 603

February 1857

Folder 604

March 1857

Folder 605

April 1857

Folder 606

May 1857

May 30: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter described the conditions on the plantation, including that of his own crops.

Folder 607

June 1857

June 2: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as the foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter mentioned that he had taken a trip to Salem and his own health issues. Peter also described the conditions on the plantation, including the personal crops of him and Ben, a person enslaved by Johnston.

Folder 608

July 1857

Folder 609

August 1857

Folder 610

September 1857

Folder 611

October 1857

Folder 612

November 1857

Folder 613

December 1857

December 26: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Caledonia to William Hollowell, in which he reported on setting up a loom, carding machine, and spinning jenny so that enslaved people could make their own clothing at the plantation; the exhaustion of the enslaved community from all of the work on the plantation; and a meeting house for enslaved people to use for worship. Peter, an enslaved man who worked as a foreman or overseer for James Cathcart Johnston, is also mentioned.

Folder 614

January 1858

Folder 615

February 1858

Folder 616

March 1858

March 27: Account sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with Sawyer Bro. & Co., with orders on credit for enslaved people.

Folder 617

April 1858

Folder 618

May 1858

Folder 619

June 1858

June (undated): Letter from Richard McMorine (previously known as Richard Blount) in Buchanan City, Palm Grove Station, Bassa County, Liberia, to James Cathcart Johnston, discussing difficult conditions for people who had resettled to this place. McMorine wrote about acquiring land, farming, missionary work, and the need for financial assistance to build a house.

Folder 620

July 1858

Folder 621

August 1858

August 25: Account sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with Sawyer Bro. & Co., with orders on credit for enslaved people.

Folder 622

September 1858

Folder 623

October 1858

Folder 624

November 1858

Folder 625

December 1858

Folder 626

January 1859

Folder 627

February 1859

Folder 628

1-15 March 1859

March 5: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter mentioned that Myles, a person enslaved by Johnston, had arrived at Poplar Plains. Peter also described the conditions on the plantation.

Folder 629

16-31 March 1859

Folder 630

April 1859

April 9: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter mentioned that Smith and Tom, people enslaved by Johnston, had been injured and that Myles, a person enslaved by Johnston, had gone to and returned from Salem plantation. Peter also described the conditions on the plantation.

Folder 631

May 1859

Folder 632

June 1859

June 26: Letter from Nixon Johnston at Hayes to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Nixon mentioned that some of his fellow enslaved people had been sick, including Betty. Nixon also mentioned his mother and father, London, Maria, and Hannibal. Nixon shared that Osbourne had left Hayes to go to Peter's with Jo (?) Irsom (?) and Madoson(?).

Folder 633

July 1859

July 17: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter mentioned Aaron and Phillip, people enslaved by Johnston, and a letter he received from Ben, who also was enslaved by Johnston. Peter described the conditions on the plantation, including that of his and Ben's personal crops.

Folder 634

August 1859

Folder 635

September 1859

Folder 636

October 1859

Folder 637

November 1859

Folder 638

December 1859

December 6: Letter from C. W. Hollowell at Elizabeth City, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston, reporting that Hannah, whose husband Major was already enslaved by Johnston, had been purchased for Johnston.

Folder 639

1-15 January 1860

Undated: Letter from G. J. Cherry to James Cathcart Johnston, reporting that a canoe was missing, as well as "Old" America, Mariah, George, and Nelly, enslaved people who probably had gone to Plymouth.

Undated: List of enslaved people and their ages for the census. Some family relationships are noted.

January 2: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 640

16-31 January 1860

Folder 641

February 1860

Folder 642

1-15 March 1860

Folder 643

16-31 March 1860

Folder 644

April 1860

April 10: Bill of sale for Henderson, an enslaved ships carpenter who was sold by Robert T. Paine in Chowan County, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston in Chowan County, N.C.

Folder 645

May 1860

Folder 646

June 1860

June 10: Letter possibly from Ben Johnston at the Body plantation, to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Ben mentioned the health of his fellow enslaved people and described the conditions at Body and Salem, as relayed to him by his father when he visited.

June 11: Letter from C. W. Hollowell at Bay Side to James Cathcart Johnston, reporting that he had a tax list of the 178 people enslaved by Johnston, under the care of Peter and Ben, both of whom were enslaved and working as foreman or overseers.

June 17: Letter from Young Ben at Body plantation, on behalf of Old Ben to their enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Young Ben mentioned that Old Ben's father had visited. Young Ben also described the conditions on the plantation, including that of Old Ben and his father's personal crops.

June 24: Letter from Ben at Body plantation on behalf of "Old" Ben to their enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. The younger Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Ben mentioned that the people enslaved at Body were working with his father elsewhere. Ben also described the conditions on the plantation.

Folder 647

July 1860

July 7: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter described the conditions on the plantation.

July 8: Letter from Ben Johnston at Body plantation to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Ben requested that a park house be built for him and described the conditions at Body and at Salem plantation where his father was.

July 15: Letter from Ben Johnston at Body plantation to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Ben noted that the people enslaved at Body had been working with his father at Salem. Ben also described the conditions at Salem.

July 15: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter mentioned an enclosed list of trade. Peter also described the conditions on the plantation, including that of his own crops.

July 22: Letter from Ben Johnston at Body plantation to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Ben wrote that a few of his fellow enslaved people had been sick and that his father and the people enslaved at Body had been working at Salem. Ben described the conditions at Body and at Salem.

Folder 648

August 1860

Folder 649

September 1860

September 9: Letter from Ben Johnston at Body plantation to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Ben wrote that his father had visited and that a few of the people enslaved at Body who worked with his father were sick. Ben also described the conditions on the plantation.

September 16: Letter from Ben Johnston at Body plantation to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Ben wrote that Clarke, a person enslaved by Johnston, had been sick and that he had heard that his own father was also sick. Ben also described the conditions on the plantation.

September 30: Letter from Peter at Poplar Plains to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Peter worked as a foreman or overseer at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County. Peter described the conditions on the plantation.

Folder 650

October 1860

October 21: Letter from Ben Johnston at Body plantation to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Ben wrote that the people enslaved at Body had been working with his father and described the conditions there.

October 25: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Magnolia to James Cathcart Johnston, describing an uprising planned for Plymouth by people enslaved by Baker of Norfolk, and the slavery patrols initiated in response to white fears of violence against them.

Folder 651

November 1860

Folder 652

December 1860

December 10: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Caledonia to C. W. Hollowell, requesting the usual 6 month allowances be given to people enslaved by Johnston, and according discretion to Peter and Ben, who were enslaved by Johnston and worked as his foreman or overseers, to alter the amounts.

December 27: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Magnolia to James Cathcart Johnston, giving a character recommendation for Richard Barfield, a free Black man who worked as a painter. Barfield sought to marry one of the daughters of Peter, who was enslaved to Johnston and worked as a foreman at Poplar Plains in Pasquotank County.

Folder 653

1-15 January 1861

Undated: List of enslaved people.

January 1: List of enslaved people.

Folder 654

16-31 January 1861

Folder 655

February 1861

Folder 656

March 1861

Folder 657

1-15 April 1861

April 5: Letter from Henry J. Futrell at Caledonia to James Cathcart Johnston describing the circumstances that led up to the self-emancipation by Harry, who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnston at Caledonia. Mack, who was enslaved by Johnston, is mentioned as someone who led groups of enslaved laborers.

April 10: Letter from Henry J. Futrell to James Cathcart Johnston providing further news about Harry's escape; Milly, who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnston at Caledonia, was reported as being sick. Mack is mentioned as someone who led groups of enslaved laborers.

April 15: Letter from Henry J. Futrell to James Cathcart Johnston providing further news of Harry's escape and other acts he allegedly committed against the overseer. Mack is mentioned as someone who led groups of enslaved laborers.

Folder 658

16-30 April 1861

Folder 659

May 1861

May 5: Letter from Henry J. Furtrell at Caledonia to James Cathcart Johnston regarding policing of enslaved people to make sure they did not rebel. Futrell also described work on the plantation, including that of Nat, who was enslaved by Johnston.

May 13: Letter from H. J. Futrell at Caledonia to James Cathcart Johnston regarding policing of enslaved people. Futrell described violence used against Charity, an enslaved girl, to force her to identify who she had been with and seen while out. Jack, Godfrey, and Gunness(?), were implicated. Futrell also reported on work performed by Mack, Mat and Andrew.

May 27: Letter from Henry J. Futrell at Caledonia to James Cathcart Johnston describing the labor assigned to Mat, Luke, and Andrew, who were enslaved by Johnston. He also mentioned not paying for medical care for the enslaved people.

May 31: Letter from Henry J. Futrell at Caledonia to James Cathcart Johnston reporting that Luke, who was enslaved to James Cathcart Johnston, allegedly had stolen money from him and distributed it among other enslaved people. Futrell also reported on labor performed by Milly, Andrew, Godfrey, Mack, Baccus, and Anthony, all of whom were enslaved at Caledonia.

Folder 660

June 1861

June 12: Letter from Henry J. Futrell at Caledonia to James Cathcart Johnston, reporting that Luke, a young adult who was a field worker enslaved to Johnston, had been caught stealing a chest of money and was at risk of being sold away as punishment. Harry was also mentioned, as he remained at liberty without a permit. Luke's labor, as well as that of Rodger, Godfrey, Mat, and Andrew is also described.

Folder 661

July 1861

Folder 662

August 1861

August 19: Record documenting illnesses and medical treatment of enslaved people.

Folder 663

September 1861

Folder 664

October 1861

Folder 665

November 1861

November 8: Letter from Henry J. Futrell at Caledonia to James Cathcart Johnston, describing work done on the plantation. Mack and Ben, who were enslaved by Johnston, are mentioned.

November 11: Letter from Henry J. Futrell at Caledonia to James Cathcart Johnston, describing work done on the plantation. Nat, Mack, and Charity, who were enslaved by Johnston, are mentioned.

November 18: Letter from Henry J. Futrell at Caledonia to James Cathcart Johnston, describing work done on the plantation. Nat and Jacob, who were enslaved by Johnston, are mentioned.

Folder 666

December 1861

December 7: Letter from Ben Johnston at Body plantation to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Ben wrote about the health of his fellow enslaved people, specifically the death of Liddy's child at Salem where Ben's father worked, and Primus who had been sick. Ben also described the conditions on the plantation.

December 23: Letter from H. J. Futrell at Caledonia to James Cathcart Johnston reporting that enslaved people had been to town to trade the previous week. Tom, Nelly, and Old Nancy, a nurse, are mentioned.

December 23: List of enslaved people with amount of credit available for trade with Mr. Sawyer.

Folder 667

January-February 1862

Folder 668

March-April 1862

Folder 669

May-June 1862

Folder 670

July-August 1862

July 22: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell at Bay Side, responding to reports on Peter, an enslaved person who worked as a foreman or overseer for Johnston at Poplar Plains. Johnston asked for assistance in getting Peter and his family to the Union Army in Norfolk in order to be rid of him. Ben is also mentioned and there is a list of names of enslaved people.

