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|Size||12 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 4,000 items)|
|Abstract||Thomas Butler King of Retreat Plantation, Saint Simons Island, Ga., was a Georgia and United States legislator, collector of the port of San Francisco, and Georgia representative to various courts in Europe during the Civil War, with special interests in internal improvements and naval affairs. Papers of King and his wife Anna Matilda Page King, 1835-1840, deal primarily with King's business, managerial, and legislative activities on behalf of the Brunswick and Altamaha Canal Company, the Brunswick and Florida Railroad Company, and the Brunswick Land Company. Papers, 1841-1848, document King's political career as U.S. representative from Georgia's First Congressional District, which included Glynn County and the cities of Brunswick and Savannah. Among these are papers about his activities as member and chair of the U.S. House Naval Affairs Committee and about Whig political activities in Georgia, the South, and the nation. Materials, 1849-1852, deal with King's work in California, first as the personal adviser of President Zachary Taylor and then as the first collector of the port of San Francisco under Millard Fillmore. Between 1853 and 1859, papers deal with family matters and King's investments in and promotion of a transcontinental railroad through Texas. Papers, 1860-1864, relate to his promotion of railroads in south Georgia, his association with the secession crisis, and his activities on behalf of the state of Georgia and the Confederacy in various European capitals during the first years of the Civil War. There also are letters, diaries, and other materials relating to the King sons at various locations during the war and other family letters that reflect the effects of the war. Letters discussing plantation and family matters account for almost half of the collection. Most of these were written between 1850 and 1859 by Anna Matilda Page King, who chiefly discussed agricultural matters, including the treatment of slaves, but also expressed a certain amount of anti-semitism and wrote of her experimentation with the occult.|
|Creator||King, T. Butler (Thomas Butler), 1800-1864.|
|Curatorial Unit||University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection.|
The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.
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|27 August 1800||Born in Palmer, Mass., the son of Daniel and Hannah Lord King.|
|1800-1820||Attended Westfield Academy in Westfield, Mass.; moved to live with relatives in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania at age 15 following the death of his parents; studied law with Judge Garrick Mallery in Wilkes-Barre, and with his own brother Henry in Allentown, Pa.|
|1820||Stephen Clay King, another brother, married Mary Fort, the daughter of a wealthy cotton planter of Wayne County, Ga. Stephen eventually became a large-scale planter in Georgia.|
|1823||Migrated to southeastern Georgia.|
|1824||Married Anna Matilda Page of Retreat Plantation, Saint Simons Island, Ga., the daughter of William Page, a South Carolinian who had purchased Retreat in 1804.|
|1824-1826||Deaths of Anna Matilda King's parents and her inheritance of a large estate. She and King made their home at Retreat.|
|1830s||King led the movement to improve and promote the port at Brunswick, Ga.|
|1832||Elected to the Georgia legislature as senator from Glynn County(Brunswick).|
|1832-1836||Served in Georgia legislature, championed the cause of states' rights, and pushed for bills related to his internal improvement ventures.|
|1836||Decided against a re-election bid for the Georgia legislature in order to seek New England capital for his Brunswick projects, then ran an unsuccessful campaign for a seat in the United States House of Representatives.|
|1837||Elected to the Georgia legislature where he promoted internal improvement measures, especially state credit to private companies.|
|1838||Elected to the United States House as states rights candidate.|
|1839-1843||Served in the United States House, aligned himself with the Whig party, proposed establishing a Home Squadron by the Navy (bill passed July 1841), and suffered serious financial setbacks to his plans for the port at Brunswick.|
|1842||Lost bid for re-election to the House.|
|1844||Served as chair of the Whig committee in Georgia; accompanied Henry Clay on the latter's tour through Georgia; spoke at Whig rallies in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania; and defeated the Democratic nominee, Charles Spaulding, for the congressional seat from Georgia's First District.|
|6 January 1845||Fought a duel with Charles Spaulding on Amelia Island, Florida Territory.|
|15 January 1845||Witnessed the marriage of his daughter Hannah to William Audley Couper, a member of one of the most prominent families of Georgia's Golden Isles.|
|1845-1846||Recommended numerous naval improvement bills from his position on the naval affairs committee.|
|1846||Defeated Democratic candidate Solomon Cohen for Georgia's First Congressional District seat.|
|1847||Made chair of the House Committee on Naval Affairs.|
|1848||Helped nominate Zachary Taylor as the Whig candidate for president and defeated the Democratic candidate, Joseph W. Jackson, in Georgia's First Congressional District race.|
|16 January 1849||Proposed a detailed report recommending the construction of a railroad across the Isthmus of Panama.|
|March 1849||Thwarted in his efforts to become secretary of the Navy under Taylor.|
|May 1849||Appointed as Taylor's special agent to California.|
|4 June 1849||Toured the mining districts of California.|
|1 January 1850||Per private instructions from Taylor, set up a law office in San Francisco and failed in his bid to become a senator from California.|
|February 1850||Arrived in New York from California.|
|October 1850||Appointed collector of the port of San Francisco by President Millard Fillmore.|
|1851-1852||Worked as collector of the port of San Francisco and failed in his quest to become a senator from California.|
|1852||Resigned the collectorship at San Francisco.|
|1853-1858||Promoted, financed, and lobbied for a transcontinental railroad through Texas.|
|1856||Attended the Democratic National Convention in Cincinnati|
|1859||Suffered the deaths of his wife and oldest son, lost his bid to become the Democratic nominee from Georgia's First Congressional District, but was elected as a senator to the Georgia legislature.|
|1860||Attended the Democratic National Convention in Charleston, S.C., as a lobbyist for the revived transcontinental railroad and the recently formed Macon and Brunswick Railroad.|
|1861-1862||Represented the state of Georgia at various courts in Europe.|
|1863||Defeated by Savannahian Julian Hartridge for Georgia's First Congressional District seat.|
|10 May 1864||Died in Waresboro, Ga.|
King's wife, Anna Matilda (Page), was the only child and heir of William Page, a native of South Carolina who had purchased Retreat plantation on Saint Simons Island, Georgia, early in the 19th century. Anna Matilda and most of the ten King children remained at Retreat while King was active elsewhere. Although an overseer or one of the sons supervised the actual plantation work, Anna Matilda managed most of the family affairs and finances. She died in 1859.
