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This collection was rehoused under the sponsorship of a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, Office of Preservation, Washington, D.C., 1990-1992.
|Abstract||Philip Henry Pitts was a cotton planter of Union Town (now Uniontown), Perry County, Ala. The collection includes etters written to and from members of the Pitts family, miscellaneous papers, and manuscript volumes, with typed transcriptions, containing accounts and diary entries by Philip Henry Pitts. The letters relate to family matters and business councerns of Philip H. Pitts and of his father, Thomas D. Pitts, including the latter's involvement as an officer in the War of 1812. A song lyric about the Nullification Crisis of 1832 is included. The accounts are for Philip H. Pitts's financial dealings in the cotton trade and in both the Alabama and Mississippi Railroad and Selma and Meridian Railroad, loans and debts, household expenditure for his Rurill Hill Plantation, and expenses relating to his slaves. Diary entries concern Pitts's planting and livestock, weather notes, cases of runaway slaves and a case of slaves murdering their master, and Perry County politics, business, crimes, and social news. The Caldwell and Davidson families are frequently mentioned. Indications of Pitts's interest in folk medicine and in the Pitts family's involvement in the Civil War, including participation of several family members in the 4th Regiment, Alabama Volunteers, and anecdotes about Alexander Caldwell Davidson, Wiliam Rufus King, and Zebulon Baird Vance are also given in the diaries.|
|Creator||Pitts, Philip Henry, 1814-1884.|
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Philip Henry Pitts, an Alabama cotton planter, was born 3 June 1814, probably in Essex County, Va. He was the son of Thomas Daniel Pitts (d. 26 August 1851) and Polly Pitts (d. 4 March 1839). Thomas D. Pitts and his family moved from Lloyds, Essex County, Va., in 1833 to Oak Lawn, near Union Town (now Uniontown), Perry County, Ala. Some of the Pitts family remained in Virginia, while others moved to Mecklenburg County, N.C. Philip H. Pitts married Margaret Pitts (b. 25 May 1924), probably before 1841 when their first child was born. They had ten children, most of whom survived into adulthood--sons Philip Henry ("Henry" or "Harry") Pitts, Jr., Arthur D. Pitts, Thomas Daniel Pitts, Ellic Pitts, John Pitts (26 June 1843 - 27 June 1862), and David W. Pitts, and daughters Mary Grey (Pitts) Walker (b. 27 February 1841), Adelene Pitts (b. 1 January 1862), Sarah E. ("Kitty") (Pitts) Hudson, and Pattie Pitts (b. 2 March 1858).
The Pitts family was related to several other prominent Uniontown families frequently mentioned in Philip Henry Pitts's diaries-- including the Davidson family (also with members in North Carolina), most notably Alexander Caldwell Davidson, Democratic representative from Alabama to the 49th and 50th U.S. Congress. Other frequently mentioned families were the Caldwell family of North Carolina and the Rennolds or Reynolds family of Virginia. There was a great amount of travel by Pitts relations between North Carolina and Alabama during the years covered by the diaries.
Thomas Daniel Pitts was a captain in the 4th Regiment, Virginia Militia, in Westmoreland Co., during the War of 1812. One of the letters in the collection relates to his service in that war. Thomas and his sons, Arthur B. L. Pitts (d. 25 July 1853), David William ("William") Pitts (d. 22 July 1861), and Philip Henry Pitts, were landowners and cotton planters in the Cane Brake or Black Belt Region of west central Alabama. At the time of the 1860 census, Philip owned 2200 acres and 89 slaves, as well as stock in the Alabama-Mississippi Railroad, for a total worth of $175,300. His estates were called "Rurill Hill" (probably named after John Davidson's "Rural Hill" plantation in Mecklenberg Co., N.C.) and "Kings." He may have owned land in other areas of Alabama, perhaps including Choctaw County, as well. Following the end of the Civil War, Philip Pitts retained at least part of his holdings at Rurill Hill, but Kings seems to have disappeared. In 1870, he bought a section of the Lodebo plantation adjoining Rurill Hill. He remained a cotton planter until his death on 22 April 1884.Back to Top
This collection consists of four manuscript volumes of accounts and diary entries for Philip Henry Pitts, five letters to and from various members of the Pitts family, one sheet of handwritten song lyrics, and two miscellaneous papers. The volumes document Pitts's personal life and business associations, providing a commentary on the social and economic life of Perry County, Alabama. The letters illuminate Pitts's father's activities in the War of 1812, as well as news of the Pitts family.
