Collection Number: 00762

Collection Title: Stephen Beauregard Weeks Papers, 1746-1941

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the Duplication Policy section for more information.


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Size 38.5 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 15,000 items)
Abstract Stephen Beauregard Weeks (1865-1918) was a white North Carolina educator, historian, and superintendent of San Carlos Boarding School, what was then called an "Indian school," for Apache Indians in San Carlos, Arizona. The collection consists of personal, family, and professional correspondence, papers, diaries, and other volumes. Topics include the history of education in southern states, religion, a dispute at the San Carlos Boarding School, North Carolina history and biograpy, the formation of the Southern Historical Association, southern Quakers and slavery, and George Moses Horton, an African American poet who was enslaved in Chatham County, N.C., during the early 1800s. Also included are the diaries, 1793-1801, of Jeremiah Norman (b. 1771), describing his travels as an itinerant Methodist preacher in North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C.; typed transcript of a diary, 1746-1771, of Thomas Nicholson (1715-1780), a Quaker writer of Perquimans County, N.C.; minutes, 1815-1817, of the Camden, N.C., Methodist Circuit; a few Moravian items, 1891-1901, in German.
Creator Weeks, Stephen Beauregard, 1865-1918.

Language English
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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Information For Users

Restrictions to Access
No restrictions. Open for research.
Copyright Notice
Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the Stephen Beauregard Weeks Papers, #762, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Alternate Form of Material
Part of this collection (Jeremiah Norman diary) is available on microfilm.
Acquisitions Information
Purchase prior to 1940. Addition received from estate of Mangum and Josephine Weeks in 1982 (Acc. 103650).
Additional Descriptive Resources
Original finding aid is filed in folder 1a.
Sensitive Materials Statement
Manuscript collections and archival records may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations, the North Carolina Public Records Act (N.C.G.S. § 132 1 et seq.), and Article 7 of the North Carolina State Personnel Act (Privacy of State Employee Personnel Records, N.C.G.S. § 126-22 et seq.). Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill assumes no responsibility.
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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subject Headings

The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.

Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Biographical Information

Stephen Beauregard Weeks (1865-1918) was a white North Carolina educator, historian, and superintendent of San Carlos Boarding School, what was then called an "Indian school," for Apache Indians in San Carlos, Arizona.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Scope and Content

The original deposit of the collection contains papers and volumes related primarily to southern education and religion, compiled or created by Stephen B. Weeks, a white North Carolina educator, historian, and superintendent of San Carlos Boarding School, what was then called an "Indian school," for Apache Indians in San Carlos, Arizona. Included are his correspondence about North Carolina historical matters, 1897-1913, and 75 items pertaining to a dispute at San Carlos Boarding School in Arizona, 1903-1905. Volumes consist of the diary, 1793-1801 (14 volumes), of Jeremiah Norman (b. 1771), describing his travels as an itinerant Methodist preacher in North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C.; typed transcript of a diary, 1746-1771, of Thomas Nicholson (1715-1780), a Quaker writer of Perquimans County, N.C.; minutes, 1815-1817, of the Camden, N.C., Methodist Circuit; and a manuscript copy of Weeks's "Southern Quakers and Slavery" (pub. 1896). Also included are a few Moravian items, 1891-1901, in German; and correspondence, pamphlets, clippings and others materials relating to the formation of the Southern Historical Association in the late 1890s.

The addition of 1982 consists chiefly of personal, family, and professional correspondence and other papers, 1820-1920, relating to the Weeks family and his research on southern education; his work as a superintendent in Arizona; the Biographical History of North Carolina; the U.S. Indian Service; the Southern History Association; George Moses Horton, an African American poet who was enslaved in Chatham County, N.C.; and the Colonial and State Records of North Carolina. Also included are journals, 1880-1900, an account book, a grade book, and receipts.

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Contents list

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series Quick Links

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 1. Papers, 1795-1941 and Undated.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.1. 1903-1905 and Undated.

75 items.