August 7: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston Jr. at Hayes to Colonel Howard, concerning Alfred Manning, an enslaved person who had self-emancipated, then given a pass by Howard, and then allegedly plundered Johnston's plantation. Another self-emancipated woman is also mentioned as being on board Captain Gerard's steamer.

August 21: Letter from W. I. Hardy in Norfolk to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, reporting that Peter and his family had made it to freedom in Columbus, Ohio, by way of Baltimore. Hardy also mentioned that several enslaved people had self-emancipated from Hayes.

Folder 671

September-October 1862

September 15: Bill of sale for Alfred and Allen, enslaved people who were sold by Helen Iredell to James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 672

November-December 1862

November 17: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston Jr. at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell at Bay Side, reporting that Henderson, who was enslaved by James Cathcart Johnston, had been sent to Hollowell with 11 pairs of shoes.

Folder 673

January 1863

January 2: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to Hollowell, reporting that the Emancipation Proclamation had not had much impact on the enslaved people who remained in the area.

January 20: Letter from the military governor to James C. Johnston, reporting that General Foster had ordered the arrest of Matthew, who was previously enslaved by James Cathcart Johnston but was freed by the January 1, 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, for undescribed crimes committed against the property of James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 674

February 1863

February 8: Letter from C. W. Hollowell at Bay Side to James Cathcart Johnston, reporting on deteriorating control over the local enslaved population. Bill, Julio, and Ben, who were enslaved, are mentioned.

February 12: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell, describing lawlessness in Edenton, including the presence of "Buffaloes" (civilians with Union allegiances) and Confederate guerrillas, and a rumored oath of neutrality. America, an enslaved person, is identified as the carrier of the letter; Aaron and Bill are also mentioned.

February 12: Letter from C. W. Hollowell at Bayside to James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, describing a violent attack by Confederate guerrillas, and the desperate conditions at Poplar Plains. Jeffrey, Charles, Isaac, Little Major, and Harry, who were all enslaved by Johnston, are mentioned as being pressed into service and held by Captain Saunders and the federal troops. America, an enslaved person, is identified as the carrier of the letter; Julia, Bill, and Major, all of whom were enslaved, are also mentioned.

Folder 675

March 1863

March 1: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell at Bay Side near Elizabeth City, N.C., expressing relief that things stolen by enslaved people and "Buffaloes" (civilians with Union allegiances) had been recovered. Johnston wrote that he believed the enslaved people at Poplar Plains were demoralized. He mentioned putting Major, an enslaved person, into Peter's old house and in charge of things; having Old Lawrence's widow, who was Major's mother-in-law, move in with Major if he would take care of her; giving Josiah a piece of land to grow corn, some of which he could keep for himself; moving enslaved people to Roanoke Island if they wanted work because otherwise they might starve if they stayed at Poplar Plains.

March 13: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes, mentioning Major, who was enslaved by Johnston, as an assistant. Johnston also described violence by the Confederate guerrillas, including th murder of two enslaved people and abduction of ten others, and his anger at the enslaved people who had self-emancipated from him. Matthias, Jeff, Old Ben, and Little Ben, all of whom were enslaved, are mentioned.

March 13: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to W. Futrell mentioning an incident in which Confederate guerrillas killed two enslaved people and took 10 prisoners. Johnston mentioned Matthias and Jeff, who were enslaved by him.

March 18: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell, describing at length his feelings about his nephew and the enslaved people who left the plantation. Noah and Aaron, enslaved people, are mentioned as still being at Hayes.

March 21: Bill of sale for Myles, an enslaved man who was sold by Francis I. Iredell, Helen B. Iredell, and Margaret T. Iredell, in Raleigh, N.C., to James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 676

April 1863

April 11: Account sheet for James Cathcart Johnston with C & L Sawyer, with orders on credit for enslaved people.

April 12: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to Henry I. Futrell, letting him know that he had included him in his will and his directives regarding the people enslaved by him. He mentioned Frank, Tom, and Solomon, enslaved people who worked with Angelo Garibaldi, and Nat, Mack, and Dolly, who were also enslaved.

April 17: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell, complaining about the conduct of enslaved people in the care of Captain Saunders of the federal army. Major and Jeff, who are enslaved people, are mentioned; Davy, an enslaved person, is identified as the carrier of the letter.

Folder 677

May 1863

May 5: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to W. Futrell commenting on his relationship with the enslaved people. Johnston also described punishment he imposed on a young enslaved woman whom he thought was faking illness.

May 6: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell at Bay Side mentioning Jeff, an enslaved person who apparently engaged with the "Buffaloes" (civilians with Union allegiances) and Union soldiers as acts of resistance, and "Old Ben," an enslaved carriage driver. Johnston commented on the condition of the plantation and the acts of resistance offered by enslaved people who no longer worked as efficiently for him as they had in the past.

May 11: Letter from Thomas D. Warren to James Carthcart Johnston regarding a mortgage held on America, who was enslaved by Johnston. Warren mentioned that America had a wife.

May 25: List of enslaved people, with names and ages.

May 27: Letter from Henry J. Futrell at Hayes, reporting that Mack, John, America and his wife Maria, George and his wife Nelly, and Jerry, all enslaved people, had left the plantation for Edenton or Plymouth. Patricia, an enslaved person is also mentioned, but she may have stayed at the plantation.

Folder 678

June 1863

Folder 679

July 1863

July 13: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell at Bayside near Elizabeth City, N.C., in which he mentioned Prince, an enslaved person who blew a horn at 3:30 every morning to call the enslaved people to work.

July 20: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell, describing conditons at the plantation. He mentioned that Prince, his enslaved assistant ("factotum"), had been sick with bilious fever, and Aaron's sister, who was a cook whom Johnston had given to Dr. Edward Warren when he married, and an unnamed small boy who was her assistant, had self-emancipated with a field hand.

July 31: Letter from Ben Johnston at Body plantation to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Ben mentioned speaking with Bill and Sam, people enslaved by Johnston, and that his brother John had visited, though he had not seen Jim or his dad in a while. Ben also described the conditions on the plantation and that his mother had gotten Johnston's suit of linen.

Folder 680

August 1863

Folder 681

September 1863

September 22: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell, describing conditons at the plantation. He also reported that Bill had self-emancipated and mentioned work done by London.

Folder 682

October 1863

October 9: Letter from Richard Barfield, a free Black person, seeking a letter attesting to his freedom from James Cathcart Johnston so that he might travel to meet his wife in Columbus, Ohio.

October 11: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston to C. W. Hollowell, commenting on the departure of enslaved people from plantations.

October 21: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to W. Futrell, reporting that many of the people he had enslaved had left. Aaron remained.

Folder 683

November 1863

November 5: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell at Bayside near Elizabeth City, commenting on the departure of enslaved people from plantations. Anthony, an enslaved blacksmith, and Taylor, an enslaved person, are mentioned as being with Hollowell. Johnston wished that Anthony would stay and promised that he would pay more for his blacksmithing services than the Yankees would.

Folder 684

December 1863

Folder 685

January-April 1864

March 9: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to C. W. Hollowell, describing conditons at the plantation. "Old" Ben and Jim, who were enslaved, are mentioned.

March 16: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to James Futrell, discussing flour and corn prices. Johnston noted that Anthony, an enslaved person, had carried last letter from Futrell and would be sent home with flour. Major, an enslaved person, is also mentioned.

March 16: Letter from James Cathcart Johnston at Hayes to Henry J. Futrell, mentioning Dinah, "Old" Jack, and "Old" George, all of whom were enslaved by Johnston. Oscar, a free person of color, is mentioned as having property. Johnston instructed Futrell to offer Oscar whatever assistance he needed. Oscar had been to see his children in Ohio but according to Johnston was not an abolitionist.

April 7: Letter from Ben Johnston at the Body to his enslaver, James Cathcart Johnston. Ben worked as a foreman or overseer at Body. Ben mentioned his mother, his father and Jim, people enslaved by Johnston. Ben described the conditions on the plantation during the Civil War, including his livestock being stolen.

Folder 686

May-August 1864

July 27: List of enslaved people with names and ages.

August 9: Letter from William S. Pettigrew near Tarboro to James Cathcart Johnson, reporting on damages by Union soldiers and "Buffaloes" (civilians with Union allegiances) and that Henry and his wife Polly, who were enslaved, had gone to the Yankees at Plymouth in August 1863, and the rest of the people enslaved by him in January 1864. Pettigrew also reported that several old women who were enslaved had died, including a nurse who had been married to Virgil, who was enslaved at Belgrade; and the expectation of both Henry and Virgil that they would be murdered by hostile white people in the neighborhood.

Folder 687

September-December 1864

Folder 688

January-February 1865

January 23: Letter from C. W. Hollowell at Bayside to James Cathcart Johnston, describing resistance by enslaved people who had self-emancipated themselves from labor but had not left the plantation. Ben, Anthony, Primus, Major, Myles, Tayler (?), Jerry, and Jim, all of whom were enslaved, are mentioned.

February 9: Legal document indicating that Maggy, "Old" Sam and his wife Flora, Sam the son of Juda, Jack and Diner who were the children of Sam and Flora, were sold by John H. Leary to James Cathcart Johnston in December 1863.

February 26: Letter from Henry J. Futrell at Caledonia to James Cathcart Johnston in which he described work done by Nat, Godfrey, Andrew, and Rodger, all of whom were enslaved. Futrell mentioned that Frank, an enslaved person, had gone to see his wife and had not returned, possibly having taken up with other enslaved people who participated in acts of resistance against their enslavers while the Union Army occupied the area. Futrell also reported on a conversation he had with Mack and other members of the enslaved community about rumors of enslaved people being pressed into military service and what the enslaved people would do if that happened.

Folder 689

March-May 1865

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.2. Johnston Family Volumes, 1732-1859, and undated.

83 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Volumes include Gabriel Johnston's estate and plantation account; Samuel Johnston's (1702-1757) account books and ledgers containing personal and family finances, as well as some public accounts from when he served as public treasurer (1745-1751); an anonymous surveyor's journal, which is attributed to Samuel Johnston (1702-1757); Samuel Johnston's (1733-1816) legal fees and personal expense memoranda; merchandise ledgers and accounts for George Blair, Samuel Johnston's (1733-1816) brother-in-law, and Hindley and Needham, for whom Samuel Johnston (1733-1816) worked as an attorney; expense accounts related to Samuel Johnston's (1733-1816) public service during the American Revolution, including accounts for Andrew Knox & Co.; James Cathcart Johnston's personal and plantation accounts; and several catalogs for the library at Hayes Plantation. The institution of slavery is documented throughout the plantation ledgers; individual enslaved people can be found in lists and accounting ledgers.

Reel M-324/17

Volume 1 (J): Samuel Johnston (1702-1757), 1732-1734 and 1752-1757

Merchandise daybook; North Carolina treasury, personal, and family accounts. Microfilm only.

Oversize Volume SV-324/2j

Volume 2 (J): Samuel Johnston (1702-1757), 1732 and 1735-1753

Merchant ledger and public treasurer's accounts.

Folder 692

Volume 3 (J): Anonymous, 1735-1740

Surveyor's journal: description of trip to survey 60,000 acres of land around the northern branches of the Neuse and Cape Fear rivers, which might have been conducted by Samuel Johnston when he was surveyor-general of North Carolina. (Includes transcription and copy of a published article.)