The material is arranged in chronological order. Diaries and account books are the bulk of the collection from the 1850s through the 1880s.
Typed transcriptions accompany the volumes and one of the letters. They contain some typographical errors and omissions of text, although none of major proportions.Back to Top
The first item is a letter, 4 August 1814, from John M. Parnell to Captain Thomas D. Pitts at Camp Yeocomico, Westmoreland Co., Va., both correspondents being officers during the War of 1812, regarding a problem with an underage army substitute Pitts was responsible for. Parnell mentioned the legal status of age of substitution for the army. Also, he discussed the amassing of troops and the imposition of the draft during the War of 1812 for the U.S. Army stationed on the Potomac, perhaps in response to the imminent British invasion of Washington, D.C. He also mentioned "a most bloody engagement in Canada"--probably the Battle of Lundy's Lane on 25 July 1814, at Niagara Falls.
The second item is the handwritten lyrics to a song "Save De Union", set to the tune of "Clare De Kitchen." The lyrics are about the Nullification Crisis of 1832, focusing on Virginia's wish to preserve the Union despite her hatred of the tariff.
The third item is a letter, possibly dated Nov. 4, 1833 or 1834, from B(?) Rennolds, at Philadelphia to Philip H. Pitts at Union Town, Perry County, Ala. The letter mentions a possible trip of the Pitts family to Virginia, the cousin's soon-to-be-earned diploma, and news of births, deaths, and marriages.
The fourth item is a letter, dated April 10, 1838, from Philip H. Pitts at Union Town, Perry Co., Ala. to David William Pitts at Davidson College, Mecklenburg Co., N.C. The letter gives news of births, deaths, and marriages in Perry County for local families as well as news of the Pitts family. A typed transcription accompanies this letter.
The fifth item consists of rough drafts of three letters written by Thomas D. Pitts at Oak Lawn near Union Town, Perry Co., Ala. The first draft concerns a business matter. The second is to "Robert" regarding the death of Thomas Pitts's wife Polly from inflammatory fever on 4 March 1839. The third draft is a reply to a man inquiring about relocation to the Cane Brake region of Alabama. Pitts extolled the virtues of Marengo and Perry counties, including the fertility and inexpensiveness of the land; he also extended an invitation to the visitor to stay with his family, and gave advice about hiring out the man's slaves.
The sixth item is an undated letter, either a draft or unfinished, to "Reverend Sirs" from Thomas D. Pitts at Union Town. The letter asks for aid in finding a female teacher of French, English, and the piano to come to the female academy in Union Town (at that time, a town with 150 inhabitants) in Pitts's capacity as one of the seven trustees of the academy.
The seventh item, of uncertain date, is a short anecdote about three family dogs, and the eighth item, which is also undated, is a loose page of accounts from manuscript volume 3.
Volume 1: September 1850-February 1853 #00602, Series: "2. Diaries and Account Books, 1850-1884." Folder 2
Volume 1 is composed of a mixture of Philip H. Pitts's accounts and memoranda as well as diary entries and a number of pasted-in newspaper clippings relating to farm, household, cooking, and medicinal matters. Entries include notices of births and deaths of slaves as well as whites; planting records for cotton, corn, potatoes, and oats; notes on the livestock owned by Pitts--horses, sheep, pigs, and cattle, including records of hog killings; notes on the weather and planting by the signs; church news and critiques of various visiting preachers; Pitts's business dealings with the Alabama-Mississippi Railroad and the Selma-Meridian Railroad; financial matters dealing with loans and debts, cotton sales, insurance, and taxes; accounts relating to the building of his home; the purchasing and hiring of slaves from other planters, runaway slaves in the county, and a case of slaves murdering their master; local politics; a description of Pitts's encounter with U.S. vice president and senator from Alabama William Rufus de Vane King (1786-1853) regarding the latter's illness and cure; the deaths of Pitts's father Thomas D. Pitts and brother Arthur B. L. Pitts; news of the Davidson and Caldwell families; and the construction of a brick kiln. 103 pages.