Includes correspondence and other documentation of Stephen B. Weeks' charges against Ms. Fitzpatrick, a teacher at the San Carlos Boarding School, to Capt. Luther S. Kelly, a U.S. Indian Agent of the San Carlos Agency; record of her resulting suspension; and Ms. Fitzpatrick's defense to the U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs. She accused Weeks, as superintendent, of giving undue attention to Ms. Bingham, another teacher at the school, and of corporal punishment which sent student Henry Hizzer to the physician. Also included are several testimonies of teachers serving as character witnesses. Edgar A. Allen was the Special Agent in charge of the investigation.

Folder 1a

Original finding aid #00762, Subseries: "1.1. 1903-1905 and Undated." Folder 1a

Folder 1

1903-1904 #00762, Subseries: "1.1. 1903-1905 and Undated." Folder 1

Folder 2

1905 and undated #00762, Subseries: "1.1. 1903-1905 and Undated." Folder 2

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.2. 1795-1941 and Undated.

About 18 items.

Weeks's correspondence about historical and bibliographical matters, some collected items, and notes and printed circulars about his work.

Folder 3

1795-1799; 1890-1896 #00762, Subseries: "1.2. 1795-1941 and Undated." Folder 3

Folder 4

1897-1941 #00762, Subseries: "1.2. 1795-1941 and Undated." Folder 4

Folder 5

Undated and miscellaneous #00762, Subseries: "1.2. 1795-1941 and Undated." Folder 5

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.3. Southern History Association Materials, 1896-1908 and Undated.

About 30 items.

Correspondence, pamphlets, clippings, and other materials relating to the formation of the Southern History Association in the late 1890s. Also included is material relating to the Atlantic Collegiate Institute and the public library in Elizabeth City, North Carolina.

Folder 6

Items relating to the Southern History Association, 1896-1908 and undated #00762, Subseries: "1.3. Southern History Association Materials, 1896-1908 and Undated." Folder 6

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982).

15,000 items.

Acquisitions Information: Accession 103650

Processing Note: Archivists minimally arranged this addition. Box level information is not complete. Examination of all boxes in the addition may be necessary to access all relevant materials.

Correspondence from 1899-1907 (Boxes 5-14, 17, 22-24, and 26) documents Stephen B. Weeks' temporary move to the southwestern United States, during which he first resided in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and later worked as superintendent of the San Carlos Boarding School for Apache Indians in Arizona. He returned to North Carolina in 1907. An invitation to the 1904 Congress of Indian Educators, newspaper clippings, and several letters indicate that the school sought "Americanization" and "advancement" of Indigenous peoples, an educational approach that in 2020 is viewed as paternalistic and as an act of cultural colonialism (see Boxes 17 and 22). The Bureau of Indian Affairs, established in 1824, is an agency of the Department of the Interior, and at the time was the organizing force behind boarding schools for Indigenous peoples across the nation. This approach to assimilation through education included both on- and off-reservation schools, spanning from the 1870s to the 1930s. The Carlisle Indian Industrial School (1879-1918) was the first off-reservation boarding school for Indigenous people in the United States. It served as a model for what were known contemporaneously as "Indian Residential Schools," setting precedent for policies and practices later used in other schools. Physical and emotional abuse of the students was common, and severe punishments, including beatings, confinement, and hard labor, were administered to students who practiced and adhered to their Indigenous customs and beliefs. Agents sometimes forcibly removed children as young as 5 years old from their families to promote their vision for acculturation. The San Carlos Boarding School, of which Stephen B. Weeks was superintendent, opened in 1900 on the San Carlos Reservation.

Of particular note are scattered references to tag bands, such as TE 18, SB 55, and CJ 18, which refer to the coding system used in the identification of students and their families (see Box 17). The coding system was used in the forced transition from Apache to English names. Often, tags were arbitrarily assigned without respect for the established Apache tradition, regarding neither naming practices nor tribal organizational structures. First, the government imposed a division among the Apache population into bands and from there each band was given a corresponding letter (tag). Married men were given numbers first, followed by their wives with the same one. Chiefs were also chosen and classified by this system, numbered one to indicate their "modest administrative authority" (Cornell and Gil Swedberg, 1995). This tag band system ultimately facilitated the Bureau of Indian Affairs' deracination of Indigenous peoples, undermining Apache autonomy and decision-making. Also included are instances of students referred to by their English names, such as Sophie, Charley, and Lena Little.