Folder 693

Volume 4 (J): Gabriel Johnston, 1752-1756

Ledger containing accounts of Gabriel Johnston's estate and plantation accounts for Eden House, Mount Gallant, Fishing Creek, etc. Expenses related to slavery are included, as well as the number of enslaved people employed by Mr. Rutherford, and at Eden House.

Folder 694

Volume 5 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1755-1761

Ledger recording his legal fees and personal expenses of Johnston family members.

Folder 695

Volume 6 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1757-1758

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 696

Volume 7 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1758-1761

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Oversize Volume SV-324/8j

Volume 8 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1758-1778

Ledger: inside cover includes a list of enslaved people with names, birth month and year, and mother's name; record of legal fees and personal expenses of Johnston family members.

Folder 698

Volume 9 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1759-1763

Legal fee memorandum.

Folder 699

Volume 10 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1761

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 700

Volume 11 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1761-1762

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 701

Volume 12 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1761 and 1767

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 702

Volume 13 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1762-1763

Legal fee memorandum.

Folder 703

Volume 14 (J): George Blair, 1762-1767

Merchandise ledger.

Folder 704

Volume 15 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1764

Legal fee memorandum.

Folder 705

Volume 16 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1764-1765

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 706

Volume 17 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1765-1767

Legal fee memorandum.

Oversize Volume SV-324/18j

Volume 18 (J): Hindley and Needham, 1765-1770

Merchandise accounts.

Folder 708

Volume 19 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1766

Legal fee memorandum.

Folder 709

Volume 20 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1768-1772

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Oversize Volume SV-324/21j

Volume 21 (J): George Blair, 1769-1773

Merchandise ledger.

Oversize Volume SV-324/22j

Volume 22 (J): George Blair, 1770 and 1773

Fragment of merchandise ledger.

Oversize Volume SV-324/23j

Volume 23 (J): George Blair, 1770

Fragment of merchandise ledger.

Folder 713

Volume 24 (J): Hindley and Needham, 1770-1772

Ledger of shipping accounts with Thomas Taylor & Son.

Folder 714

Volume 25 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1771 and 1773-1774

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum, including charges for provisions, such as cutting cloth for enslaved people (p.5). Peggy, an enslaved person, is mentioned.

Folder 715

Volume 26 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1772-1773

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 716

Volume 27 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1772-1774

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 717a

Volume 28 (J): Andrew Knox & Co., 1772-1774 (pp. 1-58)

Merchandise ledger.

Folder 717b

Volume 28 (J): Andrew Knox & Co., 1772-1774 (pp. 58-118)

Merchandise ledger.

Page 69: Accounts for Harry, Tom, and Henry, who were free people of color.

Folder 717c

Volume 28 (J): Andrew Knox & Co., 1772-1774 (pp. 118-178)

Merchandise ledger.

Folder 717d

Volume 28 (J): Andrew Knox & Co., 1772-1774 (pp. 178-238)

Merchandise ledger.

Folder 717e

Volume 28 (J): Andrew Knox & Co., 1772-1774 (pp. 238-281)

Merchandise ledger.

Folder 718

Volume 29 (J): Andrew Knox & Co., 1774-1775

Merchandise ledger.

Folder 719

Volume 30 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1774-1777

"Publick of North Carolina" expense account

Oversize Volume SV-324/31j

Volume 31 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1774-1777

Ledger of accounts related to a public office.

Folder 721

Volume 32 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1775

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Oversize Volume SV-324/33j

Volume 33 (J): Andrew Knox & Co., 1775-1776

Merchandise ledger.

Folder 723

Volume 34 (J): Gray and McKenzie, 1775-1780

Merchandise ledger.

Reel M-324/19

Volume 35 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1778-1802

Account book of personal and family expenses and of the expenses of the "Publick of North Carolina"; account of James C. Johnston (1782-1865) with William McKenzie.

Folder 725

Volume 36 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1776

Personal expense memorandum.

Folder 726

Volume 37 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1776-1777

Personal expense memorandum.

Folder 727

Volume 38 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1777-1778

Personal expense memorandum.

Folder 728

Volume 39 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1778-1780

Personal expense memorandum.

Oversize Volume SV-324/40j

Volume 40 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816) and James C. Johnston, 1778-1817

Merchandise ledger including accounts for Caledonia and Poplar Plains. (Separate index enclosed.)

Folder 730

Volume 41 (J): Gray and McKenzie, 1780-1783

Merchandise daybook recording daily transactions to be transferred into ledger.

Folder 731

Volume 42 (J): Gray and McKenzie, 1780-1783

Merchandise daybook.

Folder 732

Volume 43 (J): Gray and McKenzie, 1780-1783

Merchandise ledger.

Folder 733

Volume 44 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1781-1783

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 734

Volume 45 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1781-1784

Caledonia plantation account book recording account with William McKenzie.

Folder 735

Volume 46 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1783

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 736

Volume 47 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1783-1785

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 737

Volume 48 (J): Margaret McKenzie, 1784-1817

Personal account book, includes early legal notes of Samuel Johnston (1733-1816).

Folder 738

Volume 49 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1785

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 739

Volume 50 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1785-1786

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 740

Volume 51 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1786

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 741

Volume 52 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1786-1787

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 742

Volume 53 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1787-1790

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 743

Volume 54 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1790-1791

Bank account book with Bank of North America.

Folder 744

Volume 55 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1790-1791

Personal expense memorandum.

Folder 745

Volume 56 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1790-1795

Memorandum of traveling expenses and personal accounts with James Iredell, Robert Lennox, and William McKenzie.

Folder 746

Volume 57 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816) and James C. Johnston, 1790-1821

"Account of Transactions in Philadelphia": personal expense accounts and bank accounts including records of stocks and certificates.

Folder 747

Volume 58 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1791-1792

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 748

Volume 59 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1792-1793

Travel account and personal expense memorandum.

Folder 749

Volume 60 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1794, 1796, and 1798

Travel account, personal and household expense memorandum.

Folder 750

Volume 61 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1794-1800

Personal expense memorandum.

Folder 751

Volume 62 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1797-1806

Memorandum with Caledonia plantation accounts; legal notes.

Folder 752

Volume 63 (J): James C. Johnston, 1799-1800

Personal expense memorandum.

Folder 753

Volume 64 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1800-1804

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum, including some legal notes.

Folder 754

Volume 65 (J): James C. Johnston, 1803-1806

Personal and plantation expense memorandum.

Folder 755

Volume 66 (J): James C. Johnston, 1803-1813

Personal and plantation account book consisting primarily of accounts for Poplar Plains and Hermitage.

Folder 756

Volume 67 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1804-1809

Legal fee, personal expense, and plantation account memorandum.

Folder 757

Volume 68 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1804-1811

Legal fee and personal and plantation expense memorandum.

Folder 758

Volume 69 (J): James C. Johnston, 1806-1808

Personal and plantation expense memorandum. Includes names of people enslaved by James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 759

Volume 70 (J): James C. Johnston, 1806-1840

Plantation account book with accounts for Caledonia, Hermitage, and Hayes, chiefly dealing with corn and hogs.

Folder 760

Volume 71 (J): James C. Johnston, 1809-1810

Personal and plantation expense memorandum.

Reel M-324/21

Volume 72 (J): James C. Johnston, 1810-1813

Ledger including William McKenzie estate settlement, Poplar Plains account, and list of enslaved people.

Folder 762

Volume 73 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1811-1813

Legal notes and personal and plantation expense memorandum.

Folder 763

Volume 74 (J): James C. Johnston, 1813-1816

Personal and plantation expense memorandum for Hermitage.

Folder 764

Volume 75 (J): James C. Johnston, 1816-1818

Personal and plantation expense memorandum; family obituaries on the first page.

Folder 765

Volume 76 (J): James C. Johnston, 1818-1821

Personal and plantation expense memorandum.

Folder 766

Volume 77 (J): Joseph Blount, 1823-1827

Account of Joseph Blount's estate with Gavin Hogg.

Reel M-324/21

Volume 78 (J): James C. Johnston, 1827-1841

Account book of Joseph Blount estate settlement and of guardianship of Blount's son, Joseph Blount.

Volume 79 (J): James C. Johnston, 1827-1843

Account book of Joseph Blount estate settlement and of guardianship of Blount's son, Joseph Blount.

Folder 769

Volume 80 (J): Philip W. Alston, 1830

"Catalogue of Books Contained in the Library at Hayes Exclusive of Law-Books" (alphabetically arranged).

Folder 770

Volume 81 (J): James C. Johnston, 1855

Brief plantation account memorandum.

Folder 771

Volume 82 (J): James C. Johnston, 1859

Memorandum of expenses in building a house and cabins at Cedar Creek, Va.

Folder 772

Volume 83 (J): Benjamin H. Alston, undated

Catalogue of books at Hayes (arranged by subject).

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 2. Wood family, 1810-1928.

About 8,000 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Personal and business correspondence and financial and legal materials documenting two generations of the Wood family and others, including Edward Wood, (1820-1872), plantation owner, enslaver, and businessman; his wife Caroline Moore Gilliam Wood; and their sons Edward Wood and John Gilliam Wood.

Materials provide insight into antebellum and postbellum North Carolina and southern history, especially plantation and fishery administration based on enslaved labor, agriculture, and the transition from an economy based on enslaved labor, knowledge, and skill, to tenant farming after the Civil War. The enslaved people at the Wood family farms and fisheries are found in bills of sale, hiring out contracts, correspondence, and account books and memoranda detailing employment information and labor inventories. Other topics include trade and shipping, the settlement of the estate of James Cathcart Johnston, contemporary family and social life, education and school life, and health and medical treatment, including mental health.

This series has been divided into two subseries based on material type. The first subseries contains loose papers while the second contains bound volumes, both of which have been arranged chronologically.

Processing note: folders were renumbered in April 2022.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.1. Wood Family Papers, 1810-1922.

About 8,000 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Personal and business correspondence and financial and legal materials, documenting two generations of the Wood family, as well as people enslaved by them. Wood family members included Edward Wood, (1820-1872), plantation owner, enslaver, and businessman; his wife Caroline Moore Gilliam Wood; and their sons Edward Wood and John Gilliam Wood. Materials provide insight into antebellum and postbellum North Carolina history, especially plantation administration, agriculture, the transition from an economy based on enslaved labor, knowledge, and skill, to tenant farming after the Civil War, trade and shipping, settlement of the estate of James Cathcart Johnston, contemporary family and social life, education and school life, and health and medical treatment, including mental illness. Financial and legal materials include indentures, deeds, surveys, wills, judgments and suits, bills of lading, receipts, bills of sale for enslaved people, account sheets and ledgers, and inventories.

The series has been divided into two descriptive subseries based on significant shifts that signal a change in the cast of characters and/or the subjects treated during a specific time span.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.1.1. Wood Family Papers, 1810-1872.