Volume 2: Accounts, January 1856-1865; July 1884; diary/accounts, August 1882-March 1884 #00602, Series: "2. Diaries and Account Books, 1850-1884." Folder 4
The accounting entries on pages 1-105 and pages 295-300 (January 1856-1865) record Philip H. Pitts's debts and loans: purchases of lumber and building supplies; cotton sales, bale weights, and shipment to Mobile, Ala. via railroad; doctor's bills for his family and slaves; the purchase of provisions; and the purchase of marriage licenses from a judge ("20 marriage licenses for freedmen + 10 marriage licenses for whites"). There is an alphabetical name index to the accounts in the front pages of the volume. Pages 189-270 contain a scattering of the accounts of Arthur D. Pitts, Phillip H. Pitts's son, dated July 1884. The diary on pages 106-186 was written in the back of the older account book. It covers the last two years of Philip H. Pitts's life. At this time, he was still a cotton planter, although now hiring blacks to work in crews in place of slave labor. The diary is primarily concerned with Pitts's family matters, livestock, garden and crops; weather; and local news. Some mention is made of local politics and the nascent Republican (Radical) Party. Also mentioned are details of local crimes and court cases--his sons Henry and Ellic were apparently part-time lawyers on the Circuit Court. There are also scattered accounts throughout the diary. The failed cotton crop and ensuing financial panic of 1883 is discussed. Pitts's interest in church business, the railroads, and medicinal cures continued, although not as strongly as in previous years. A new theme of anti-Semitism emerges. Pitts also mentioned the Alabama congressional elections, corruption in Alabama politics, and a brief history of the Alabama railroads. There is an anecdote from Dr. Davidson about the cure of Governor Zebulon B. Vance (1830-1894) of North Carolina from impotence. Again, the Davidson family, A. C. Davidson in particular, is mentioned frequently in this diary.
Typed transcription of selected entries from Volume 2 #00602, Series: "2. Diaries and Account Books, 1850-1884." Folder 5
Volume 3: January 1860-January 1863 #00602, Series: "2. Diaries and Account Books, 1850-1884." Folder 6
Volume 3 is for the most part a diary, although it does include lists of accounts for the railroad, cotton, etc. Other entries relate to agriculture, livestock, planting advice, and the weather; legal concerns; and local county births, deaths, and marriages. Pitts took a great deal of interest in home remedies and the symptoms of different illnesses of both humans and livestock; and in local crimes and court trials, as well as his own legal disputes with different individuals. He primarily attended the local Presbyterian church, although he was interested in preaching and the comparative church activities of the local Methodist, Presbyterian, Episcopal and Baptist churches. Pitts was also concerned with railroad business and elections; and he discussed the hiring of slaves from other planters and his relationships with his overseers. He also discussed the financial panic of 1861. In 1860, he took part in the Census, giving his total worth as $175,300. In 1860, the presidential election and news of the impending Civil War were mentioned. News of the war increased as Pitts's brother David William Pitts and son John Pitts both enlisted in the Cane Brake Rifle Guards of the 4th Regiment Alabama Volunteers, leaving Uniontown April 25, 1961 for Harper's Ferry, Va. Pitts recorded the death of William in the First Battle of Manassas, 22 July 1861 and John on the third day of the Seven Days Battles at Gaines Mill, near Richmond, Va., on 27 June 1862, one day after his 19th birthday. Pitts wrote extensively about their burials and the settling of his brother's estate. 121 pages.
Volume 4: 1 January 1870-28 December 1870; 1 May 1874 #00602, Series: "2. Diaries and Account Books, 1850-1884." Folder 8
Volume 4 is a date-book for the year 1870, with entries for almost every day. This volume continues the listing of accounts for Pitts's cotton and oat crops; local crimes; court cases; gossip; and agricultural and weather notes. At this time, Pitts retained his Rurill Hill plantation, although he had apparently lost his Kings estate after the Civil War. Frequent themes are the problem of hiring and getting freedmen to work, local politics of the Republican (Radical) Party, and the enfranchisement of blacks. He also wrote about his purchase of a section of the Lodebo plantation adjoining Rurill Hill. Other items of note are folk-tales about medicinal cures and the weather; railroad elections and business; and an increasing theme of anti-Semitism, which is even more strongly expressed later. (See Volume 2, 1882-1884). 372 pages.
Processed by: Elizabeth Pauk, May 1991
Encoded by: ByteManagers Inc., 2008
This collection was rehoused under the sponsorship of a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, Office of Preservation, Washington, D.C., 1990-1992.Back to Top