Findings listed here may not be a comprehensive account. Researchers are encouraged to look through other boxes in the series for even more biographical information on early 20th century Apache students at the San Carlos Boarding School. Additionally, listed below are several links to related collections from the National Archives and Records Administration which provide avenues to supplementary research, as well as resources for more contextual information about the Bureau of Indian Affairs' boarding schools.

A listing of records from schools operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, nationwide.

Records related to the Fort Apache Indian Agency, which encompasses the San Carlos Boarding School (1) .

Records related to the Fort Apache Indian Agency, which encompasses the San Carlos Boarding School (2) .

American Indian records on microfilm, categorized by tribe.

An explanation of allotment records and their value in biographical research.

An initiative to collect dispersed records from Native American boarding schools.

The Power of American Indian Boarding School Records, a blog post of the National Archives and Records Administration.

Carlisle Indian School Records, a blog post of the Native Heritage Project which details what would become the model for all successive Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding schools.

An academic article with insight into the effects of the tag band system (pages 254-255): Cornell, S., & Gil-Swedberg, M. C. (1995). Sociohistorical Factors in Institutional Efficacy: Economic Development in Three American Indian Cases. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 43(2), 239–268. doi: 10.1086/452149.

Box 3

Transcriptions of correspondence of David Lowry Swain to Jefferson Davis, 1862-1867 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 3

Correspondence, Willie P. Mangum, 1820-1890 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 3

Congressional papers, 1880s #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 3

Notes #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 3

Correspondence, 1860-1890 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 3

Box 4

Correspondence, 1885-1898 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 4

Box 5

Correspondence, 1899-1905 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 5

Box 6

Correspondence, 1904-1906 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 6

Box 7

Correspondence, 1907-1911 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 7

Box 8

Correspondence, 1885-1905 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 8

Box 9

Correspondence, 1890-1900 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 9

Box 10

Correspondence, 1890-1900 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 10

Box 11

Correspondence, 1895-1920 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 11

Box 12

Correspondence, 1900-1920 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 12

Box 13

Correspondence, 1900-1920 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 13

Box 14

Correspondence, 1905-1920 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 14

Box 15

Correspondence, 1910-1920 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 15

Box 16

Correspondence, 1910-1920 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 16

Including Biographical History of North Carolina.

Box 17

Receipts, 1908-1909 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 17

Correspondence, circa 1905: U.S. Indian Service, Southern History Association #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 17

Proof of "Historic Review of Colonial and State Records of North Carolina" #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 17

Notes on George Moses Horton #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 17

Box 18

Notes on George Moses Horton #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 18

Correspondence, circa 1910: Biographical History of North Carolina #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 18

Correspondence, 1905-1910: Booksellers and dealers #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 18

Box 19

Biographical History of North Carolina #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 19

Correspondence, transcribed letters, and drafts.

Published materials #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 19

Including Bibliography of North Carolina.

"The Weeks Collection of Caroliniana" manuscripts and notes #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 19

Box 20

"History of Public School Education in Delaware," 1917 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 20

"Early Education in Middle Georgia" #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 20

Original manuscript.

Notes, newspaper clippings and miscellaneous papers #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 20

U.S. Bureau of Education, 1890-1900 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 20

Box 21

U.S. Bureau of Education, 1890 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 21

Box 22

U.S. Bureau of Education, 1890-1900 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 22

Box 23

U.S. Bureau of Education, 1900 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 23

Box 24

U.S. Bureau of Education, 1890-1920 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 24

Box 25

U.S. Bureau of Education, 1910-1920 and undated #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 25

"History of Public School Education in Arizona" #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 25

Box 26

U.S. Bureau of Education, 1880-1900 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 26

"Rural School Libraries in the South," 1910-1920 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 26

Department of Interior/U.S. Bureau of Education Reorganization of Teachers College, 1914 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 26

"History of Public School Education in Delaware," 1917 #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 26

Box 27

Correspondence #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 27

Confederate bibliography #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 27

Loose papers #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 27

Box 28

Writings #00762, Series: "1A. Papers, 1820-1920 (Addition of 1982)." Box 28

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 2. Volumes, 1746-1896.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.1 Diary of Thomas Nicholson, 1746-1771.