About 4,475 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Chiefly business and financial papers of Edward Wood (1820-1872), plantation owner, enslaver, and businessman, that document his farming and fishery businesses, as well as enslaved people and freed people. Materials include letters from commission merchants, business agents, and land and fishery managers; legal documents such as land surveys, indentures, wills, deeds, and insurance contracts; and financial materials such as receipts, bills of sale for enslaved people, hiring out contracts for the labor of enslaved people, bills of lading, account sheets, inventories, and stock, bond, and other investment materials. These materials provide insight into the economy of the South during Reconstruction and document political tensions between North and South. Other materials pertain to the Albemarle Steam Navigation Co., for which Wood served as president, and the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad Co. and Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Co., firms in which he had a vital interest because he used their services to ship his fish and crops to market. These materials relate chiefly to company stock information, business administration, and ship repairs and building. Materials of a more personal nature document the education of Wood's children, family life, social conditions and customs, travel, health, and the settling of lawsuits. Materials prior to 1860 consist chiefly of financial and legal documents; the bulk of the correspondence begins in 1860.

At the outbreak of the Civil War, Wood was invested in the building of a steamer ship known as the Virginia Dare. Materials for 1861 are chiefly concerned with this endeavor. Included are correspondence regarding the design of the vessel, blueprints, and receipts for Virginia Dare stock.

There is relatively little information about Civil War soldiers and battles. In the later part of 1862, Julian Wood wrote several letters from Camp French describing camp life and fortifications. Letters from Julian's relatives to Wood describe information received from Julian in his letters and relay news of his death in 1863.

The majority of letters from the Civil War period document southern sentiments regarding the Confederate cause and the failing economy. An "Appeal to the North," 8 December 1862, discusses the economy of free labor, defends the institution of slavery, and calls for an end to the war. Letters from politically and financially influential landholders discuss the interruption of agriculture and trade. Materials also document activities of enslaved people during this period and include a 22 April 1862 order to intercept and capture a group of enslaved people who had self-emancipated by running away, and a 23 April 1862 letter warning Wood to "watch his boats" since other boats in the area had been used to assist enslaved people to escape.

Wood's business routines were interrupted with the occupation of North Carolina by Federal forces. Fearing that fishermen would cross Federal lines in the Albemarle Sound to trade with Confederate supporters, the military government forbade fishing. In 1863, Wood petitioned Federal forces, particularly Captain Flusser, for the right to fish for the benefit of the poor. He was granted permission to fish on a limited scale, but was soon after taken prisoner and held hostage pending the release of a prisoner held by Confederate forces. James Cathcart Johnston (1782-1865) was a supporter of Wood and worked to procure his release. It was at this time that Johnston began to express his desire that his "relations not have anything to do with [his] affairs" and he made Wood and two others the executors and heirs of his estate.

Immediately following the war, materials document the legal dispute to pardon Wood for his alleged Confederate involvement. Another major legal matter was the settlement of James Cathcart Johnston's estate following his death on 9 May 1865. Johnston's cousins challenged the legitimacy of Johnston's will, stating that he had been mentally unstable at the time the will and accompanying letters of instruction were written. The will was established as legal in 1867, upholding Wood and the other executors as rightful heirs with the responsibility of carrying out its terms. However, new suits were brought against Wood, as executor, and the estate was not completely settled until 1871.

Letters often provide insight into legal preparations for the Johnston estate case, including hiring attorneys, appointing judges, and assessing attitudes of citizens in jurisdictions where the case could be tried. Letters from C. W. Hollowell, another executor, describe his experiences during the court proceedings and provide insight into the difficulties of reaching a settlement. Other related materials include account sheets, appeals for loans from members of the Johnston family, legal notes, subpoenas, and court rulings.

At the conclusion of the Civil War, Wood resumed his farming and fishing businesses. Correspondence describes the economy and industry during Reconstruction. Letters received from northern commission merchants discuss the consignment of fish and crops, market and economic conditions, hire of trading vessels and shipping contracts, assessment of goods, investment of profits, and the purchase of goods such as barrels and kegs, cork, ice, salt, whiskey, molasses, and netting for the fishing trade. Merchants with whom Wood did the majority of his business include James Bond and Whedbee & Dickinson in Baltimore; C. W. Grandy Co. & Sons in Norfolk; John N. Shriver in Philadelphia; and C. E. Morrison and Co. in Boston.

Letters from William Stowe, of the American Net & Twine Co. in Boston, detail developments in the net and twine industry. In the years immediately following the Civil War, Stowe expressed views on the economy of free labor in the South, Reconstruction, suffrage, and politics. Stowe also advised Wood to abandon his cotton crops since they would not be profitable.

Other materials reflect the changing economic structures and racial interactions in the South during Reconstruction. In 1865, Wood worked with agents to procure indentured laborers from England, Germany, and Sweden to work as household servants and farm hands. Materials include letters from John Williams of the American Emigration Co. in New York, receipts for passage from Europe, and a contract of indenture dated December 1865.

Beginning in the late 1860s, Wood received letters from individuals offering their skills as coopers, fishing hands, farmers, and land managers. They often stated wage expectations and mentioned wage offers from other landowners. Other individuals sought employment on Wood's various ships as clerks and captains.

Despite these appeals from interested laborers, letters from Daniel Valentine, who appears to have worked as a recruiter for Wood's fisheries, often document the lack of labor in certain areas or the competitive nature of wage labor following the war. Letters between land owners often lamented the fact that they could not find enough hired labor to work their land.

Sharecropping materials include advertisements, in the form of broadsides and newspaper articles; rental contracts; and letters from land managers that often complain of the poor profits attained in such work. Springs Brady and Davy M. Lee, who worked at Greenfield in the years following the war, were two of the tenants.

Wood's brother, William C. Wood, wrote many letters in 1867 that detail the management of Wood's fisheries. Letters from Caroline Moore Gilliam Wood to Edward Wood often provide updates on the activities of the farm, business issues, and family.

There are various materials pertaining to Wood's involvement with the Albemarle Steam Navigation Co, the Blackwater Steam Boat Co., and the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad Co. Letters from the cessation of the war through the early 1870s refer to the purchase and repairs of ships, requests for free passage, scheduling of routes, and business contracts. Of interest are the letters from R. J. Powell in regards to the North Carolina Mail Service.

Following the war, Wood was involved in many charitable acts, and he received letters from friends, family, and community groups for financial assistance. Margaret Johnston, widow of Samuel Iredell Johnston (d. 1865), wrote letters beginning in 1866, requesting funds to provide for her children. Throughout the years, James Cathcart Johnston Jr. sought advances on his monetary allowances from the Johnston estate. Letters often recount his failed business endeavors, and an 1870 letter from his wife to Wood describes their destitution. In late 1869, Sarah Elliot wrote to attain a loan for the cost of publishing her book, Mrs. Elliot's Housewife: containing practical receipts in cookery.

The education of Edward Wood's children is well documented in letters, tuition receipts, and report cards. Beginning in 1862, Mary Wood was educated at the Patapsco Female School in Raleigh, N.C. Wood received reports on her progress from the director of the school. Letters from Edward Wood (1851-1898) begin in 1868 while he attended J. H. Horner's school in Oxford and relay his feelings about school, his education, requests for money, information about the family, and his expulsion from school in 1869. It appears that he witnessed a fight between a white shop keeper and a Black customer, and that he would be summoned as a witness in court. Such a summons proved that he was out past curfew, an infraction that lead to expulsion. His 13 May 1871 letter to his mother suggests that he also was later expelled from the University of Virginia.

Letters from business and personal correspondents throughout the series speak to Wood's poor health. It appears that he suffered from dyspepsia, and he considered many remedies, including eating oysters and maintaining a food and whiskey diet, over the years. His health apparently began to decline rapidly in 1871, when he began traveling to Asheville in the hopes of making a recovery. In 1872, he seemed to be preparing for death, and he began arranging his financial papers and drew up a will.

Folder 773

1810

Folder 774

1829

Folder 775

1830

Folder 776

1833

Folder 777

1838

Folder 778

1839

Folder 779

1841

Folder 780

1843

Folder 781

1844

Folder 782

1845

January 11: Bill of sale for Atlas, Henry, Lydia, Adaline, and children Mike and Sam, enslaved people who were sold by Elizabeth Gilliam from the estate of H. Gilliam, to Edward Wood of Gates County, N.C. Registered in Gates County 10 September 1845.

Folder 783

1846

May 7: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Belgrade to Edward Wood in Gatesville, requesting help in finding free Black people or enslaved people with experience using a cradle to harvest wheat to teach the people enslaved by him how to use the tool.

May 21: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Belgrade to Edward Wood in Gatesville, following up on the terms agreed upon for hiring out of the labor, skills, and knowledge of enslaved people from Henry L. Eure (?) to lead the wheat harvest at Belgrade.

Folder 784

1847

April 29: Letter from William S. Pettigrew at Belgrade to Edward Wood in Gatesville, concerning Arthur, an enslaved person whose labor, skills, and knowledge as a cradler had been hired out from his enslaver Henry L. Eure (?) to Pettigrew during the 1846 harvest. Another cradler, Mark, is also mentioned.

Folder 785

1849

Folder 786

1850

June 26: Bill of sale for Trucy and Squires, enslaved people who were sold in Perquimmons County, N.C., to Edward Wood. Trucy and Squires were sold at public auction by Sheriff Willis H. Bagby, but previously may have been enslaved to John S. Woods.

Folder 787

1852

November 1: Bill of sale for Jim, an enslaved person who was sold by Jacob White in Chowan County, N.C., to Trecy White in Chowan County, N.C.

November 13: Bill of sale for Silas, an enslaved person about 32 years old, who was sold by Rich Paxton in Edenton, N.C., to Edward Wood.

December 1: Bill of sale for Jim, an enslaved person about 27 years old who was sold by Trecy White of Chowan County, N.C., to Edward Wood of Chowan County, N.C. Jim was previously enslaved by Jacob White.

Folder 788

1853

Folder 789

1854

Undated: Bill of sale for Fany, an enslaved person who was sold by James D. Wynn to Edward Wood. John Cox and G. C. Moore signed as trustees.

July 25: Bill of sale for Washington, an enslaved person about 25 years old who was sold by Trotman H. Ward to Edward Wood.

August 25: Bill of sale for James, an enslaved person who was sold in Richmond to Edward Wood.

August 25: Bill of sale for William Plummer, an enslaved person who was sold by Benjamin Davis in Richmond to Edward Wood.

August 25: Bill of sale for Sally and her child William, enslaved people who were sold by Benjamin Davis in Richmond to Edward Wood.

Folder 790

1856

January 5: Bill of sale for a family of 4 enslaved people (Ned, about 32 years old; Harriet, about 32 years old; Stirling, about 7 years old; Turner, about 5 years old), who were sold by A. Dixon to Edward Wood.

January 8: Bill of sale for Henry, an enslaved person about 32 years old who was sold from the estate of Joshua Skinner to Edward Wood. T. L. Skinner brokered the trafficking of Henry.

January 16: Insurance policies for Henry and Edward, who were enslaved by Edward Wood.

December 8: Bill of sale for Henry, an enslaved person about 33 years old who was sold from the estate of John Cox to Edward Wood. John Thompson brokered the trafficking of Henry.

December 29: Bill of sale for Richard, an enslaved person who was sold from the estate of John Cox to Edward Wood. John Thompson brokered the trafficking of Henry.

Folder 791

1857

January 13: Insurance policy fo Richard, who was enslaved by Edward Wood.

November 12: Bill of sale for Delila and children Harriet, Dick, Mary Ann, Eliza, Emily, Edward, and Dick, enslaved people who were sold by C. W. Skinner to Edward Wood.

Folder 792

1858

January 1: Bill of sale for Malvina, an enslaved person 25 years old; Louisa, an enslaved child 4 years old; and Mills, an enslaved child 8 years old, who were sold from the estate of William R. Nixon to Edward Wood. W. C. Warren brokered the trafficking of Malvina, Louisa, and Mills at public auction.

January 25: Bill of sale for Penny, an enslaved person about 32 years old, who was sold by James L. Bunch to Edward Wood.

Folder 793

1859

January 8: Bill of sale for Isum, an enslaved person about 63 years old, who was sold by William D. Lowther to Edward Wood.

Folder 794

January-March 1860

January 3: Record of hiring out of Aleck, an enslaved person whose labor, skills, and knowledge had been purchased from B. B. Hoskins by Edward Wood and Julian Gilliam.

Folder 795

April-June 1860

Folder 796

July-September 1860

Folder 797

October-December 1860

Folder 798

January 1861

January 1: Record of hiring out of Frances, an enslaved person whose labor, skills, and knowledge had been purchased from Rachel Starrey by Julian Gilliam and Edward Wood.

Folder 799

February 1861

Folder 800

March 1861

Folder 801

1-15 April 1861

Folder 802

16-30 April 1861

Folder 803

May 1861

Folder 804

June 1861

Folder 805

July 1861

Folder 806

August 1861

Folder 807

September 1861

Folder 808

October 1861

Folder 809

November 1861

Folder 810

December 1861

Folder 811

1862

January 1: Record of hiring out of George Rumboldt, an enslaved person whose labor, skills, and knowledge had been purchased from Ann C. Blount by William C. Wood and Edward Wood.

January 1: Record of hiring out of Mingo, an enslaved person whose labor, skills, and knowledge had been purchased from Henry A. Skinner, probably by William C. Wood and Edward Wood.

February 6: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed..

April 23: Letter from W. C. Wood to Ned at Edenton, reporting that enslaved people had fled from Thompson, Heath, Henry Bond, and John Bond. Arnold, who was enslaved by Henry Bond, was one of the people who had self-emancipated. There may also have been an enslaved person named Miles who escaped from an enslaver named Foxwell.

November 17: Letter from H. Gilliam at Warrenton to Captain J. Gilliam, counseling his brother to move the enslaved people he claimed as property to a safer location so that they would not try to self-emancipate on their own. Jim, who was enslaved by H. Gilliam, is also mentioned.

November 17: Letter from H. A. Gilliam at Warrenton to Captain J. Gilliam, mentioning Jim, who was enslaved to H. A. Gilliam and may have been a carriage driver. He also entreated J. Gilliam to write to their brother Ned Gilliam to remove the people enslaved by him to a different location or sell them.

November 20: Letter from J. Gilliam counseling another Gilliam brother to remove the people enslaved by him to an area more safe from the war. Jim and Godfrey, who were enslaved people, are mentioned as message carriers. Henry, a young person enslaved to J. Gilliam, is mentioned as having escaped from slavery with his father.

December 8: Correspondence in which the controversy over slavery is discussed.

Folder 812

1863

Undated: letter to Ned Gilliam (?) recommending that people enslaved by him be moved to a safer location.

Undated: Hiring contract for Hester and four children, enslaved people whose labor was purchased from Elizabeth Jackson by Charles G. Britt.

Folder 813

1864

February 10: Letter from Benjamin Batten of the 18th Army Corps, Department of Virginia and North Carolina, with answers to questions from citizens, including how enslaved people who had left the area but sought to return would be treated.

Folder 814

January 1865

Folder 815

February 1865

Folder 816

March 1865

Folder 817

April 1865

Folder 818

May 1865

Folder 819

June 1865

Folder 820

July 1865

July 9: Letter from H. A. Gilliam to Ned (Gilliam?), describing an incident in which a group of freed Black people were discovered to have been practicing military drills twice a week in the middle of the night, led by a freed Black person who previously had been enslaved to a Confederate officer. Emma, who was formerly enslaved to H. A. Gilliam, is mentioned.

Folder 821

August 1865

Folder 822

September 1865

September 4: Reconstruction era record.

September 8: Reconstruction era record.

September 19: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 823

October 1865

Folder 824

November 1865

November 10: Reconstruction era record.

November 17: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 825

December 1865

December 26: Reconstruction era record.

December 27: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 826

1-15 January 1866

Undated: Reconstruction era record.

January 3: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 827

16-31 January 1866

Folder 828

1-15 February 1866

Folder 829

16-28 February 1866

Folder 830

1-10 March 1866

Folder 831

11-20 March 1866

March 15: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 832

21-31 March 1866

Folder 833

1-15 April 1866

April 10: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 834

16-30 April 1866

Folder 835

1-5 May 1866

Folder 836

6-10 May 1866

Folder 837

11-15 May 1866

May 15: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 838

16-20 May 1866

Folder 839

21-25 May 1866

Folder 840

26-31 May 1866

Folder 841

1-10 June 1866

June 1: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 842

11-20 June 1866

Folder 843

21-30 June 1866

Folder 844

July 1866

July 4: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 845

1-15 August 1866

August 3: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 846

16-31 August 1866

Folder 847

September 1866

September 15: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 848

1-15 October 1866

Folder 849

16-31 October 1866

October 22: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 850

November 1866

Folder 851

1-15 December 1866

Folder 852

16-31 December 1866

Folder 853

1-15 January 1867

Folder 854

16-31 January 1867

January 29: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 855

Legal notes related to James Cathcart Johnson estate case, February 1867

Folder 856

February 1867

Folder 857

1-15 March 1867

Folder 858

16-31 March 1867

Folder 859

1-10 April 1867

Folder 860

11-20 April 1867

Folder 861

21-30 April 1867

Folder 862

1-10 May 1867

Folder 863

11-20 May 1867

Folder 864

21-31 May 1867

Folder 865

1-15 June 1867

Folder 866

16-30 June 1867

Folder 867

1-15 July 1867

Folder 868

16-31 July 1867

July 22: Reconstruction era record.

July 29: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 869

1-15 August 1867

Undated: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 870

16-31 August 1867

Folder 871

1-15 September 1867

Folder 872

16-30 September 1867

Folder 873

1-15 October 1867

Folder 874

16-31 October 1867

Folder 875

1-15 November 1867

November 11: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 876

16-30 November 1867

November 27: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 877

1-15 December 1867

December 1: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 878

16-31 December 1867

Folder 879

1-10 January 1868

January 1: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 880

11-20 January 1868

Folder 881

21-30 January 1868

Folder 882

1-15 February 1868

Folder 883

16-28 February 1868

Folder 884

1-10 March 1868

Folder 885

11-20 March 1868

Folder 886

21-31 March 1868

Folder 887

1-10 April 1868

Folder 888

11-20 April 1868

Folder 889

21-30 April 1868

Folder 890

1-10 May 1868

Folder 891

11-20 May 1868

Folder 892

21-31 May 1868

Folder 893

1-15 June 1868

Folder 894

16-30 June 1868

Folder 895

1-15 July 1868

Folder 896

16-31 July 1868

Folder 897

August 1868

Folder 898

September 1868

Folder 899

1-15 October 1868

Folder 900

16-31 October 1868

October 25: Reconstruction era record.

October 30: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 901

1-15 November 1868

Folder 902

16-30 November 1868

Folder 903

1-10 December 1868

Folder 904

11-20 December 1868

Folder 905

21-31 December 1868

Oversize Paper Folder OPF-324/4

Miscellaneous papers, 1868, 1892, and undated

Advertisement for "Winter Seed Wheat," 1868; land grant, 1892; a musical score titled "Hercules Waltz," undated; and an advertisement for mill equipment, undated.

Folder 906

1-10 January 1869

January 4: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 907

11-20 January 1869

Folder 908

21-31 January 1869

Folder 909

1-15 February 1869

Folder 910

16-28 February 1869

Folder 911

1-15 March 1869

Folder 912

16-31 March 1869

Folder 913

1-10 April 1869

Folder 914

11-20 April 1869

April 19: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 915

21-30 April 1869

Folder 916

1-15 May 1869

Folder 917

16-31 May 1869

Folder 918

1-15 June 1869

Folder 919

16-30 June 1869

Folder 920

1-15 July 1869

Folder 921

16-31 July 1869

Folder 922

August 1869

Folder 923

September 1869

Folder 924

1-10 October 1869

Folder 925

11-20 October 1869

Folder 926

21-31 October 1869

Folder 927

1-15 November 1869

Folder 928

16-31 November 1869

Folder 929

1-10 December 1869

Folder 930

11-20 December 1869

December 11: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 931

21-31 December 1869

Folder 932

1-5 January 1870

Folder 933

6-10 January 1870

Folder 934

11-15 January 1870

Folder 935

16-20 January 1870

Folder 936

21-25 January 1870

Folder 937

26-31 January 1870

Folder 938

1-10 February 1870

Folder 939

11-20 February 1870

Folder 940

21-28 February 1870

Folder 941

1-10 March 1870

Folder 942

11-20 March 1870

Folder 943

21-31 March 1870

Folder 944

1-10 April 1870

Folder 945

11-20 April 1870

Folder 946

21-31 April 1870

Folder 947

1-10 May 1870

Folder 948

11-20 May 1870

Folder 949

21-31 May 1870

Folder 950

1-15 June 1870

Folder 951

16-30 June 1870

Folder 952

1-15 July 1870

Folder 953

16-31 July 1870

Folder 954

August 1870

August 12: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 955

September 1870

Folder 956

1-10 October 1870

Folder 957

11-20 October 1870

Folder 958

21-31 October 1870

Folder 959

1-15 November 1870

Folder 960

16-30 November 1870

Folder 961

1-15 December 1870

December 7: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 962

16-31 December 1870

Folder 963

1-10 January 1871

Folder 964

11-20 January 1871

Folder 965

21-31 January 1871

January 30: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 966

1-15 February 1871

Folder 967

16-28 February 1871

Folder 968

1-10 March 1871

Folder 969

11-20 March 1871

Folder 970

21-31 March 1871

Folder 971

1-10 April 1871

Folder 972

11-20 April 1871

Folder 973

21-30 April 1871

Folder 974

1-10 May 1871

Folder 975

11-20 May 1871

Folder 976

21-31 May 1871

Folder 977

June 1871

Folder 978

July 1871

Folder 979

August 1871

August 9: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 980

September 1871

Folder 981

October 1871

Folder 982

November 1871

Folder 983

December 1871

Folder 984

1-15 January 1872

Folder 985

16-31 January 1872

Folder 986

February 1872

Folder 987

March 1872

Folder 988

1-15 April 1872

Folder 989

16-30 April 1872

Folder 990

1-10 May 1872

Folder 991

11-20 May 1872

Folder 992

21-31 May 1872

Folder 993

1-15 June 1872

Folder 994

16-30 June 1872

June 17: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 995

1-15 July 1872

Folder 996

16-31 July 1872

Folder 997

August 1872

Folder 998

September 1872

Folder 999

1-15 October 1872

Folder 1000

16-31 October 1872

Folder 1001

November 1872

Folder 1002

December 1872

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.1.2. Wood Family Papers, 1873-1921.