2 items.

Diary of Thomas Nicholson, a prominent Quaker writer of Perquimans County, North Carolina, relating his trip to Cape Fear in 1746, his stay in England from 1749-1751, and his visit to the North Carolina Assembly in 1771.

Folder 7

Volume 1: Diary of Thomas Nicholson, 1746-1771 (two typed copies) #00762, Subseries: "2.1 Diary of Thomas Nicholson, 1746-1771." Folder 7

The two typescripts (one created by Stephen Weeks and one by Julian Winslow) are mostly identical. However, the Weeks typescript contains three pages at the beginning and three pages at the end that do not appear in the Winslow typescript, and pages 28-36 of the Winslow typescript contain material not included in the Weeks typescript.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.2. Minutes and Account Book, 1815-1820.

1 item.

Volume from the Camden, North Carolina Circuit Methodist Church. Contains minutes of meetings and settlements with preachers, 1815-1817, and an account book for general merchandise, 1820.

Folder 8

Volume 2: Minutes and account book of the Camden, North Carolina Circuit Methodist Church, 1815-1820 #00762, Subseries: "2.2. Minutes and Account Book, 1815-1820." Folder 8

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.3. Manuscript, 1896.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.4. Manuscript Volume, 1896.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801.

14 items.

Jeremiah Norman was a Methodist preacher of North Carolina who served as an itinerant preacher during much of the period covered by this diary. Norman was a local preacher in eastern North Carolina for a part of the period, during which time he also taught singing school and, at times, elementary school. His circuits were in Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina. He referred to places by the Methodist names for the circuits and meeting houses, and it is often difficult to ascertain a precise place for specific entries. He was also imprecise in his dating, frequently noting only the day of the week, and sometimes it is impossible to establish an entry's complete date.

Norman made entries almost daily about his travels and the people with whom he stayed, with references to his preaching, the people he met, traveling conditions, his health, and social and religious conditions in general. References to the viewpoints and practices of the Methodists are found throughout the diary. In the later volumes, he made frequent references to rivalry between Methodists and Baptists.

Folder 17

Volume 5: June 1793-October 1795 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 17

Folder 18

Volume 6: October 1795-March 1796 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 18

Folder 19

Volume 7: March or April-July 1796 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 19

Folder 20

Volume 8: August-November 1796 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 20

Folder 21

Volume 9: November 1796-February 1797 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 21

Folder 22

Volume 10: February-June 1797 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 22

Folder 23

Volume 11: June-November 1797 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 23

Folder 24

Volume 12: November 1797-January 1798 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 24

Folder 25

Volume 13: January-May 1798 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 25

Folder 26

Volume 14: June-October 1798 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 26

Folder 27

Volume 15: February-May 1799 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 27

Folder 28

Volume 16: June-December 1799 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 28

Folder 29

Volume 17: January-July 1800 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 29

Folder 30

Volume 18: August 1800-February 1801 #00762, Subseries: "2.5. Diary of Jeremiah Norman, June 1793-February 1801." Folder 30

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 2A. Volumes, 1880-1910 (Addition of 1982).

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Processing Information

Processed by: SHC Staff

Encoded by: Noah Huffman, December 2007

Updated by: Kathryn Michaelis, February 2010; Nancy Kaiser, July and October 2019; Nancy Kaiser and Gillian McCuistion, February 2020

Since August 2017, we have added ethnic and racial identities for individuals and families represented in collections. To determine identity, we rely on self-identification; other information supplied to the repository by collection creators or sources; public records, press accounts, and secondary sources; and contextual information in the collection materials. Omissions of ethnic and racial identities in finding aids created or updated after August 2017 are an indication of insufficient information to make an educated guess or an individual's preference for identity information to be excluded from description. When we have misidentified, please let us know at wilsonlibrary@unc.edu.

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