About 3,525 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Chiefly correspondence and financial materials relating to the administration of the Wood family farms and fisheries. Following Edward Wood's death in 1872, Caroline Moore Gilliam Wood (1851-1898) began to manage the family's business affairs with the help of her brother-in-law, William C. Wood, and, after his death in 1876, with her sons, Edward Wood (851-1898), John Wood, and Frank Wood. Correspondence details the administration of the fisheries and comments on the industry and market changes from season to season, including the decline in profits from the fishing and cotton trades beginning in 1878. Caroline's letters in March and April of 1877 to her son, Frank, who was studying at the University of North Carolina, often express her disappointment in Edward's management of the fisheries. Major business correspondents include C. W. Skinner, Whedbee & Dickinson in Baltimore, and C. W. Grandy Co. & Sons in Norfolk. Other financial materials include receipts, invoices, bills of lading, labor inventories, and account sheets.

This subseries also provides comprehensive insight into the personal lives of the Wood family members. Letters between Caroline and her children increase in frequency after 1874 and detail family life; health concerns; social life and customs; college life, particularly at the University of Virginia and at the University of North Carolina; travel; politics; and business. Caroline's extensive letters to her children describe the success of various business endeavors, recount financial information, and often advise frugality with allowances, especially after 1877. Caroline comments on the activities of members of the community, providing background information on social life and interactions within North Carolina. Letters also relay information received in correspondence with her other children; report on the health of family members, particularly Bettie, who suffered from a lengthy illness; and encourage diligence in all academic pursuits. Her letters to son James Wood express concern over his physical health and foreshadow his untimely death in October 1876. The Wood siblings also corresponded with each other. In a 27 February 1876 letter to his brother, James Wood described the student festivities following the passing of a bill by the Virginia State Legislature to appropriate $30,000 a year to the University of Virginia.

In addition to letters from family members, John Wood received notes from friends while studying bookkeeping at the Eastman Business School in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., in 1874. Letters concern a variety of topics including politics and elections, student life, and social events. A 17 October 1874 letter from a classmate at the University of Virginia describes several fraternities and the activities of many of their mutual friends.

Annie wrote several letters while attending Salem Female Institute, and later, Saint Mary's in Raleigh (circa 1876), in which she discussed her courses of study and social activities. Her later letters are a rich source of information on social life and customs of the people of eastern North Carolina.

In 1878, John traveled to Europe from whence he wrote two lengthy letters describing the cities and people that he visited, having particularly strong opinions on England, Switzerland, and Italy. In October of 1883, Annie wrote to her brother Julian about her northern tour. She described her trip to the Exposition and expressed her pride in the North Carolina exhibit. She also gave her impressions of Boston, Cambridge, and Washington D.C.

Following Caroline's death, personal correspondence among Wood family members is infrequent. Julian's 1889 letters, addressed to John and written while he was studying law at the University of North Carolina, discuss college life and inquire about the family crops. Mary Hall also wrote regarding crops and farming profits and gave information about family health and activities. A 28 September 1901 letter informs John of his brother Hal's diagnosis with tuberculosis.

Between 1905 and 1910 materials document negotiations between John and the Norfolk & Southern Railway Co. to purchase part of the Hayes farm for railway development.

John received letters from Charles De F. Burnes, a well-known collector of autograph letters, with regard to family correspondence dating to the American Revolutionary War period. Additionally, there are materials pertaining to the assessment and preservation of select materials from the Wood library.

Folder 1003

1-15 January 1873

Folder 1004

16-31 January 1873

Folder 1005

1-15 February 1873

Folder 1006

16-28 February 1873

Folder 1007

1-10 March 1873

Folder 1008

11-20 March 1873

Folder 1009

21-31 March 1873

Folder 1010

1-15 April 1873

Folder 1011

16-30 April 1873

Folder 1012

1-15 May 1873

Folder 1013

16-31 May 1873

Folder 1014

1-15 June 1873

Folder 1015

16-30 June 1873

Folder 1016

1-15 July 1873

Folder 1017

16-31 July 1873

Folder 1018

August 1873

Folder 1019

September 1873

Folder 1020

October 1873

Folder 1021

1-15 November 1873

Folder 1022

16-30 November 1873

Folder 1023

December 1873

Folder 1024

1-10 January 1874

Folder 1025

11-20 January 1874

Folder 1026

21-31 January 1874

Folder 1027

1-15 February 1874

Folder 1028

16-28 February 1874

Folder 1029

1-10 March 1874

Folder 1030

11-20 March 1874

Folder 1031

21-31 March 1874

Folder 1032

1-5 April 1874

Folder 1033

6-10 April 1874

Folder 1034

11-15 April 1874

Folder 1035

16-20 April 1874

Folder 1036

21-25 April 1874

Folder 1037

26-30 April 1874

Folder 1038

1-5 May 1874

Folder 1039

6-8 May 1874

Folder 1040

9 May 1874

Folder 1041

11-15 May 1874

Folder 1042

16-20 May 1874

Folder 1043

21-25 May 1874

Folder 1044

26-31 May 1874

Folder 1045

June 1874

Folder 1046

1-15 July 1874

Folder 1047

16-31 July 1874

Folder 1048

August 1874

Folder 1049

September 1874

Folder 1050

October 1874

Folder 1051

November 1874

Folder 1052

December 1874

Folder 1053

1-15 January 1875

Folder 1054

16-31 January 1875

Folder 1055

February 1875

Folder 1056

1-10 March 1875

Folder 1057

11-20 March 1875

Folder 1058

21-31 March 1875

Folder 1059

1-10 April 1875

Folder 1060

11-20 April 1875

Folder 1061

21-30 April 1875

Folder 1062

1-10 May 1875

Folder 1063

11-20 May 1875

Folder 1064

21-31 May 1875

Folder 1065

June 1875

Folder 1066

July 1875

Folder 1067

August 1875

Folder 1068

September 1875

Folder 1069

October 1875

October 20: Reconstruction era record.

October 22: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 1070

November 1875

November 3: Reconstruction era record.

Folder 1071

December 1875

Folder 1072

January 1876

Folder 1073

February 1876

Folder 1074

March 1876

Folder 1075

1-10 April 1876

Folder 1076

11-20 April 1876

Folder 1077

21-30 April 1876

Folder 1078

1-10 May 1876

Folder 1079

11-20 May 1876

Folder 1080

21-31 May 1876

Folder 1081

1-15 June 1876

Folder 1082

16-30 June 1876

Folder 1083

1-15 July 1876

Folder 1084

16-31 July 1876

Folder 1085

August 1876

Folder 1086

September 1876

Folder 1087

October 1876

Folder 1088

November 1876

Folder 1089

December 1876

Folder 1090

1-15 January 1877

Folder 1091

16-31 January 1877

Folder 1092

1-15 February 1877

Folder 1093

16-28 February 1877

Folder 1094

1-10 March 1877

Folder 1095

11-20 March 1877

Folder 1096

21-31 March 1877

Folder 1097

1-15 April 1877

Folder 1098

16-30 April 1877

Folder 1099

1-15 May 1877

Folder 1100

16-31 May 1877

Folder 1101

June 1877

Folder 1102

July 1877

Folder 1103

August 1877

Folder 1104

September 1877

Folder 1105

October 1877

Folder 1106

November 1877

Folder 1107

December 1877

Folder 1108

January 1878

Folder 1109

February 1878

Folder 1110

March 1878

Folder 1111

April 1878

Folder 1112

1-15 May 1878

Folder 1113

16-31 May 1878

Folder 1114

June 1878

Folder 1115

July 1878

Folder 1116

August 1878

Folder 1117

September 1878

Folder 1118

October 1878

Folder 1119

November 1878

Folder 1120

December 1878

Folder 1121

Janunary 1879

Folder 1122

February 1879

Folder 1123

March 1879

Folder 1124

April 1879

Folder 1125

May 1879

Folder 1126

June 1879

Folder 1127

July 1879

Folder 1128

August 1879

Folder 1129

September 1879

Folder 1130

October 1879

Folder 1131

November 1879

Folder 1132

December 1879

Folder 1133

January 1880

Folder 1134

February-June 1880

Folder 1135

July-December 1880

Folder 1136

January-February 1881

Folder 1137

March-May 1881

Folder 1138

June 1881

Folder 1139

July 1881

Folder 1140

August-October 1881

Folder 1141

November-December 1881

Folder 1142

January 1882

Folder 1143

February 1882

Folder 1144

March 1882

Folder 1145

April 1882

Folder 1146

May-June 1882

Folder 1147

July-August 1882

Folder 1148

September-December 1882

Folder 1149

January 1883

Folder 1150

February 1883

Folder 1151

March 1883

Folder 1152

April 1883

Folder 1153

May 1883

Folder 1154

June 1883

Folder 1155

July 1883

Folder 1156

August-September 1883

Folder 1157

October-December 1883

Folder 1158

January 1884

Folder 1159

February-April 1884

Folder 1160

May 1884

Folder 1161

June 1884

Folder 1162

July 1884

Folder 1163

August-November 1884

Folder 1164

December 1884

Folder 1165

January 1885

Folder 1166

February-March 1885

Folder 1167

April 1885

Folder 1168

May 1885

Folder 1169

June-July 1885

Folder 1170

August-October 1885

Folder 1171

November-December 1885

Folder 1172

January-April 1886

Folder 1173

May 1886

Folder 1174

June-July 1886

Folder 1175

October-December

Folder 1176

January-March 1887

Folder 1177

April-June 1887

Folder 1178

July-August 1887

Folder 1179

October-December 1887

Folder 1180

January-March 1888

Folder 1181

April-June 1888

Folder 1182

July-December 1888

Folder 1183

January-April 1889

Folder 1184

May-August 1889

Folder 1185

September-December 1889

Folder 1186

January-April 1890

Folder 1187

May-December 1890

Folder 1188

January-June 1891

Folder 1189

July-December 1891

Folder 1190

January-April 1892

Folder 1191

May-June 1892

Folder 1192

July-December 1892

Folder 1193

January-May 1893

Folder 1194

June-December 1893

Folder 1195

1894

Folder 1196

1895

Folder 1197

January-May 1896

Folder 1198

June-December 1896

Folder 1199

1897

Folder 1200

1898

Folder 1201

January-April 1899

Folder 1202

May-December 1899

Folder 1203

January-April 1900

Folder 1204

May-December 1900

Folder 1205

1901

Folder 1206

January-April 1902

Folder 1207

May-December 1902

Folder 1208

1903

Folder 1209

1904

Folder 1210

1905

Folder 1211

1906

Folder 1212

1907

Folder 1213

1908

Folder 1214

1909

Folder 1215

1910

Folder 1216

1911

Folder 1217

1912

Folder 1218

1913

Folder 1219

1914

Folder 1220

1915

Folder 1221

1917

Folder 1222

1918

Folder 1223

1919

Folder 1224

1920

Folder 1225

1921

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.2. Wood Family Volumes, 1820-1928.

28 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Volumes primarily document the activities at the Wood family farms and fisheries and include account books and memoranda detailing production, sales, and expenses at the various properties; employment information and labor inventories, including enslaved people who were hired out by their enslavers, free Black people, and white people; and property inventories. Other materials include merchandise ledgers and account books for the general store and an eulogy for Dr. John R. Gilliam.

Folder 1226

Volume 1 (W): Henry Gilliam, 1820-1837

Large merchandise ledger.

Oversize Volume SV-324/2w

Volume 2 (W): Gilliam and Pipkin; Edward Wood, 1842-1858

Gilliam and Pipkin fishery account book; Wood's accounts of Greenfield Fishery employees.

Folder 1228

Volume 3 (W): Edward Wood, 1843-1847

Ledger recording labor production of staves, shingles, pipe heading and payment of laborers; also account of pork purchased by Thomas Riddick and Edward Wood.

Folder 1229

Volume 4 (W): Edward Wood, 1844-1851; 1862-1864; 1866

Account book of Montpelier Fishery, including records of fish caught, shipped, and sold; lists of cutters and number of fish each cut.

Folder 1230

Volume 5 (W): Edward Wood, 1848-1852

Memorandum of fishery management, including records of workers, expenses, supplies, and sales.

Folder 1231

Volume 6 (W): Edward Wood, 1849-1853

Memorandum of fishery management, including records of workers, expenses, supplies, and sales.

Folder 1232

Volume 7 (W): Edward Wood, 1850-1851

Personal and fishery expense memorandum.

Folder 1233

Volume 8 (W): Edward Wood, 1852-1861; 1866-1867

Account book of Greenfield Fishery, including records of fish caught, shipped, and sold.

Folder 1234

Volume 9 (W): Reverend Hoskins, 1853

Sermon text, a eulogy to Dr. John R. Gilliam.

Folder 1235

Volume 10 (W): Edward Wood, 1857-1860

Memorandum of fishery management, including records of workers, expenses, supplies, and sales.

Folder 1236

Volume 11 (W): Edward Wood, 1859-1861

Account book of fish sales.

Folder 1237

Volume 12 (W): Edward Wood, 1860-1866

Personal and fishery expense memorandum.

Folder 1238

Volume 13 (W): Edward Wood, 1861; 1868

Personal and fishery expense memorandum.

Folder 1239

Volume 14 (W): Hayes Plantation, 1865

Inventory of equipment and furnishings at Hayes.

Folder 1240

Volume 15 (W): Edward Wood, 1865-1870

Account book of expenses for Atholl, Hayes, Mulberry Hill, and Greenfield farms; includes records of cotton sales, fishery expenses, and expenses for building a boat.

Folder 1241

Volume 16 (W): Edward Wood and John Gilliam Wood, 1868-1872; 1880; 1883; 1885-1890

Account book of Greenfield and Montpelier Fisheries, including records of fish caught, shipped, and sold.

Oversize Volume SV-324/17w

Volume 17 (W): Edward Wood and William C. Wood, 1869-1874

Account book of Montpelier Fishery, including records of fish caught, shipped, and sold.

Folder 1243

Volume 18 (W): Hathaway & Wood, 1871

Merchandise ledger of accounts with fishery employees.

Folder 1244

Volume 19 (W): Edward Wood, 1871-1872

Account book of cotton shipped from Mulberry Hills, Hayes, and Greenfield farms.

Folder 1245

Volume 20 (W): Edward Wood, Edward Wood, Frank Wood, and John Gilliam Wood, 1871-1878; 1890

Account book of Greenfield Fishery, including records of fish caught, shipped, and sold.

Oversize Volume SV-324/21w

Volume 21 (W): William C. Wood, 1872-1874

Merchandise accounts of Montpelier fishery employees.

Folder 1247

Volume 22 (W): William C. Wood, 1874

Account book of fishery workers describing type of work done and time spent.

Folder 1248

Volume 23 (W): John Gilliam Wood, 1874-1881

Account book of cotton shipped from Wood farms.

Folder 1249

Volume 24 (W): Edward Wood, Frank Wood, John Gilliam Wood, 1879-1897

Account book of Greenfield Fishery, including records of fish caught, shipped, and sold.

Folder 1250

Volume 25 (W): Frank Wood, 1898-1920

Account book of Greenfield Fishery, including records of fish caught, shipped, and sold.

Oversize Volume SV-324/26w

Volume 26 (W): John Gilliam Wood, 1912-1920.

Personal account ledger, including bank and Hayes accounts.

Folder 1252

Volume 27 (W): Frank Wood and George C. Wood, 1912-1914; 1920

Fishery account book.

Folder 1253

Volume 28 (W): Frank Wood and George C. Wood, 1924-1926; 1928

Fishery account book.

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Microfilm: Johnston and Wood Families.

Reel M-324/1

Microfilm: Guide and index to the microfilm edition of the Hayes Collection

Reel M-324/2-21

M-324/2

M-324/3

M-324/4

M-324/5

M-324/6

M-324/7

M-324/8

M-324/9

M-324/10

M-324/11

M-324/12

M-324/13

M-324/14

M-324/15

M-324/16

M-324/17

M-324/18

M-324/19

M-324/20

M-324/21

Microfilm: Johnston series

  • Reel 2: 1694-1770
  • Reel 3: 1771-1785
  • Reel 4: 1786-1799
  • Reel 5: 1800-1810
  • Reel 6: 1811-1817
  • Reel 7: 1818-1821
  • Reel 8: 1822-1825
  • Reel 9: 1826-1830
  • Reel 10: 1831-1836
  • Reel 11: 1837-1842
  • Reel 12: 1843-1847
  • Reel 13: 1848-1851
  • Reel 14: 1852-1857
  • Reel 15: 1858-1860
  • Reel 16: 1861-1865
  • Reel 17: Volumes 1-15
  • Reel 18: Volumes 16-28
  • Reel 19: Volumes 29-35
  • Reel 20: Volumes 36-57
  • Reel 21: Volumes 58-83

Reel M-324/22-35

M-324/22

M-324/23

M-324/24

M-324/25

M-324/26

M-324/27

M-324/28

M-324/29

M-324/30

M-324/31

M-324/32

M-324/33

M-324/34

M-324/35

Microfilm: Wood series

  • Reel 22: 1810-1865
  • Reel 23: 1866
  • Reel 24: 1867
  • Reel 25: 1868
  • Reel 26: 1869
  • Reel 27: 1870
  • Reel 28: 1871-1872
  • Reel 29: 1873-1874
  • Reel 30: 1875-1876
  • Reel 31: 1877-1878
  • Reel 32: 1879-1884
  • Reel 33: 1885-1921
  • Reel 34: Volumes 1-15
  • Reel 35: Volumes 16-28

Back to Top
Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subgroup 2. Unfilmed materials.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 3. Johnston Family, 1718-1865 and undated.

About 2,400 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Chiefly financial materials documenting Johnston family personal and business expenditures, Samuel Johnston's (1733-1816) legal education and practice, and Dr. William Cathcart's medical practice and farm. The people enslaved by Johnston family members are documented in lists and notes about their labor in some of these volumes.

This series has been divided into two subseries based on material type. The first subseries contains loose papers while the second contains bound volumes, both of which have been arranged chronologically.

Processing note: Folders were renumbered in April 2022.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 3.1. Johnston Family Papers, 1718-1865 and undated.

About 2,350 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Chiefly financial materials consisting of bills and receipts for sundry goods, clothing, freight and shipping, medical treatments, taxes, and journal subscriptions. Also included are bank checks; promissory notes; account sheets, particularly for James Cathcart Johnston's timber sales; and inventories. Other materials include notes from law books and from legal cases, notes from books and college classes, and miscellaneous printed flyers and pamphlets.

There are few letters in this series. Of note is a 29 June 1775 letter from John Ashe of Wilmington, imploring Samuel Johnston (1733-1816) to "call a Provincial Congress."

Materials prior to 1800 relate chiefly to Samuel Johnston (1733-1816) and his business partner William McKenzie. After 1800, materials relate chiefly to James Cathcart Johnston.

Folder 1254

1718

Folder 1255

1746; 1748

Folder 1256

1765; 1769; undated 1760s

Folder 1257

1770-1772; 1774-1775; undated 1770s

Folder 1258

1780-1782; 1786-1787; 1789

Folder 1259

1790

Folder 1260

1791

Folder 1261

1792-1793

Folder 1262

1794-1796

Folder 1263

Notes on English constitution and history by J. C. Johnston, 1797

Folder 1264

1797-1798

Folder 1265

1799

Folder 1266

1800-1809 and undated

Folder 1267

1800-1805

Folder 1268

1800-1805

Folder 1269

1806-1809

Folder 1270

1806-1809

Folder 1271

1810-1829 and undated

Folder 1272

1810-1811

Folder 1273

1810-1811

Folder 1274

1812-1813

Folder 1275

1812-1813

Folder 1276

1814-1815

Folder 1277

1814-1815

Folder 1278

1816-1819

Folder 1279

1816-1819

Folder 1280

1816-1819

Folder 1281

1820-1829 and undated

Folder 1282

1820-1821

Folder 1283

1822-1823

Folder 1284

1822-1823

Folder 1285

1824-1825

Folder 1286

1824-1825

Folder 1287

1826

Folder 1288

1827

Folder 1289

1828

Folder 1290

1829

Folder 1291

1830-1839 and undated

Folder 1292

1830

Folder 1293

1831

Folder 1294

1832

Folder 1295

1833

Folder 1296

January-September 1834

Folder 1297

October-December 1834

Folder 1298

January-June 1835

Folder 1299

July-December 1835

Folder 1300

1836

Folder 1301

1837

Folder 1302

January-June 1838

Folder 1303

July-December 1838

Folder 1304

January-June 1839

Folder 1305

July-December 1839

Folder 1306

January-June 1840

Folder 1307

July-December 1840

Folder 1308

1841

Folder 1309

1842

Folder 1310

1842

Folder 1311

1843

Folder 1312

1844

Folder 1313

1845

Folder 1314

1846

Folder 1315

1847

Folder 1316

1848

Folder 1317

1849

Folder 1318

1850

Folder 1319

1851

Folder 1320

1852

Folder 1321

1853

Folder 1322

1854-1855

Folder 1323

1856

Folder 1324

1857

Folder 1325

1858-1859

Folder 1326

1860-1865

Folder 1327

Undated

Folder 1328

Unfilmed and duplicate manuscripts

Duplicate materials consist of copies of items found Series 1, such as legal notes, wills, agreements and indentures, and business letters.

Folder 1329

Unfilmed and duplicate manuscripts

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 3.2. Volumes, 1729-1841 and undated.

44 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Account books, daybooks and memoranda primarily of Samuel Johnston (1733-1816) and his father-in-law, Dr. William Cathcart. Samuel Johnston's materials relate to his professional activities as a lawyer. Most materials detail his legal fees, but some notes on cases and court dates are also included. William Cathcart's volumes contain information on his medical practice including fees and expenses, medical notes, and patient information, such as types of treatment and medications. Other of Cathcart's volumes relate to his farming activities and include lists of enslaved people and notes on their labor, the weather, and crop production. Other materials include a 1729 indenture between George II and seven of the eight original Lords Proprietors of Carolina, James Cathcart Johnston's legal notes and expenses, and information regarding the settlement of Robert Williams's estate.

Folder 1330

Volume 1 (J): Indenture, 1729

Copy of the indenture drawn up among George II and the heirs of seven of the eight original Lords Proprietors of Carolina, selling the heirs proprietary shares to the Crown.

Folder 1331

Volume 2 (J): Sermon, 1732

Folder 1332

Volume 3 (J): William Cathcart, 1737-1738

Personal and medical expense memorandum, including lists of patients treated and medicines used.

Folder 1333

Volume 4 (J): William Cathcart, 1737-1738

Personal and medical expense memorandum.

Oversize Volume SV-324/5j

Volume 5 (J): William Cathcart, 1738-1761

Daybook of physician's accounts, including treatments and medicines prescribed; some personal expense accounts.

Folder 1335

Volume 6 (J): William Cathcart, 1752-1753

Diary with entries on weather conditions; includes some personal expense accounts.

Folder 1336

Volume 7 (J): William Cathcart, 1754

Diary with entries on weather conditions, farming and daily activities; includes some personal expense accounts and a description of an illness of Penelope, for whom he was a guardian.

Folder 1337

Volume 8 (J): William Cathcart, 1755

Diary with entries on weather conditions and farming activities; includes brief notes about enslaved people and personal expense accounts.

Folder 1338

Volume 9 (J): William Cathcart, 1756

Diary with entries on weather conditions and farming activities.

Oversize Volume SV-324/10j

Volume 10 (J): William Cathcart, 1756-1764

Physician's account book, including detailed descriptions of treatments and medicines prescribed.

Folder 1340

Volume 11 (J): William Cathcart, 1758-1761

Diary with entries on farming activities, patients visited for treatment, weather conditions, and personal expenses.

Folder 1341

Volume 12 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1759

Legal fee memorandum.

Folder 1342

Volume 13 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1763

Legal fee memorandum.

Folder 1343

Volume 14 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1763

Legal fee memorandum.

Folder 1344

Volume 15 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1764

Legal fee memorandum.

Folder 1345

Volume 16 (J): William Cathcart, 1764

Diary written in the "Virginia Almanack" with entries on weather conditions and farming activities; includes drafts of letters to his brother-in-law, Robert West, and his son Gabriel Cathcart, advising him on how to manage the enslaved people, overseers, and tobacco planting.

Folder 1346

Volume 17 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1765

Legal fee memorandum.

Folder 1347

Volume 18 (J): William Cathcart, 1765

Brief diary with entries about a trip and farming activities.

Folder 1348

Volume 19 (J): William Cathcart, 1765-1767

Memorandum of sundry expenses.

Folder 1349

Volume 20 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1766

Legal fee memorandum.

Folder 1350

Volume 21 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1767

Legal fee memorandum.

Folder 1351

Volume 22 (J): Gabriel Cathcart, 1767

Daybook; includes records of a trip and of the settlement of his personal expenses.

Folder 1352

Volume 23 (J): William Cathcart, 1767-1768

Plantation management and personal expense memorandum; includes recipe for pickling beef.

Folder 1353

Volume 24 (J): William Cathcart, 1768-1769

Personal and plantation expense memorandum; includes diary entries on farming and supplies and tallies on corn shipped.

Folder 1354

Volume 25 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1768-1770

"Steuart's Pocket Almanack" with Johnston's court schedule, travel itinerary, personal expenses, and record of planting apple trees.

Folder 1355

Volume 26 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1768-1770

Legal fee and personal expense memorandum with an account of enslaved people who had been hired out in 1768.

Folder 1356

Volume 27 (J): William Cathcart, 1769-1770

Memorandum of plantation expenses and activities; includes accounts of corn sold.

Folder 1357

Volume 28 (J): William Cathcart, 1769-1770

Diary with entries on weather and farming activities; includes recipes for fine mustard and gingerbread.

Folder 1358

Volume 29 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1770s

Three pages of legal notes.

Folder 1359

Volume 30 (J): William Cathcart, 1770

Memorandum of labor performed by enslaved people in tobacco fields; diary entries on weather and farming; list of enslaved people who were given blankets.

Folder 1360

Volume 31 (J): William Cathcart, 1771

Diary with brief entries on weather conditions and farming activities.

Folder 1361

Volume 32 (J): Robert Williams, 1771

Account book of his estate settlement.

Folder 1362

Volume 33 (J): William Cathcart, 1771-1772

Diary with brief entries on weather conditions and farming activities.

Folder 1363

Volume 34 (J): Unidentified, 1774

Notes on physics, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, etc., interspersed with accounts for sale of corn, rum, etc.

Folder 1364

Volume 35 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1774

"Rivington's Pocket Almanack" with a list of enslaved people and occasional diary entries, personal expenses.

Folder 1365

Volume 36 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1775

"Rivington's Pocket Almanack" with a list of enslaved people and occasional diary entries, personal expenses.

Folder 1366

Volume 37 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816, 1776-1777

Memorandum including list of drafts on the Continental Treasury.

Folder 1367

Volume 38 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1788

"Poor Will's Pocket Almanack" with very few personal entries.

Folder 1368

Volume 39 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1790

"Gaines New-York Pocket Almanack" with few entries on personal expenses.

Folder 1369

Volume 40 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1791

"Bailey's Pocket Almanack" with few personal entries.

Folder 1370

Volume 41 (J): Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), 1792

"Poor Will's Pocket Almanack" with very few personal entries.

Folder 1371

Volume 42 (J): James Cathcart Johnston, 1800-1801

Notes on Robertson's Charles V.

Folder 1372

Volume 43 (J): James Cathcart Johnston, 1802-1803

Law notes.

Folder 1373

Volume 44 (J): James Cathcart Johnston, 1838-1841

Small account book.

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 4. Wood family, 1850-1917.

About 5,100 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Chiefly financial materials documenting the daily transactions involved in the operation of the Wood family farms and fisheries, the state of the economy, market conditions, and crop productivity levels during the second half of the 19th century. Also included are John Gilliam Wood's and James Wood's academic notes while attending the University of Virginia and the University of Chapel Hill respectively and Elizabeth Martin Wood's market book.

This series has been divided into two subseries based on material type. The first subseries contains loose papers while the second contains bound volumes, both of which have been arranged chronologically.

Folders were renumbered in April 2022.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 4.1. Wood Family Papers, 1718-1865 and undated.

About 5,100 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Chiefly financial materials consisting of bills and receipts from various merchants for sundry goods, clothing, household items, and farming and fishing necessities. There are extensive receipts from the Albemarle Steam Navigation Co., Norfolk Southern Rail Road Co., and the Seaboard Air Line & Atlantic Coast Line document shipping costs for the transport of Wood family goods. Also included are promissory notes, cancelled checks, account sheets, wage receipts for hired labor at the various farms, and inventories.

There are a few letters written by Edward Wood and William C. Wood in the late 1860s that pertain to the management of their various fisheries. Many of the letters leading up to the 1870s discuss the consignment of fish. In 1869, there is a letter written to the North Carolina legislative body asking members to "bestow due attention" on any bill presented before them regarding fishing.

Letters from commission merchants are less detailed than those found in the microfilmed series and relate to the receipt of goods and remittance of payment.

There are a few letters to the Wood family requesting financial assistance. In 1879, John Wood received a letter on behalf of a North Carolina judge requesting money to purchase a piece of land. In 1881, James Cathcart Johnston Jr. wrote of the destruction of his Texas house and farm in a storm and requested money to make repairs.

Also of note are several North Carolina 17th Regiment rosters that date to the Civil War period.

Folder 1374

1850s-1865

Folder 1375

1866

Folder 1376

1867

Folder 1377

January-June 1868

Folder 1378

July-December 1868

Folder 1379

January-June 1869

Folder 1380

July-December 1869

Folder 1381

January-May 1870

Folder 1382

June-December 1870

Folder 1383

1871

Folder 1384

January-May 1872

Folder 1385

June-December 1872

Folder 1386

1873

Folder 1387

1874

Folder 1388

Atholl Fishery wage vouchers, 1874

Folder 1389

Greenfield Fishery wage vouchers, 1874

Folder 1390

Hayes wage vouchers, 1874

Folder 1391

Mulberry Hill wage vouchers, 1874

Folder 1392

Spruill Farm wage vouchers, 1874

Folder 1393

1875

Folder 1394

Greenfield Fishery wage vouchers, 1875

Folder 1395

Hayes wage vouchers, 1875

Folder 1396

Mulberry Hill wage vouchers, 1875

Folder 1397

Spruill Farm wage vouchers, 1875

Folder 1398

January-June 1876

Folder 1399

July-December 1876

Folder 1400

1877

Folder 1401

Hayes wage vouchers, 1877

Folder 1402

Mulberry Hill wage vouchers, 1877

Folder 1403

1878

Folder 1404

Hayes wage vouchers, 1878

Folder 1405

Rea Farm wage vouchers, 1878

Folder 1406

Spruill Farm wage vouchers, 1878

Folder 1407

January-June 1879

Folder 1408

July-December 1879

Folder 1409

Hayes wage vouchers, 1879

Folder 1410

Mulberry Hill wage vouchers, 1879

Folder 1411

Spruill Farm wage vouchers, 1879

Folder 1412

1880

Folder 1413

January-June 1881

Folder 1414

July-December 1881

Folder 1415

Wage vouchers, 1881

Folder 1416

January-June 1882

Folder 1417

July-December 1882

Folder 1418

January-May 1883

Folder 1419

January-December 1883

Folder 1420

January-February 1884

Folder 1421

March-April 1884

Folder 1422

May-June 1884

Folder 1423

July-October 1884

Folder 1424

November-December 1884

Folder 1425

1885

Folder 1426

1886

Folder 1427

1887

Folder 1428

1888

Folder 1429

Hayes wage vouchers, 1888

Folder 1430

Spruill Farm wage vouchers, 1888

Folder 1431

Janunary-May 1889

Folder 1432

June-December 1889

Folder 1433

January-April 1890

Folder 1434

May-December 1890

Folder 1435

1891

Folder 1436

January-March 1892

Folder 1437

April-December 1892

Folder 1438

January-April 1893

Folder 1439

May-December 1893

Folder 1440

1894

Folder 1441

1895

Folder 1442

January-June 1896

Folder 1443

July-December 1896

Folder 1444

July-December 1896

Folder 1445

1897

Folder 1446

1898

Folder 1447

Cancelled checks, 1898

Folder 1448

January-April 1899

Folder 1449

May-December 1899

Folder 1450

Cancelled checks, 1899

Folder 1451

1900

Folder 1452

Cancelled checks, 1900

Folder 1453

1901

Folder 1454

Cancelled checks, 1901

Folder 1455

January-March 1902

Folder 1456

April-July 1902

Folder 1457

August-December 1902

Folder 1458

Cancelled checks, 1902

Folder 1459

January-February 1903

Folder 1460

March-June 1903