The Kings had ten children, including William, who died at age six. The others were: Hannah Page (Tootee); Thomas Butler, Jr. (Butler or Buttie); Henry Lord Page (Lordy); Georgia (Josey); Mallery Page (Mall or Pompey); Florence (Flora or Poyer); Virginia (Appie or Tommie); John Floyd (Floyd or Fuddy); and Richard Cuyler (Cuyler, Tip, Hack, Herks).
Hannah married William Audley Couper, the son of wealthy Georgia landowner James Couper and the brother of James Hamilton Couper, a pioneer in scientific farming. She and her family lived at Hamilton, a plantation adjacent to Retreat, which her husband managed for the granddaughter of James Hamilton. The Kings's oldest son, Butler, attended Franklin College in Athens, Ga.; accompanied his father to California; and managed Retreat until his sudden death in 1859. Lord attended Yale, read law, worked in an office in New York in 1860, became captain and aide-de-camp to Brigadier General Lafayette McLaws in the Confederate army, and was killed at Fredericksburg in December 1862. The King daughters, Georgia, Florence, and Virginia, remained at Retreat until 1861, when the war drove them inland. Saint Simons was occupied by the United States Army and the Freedman's Bureau, and the Kings were unable to return home until the late 1860s. Early in the war, Georgia married William Duncan Smith, a Confederate major, later general, who died in 1862; after the war, she married Joseph Wilder. Florence married Henry Rootes Jackson, and Virginia married John Nisbet.
Mallery followed Butler as manager of the family plantation. He became a Confederate officer, served in Georgia and South Carolina, and married Eugenia (Jenny) Grant. Another son, Floyd, served as chief of artillery under Major General William W. Loring in western Virginia during the Civil War and then managed various plantations on the Mississippi River. In love with Lin Capterton of Elmwood, Va. (later West Virginia), Floyd wrote to her during and after the war, but they did not marry. He later became a lawyer in Louisiana and served that state in Congress, 1879-1887. The Kings's youngest son, Cuyler, attended Bloomfield Academy at Ivy Depot near Charlottesville, Va. A lieutenant in the 1st Battalion, Georgia Sharpshooters, he served in Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, and Georgia during the war.
For more biographical information see: Series 2, folder 16; sketch of King in the Dictionary of American Biography; sketches of King, his brother Henry, and his son Floyd in the Biographical Directory of the American Congress and Edward Marvin Steel, Thomas Butler King of Georgia (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1964).Back to Top
There is some documentation in these papers for virtually all aspects of the life of Thomas Butler King, for the adult life of his wife "Anna Matilda King" of Retreat Plantation, Saint Simons Island, Ga., and for much of the childhood and early adult life of each of their several children.
The documents related to Thomas Butler King's career can be roughly divided into five major periods. During the first period, 1835-1840, they deal chiefly with King's business, managerial, and legislative activities on behalf of the Brunswick and Altamaha Canal Company, the Brunswick and Florida Railroad Company, and the Brunswick Land Company. The documents from the second period, 1841-1848, reflect some of King's activities as a member and chair of the United States House Naval Affairs Committee; the change in his political constituency from the people of Glynn County, Ga., (Brunswick) to the voters of the several counties of Georgia's First Congessional District (which included Glynn and Chatham County, Ga., [Savannah]); and Whigpolitical activities in Georgia, the South, and the nation.
The materials related to the third stage of King's career, 1849-1852, deal with his duties and travels in California, first as the personal adviser of President Zachary Taylor and then as the first collector of the port of San Francisco under Taylor's successor, Millard Fillmore. Between 1853 and 1859, a fourth period, the papers deal with family matters and King's investments in and promotion of a transcontinental railroad through Texas. Documents from the fifth and final period of his career, 1860-1864, relate to his promotion of railroads in south Georgia, his association with the crisis of secession and the new Confederate States of America, and his activities on behalf of the state of Georgia in various European capitals during the first years of the Civil War.
Letters discussing plantation and family matters account for almost half of the collection. Most of these were written between 1850 and 1859 by Anna Matilda King, either to her constantly traveling husband or to their children. There are also letters from the children to their parents and to one another, including letters from the sons serving in the military during the Civil War.
Additions to the collection include family letters to Richard Cuyler King during his service with the 1st Battalion, Georgia Sharp Shooters during the Civil War; a typed transcription of his autumn 1864 diary; and family history materials.Back to Top
Correspondence of the King family, chiefly related to the political and economic activities of Thomas Butler King and to his family's life at Retreat Plantation on Saint Simons Island, Ga. A wide range of topics are addressed, including local, state, and national politics; internal improvements in Georgia, Florida, Texas, and California; requests for federal positions; and routine family and plantation affairs.
Early papers are those of William Page and his business associates in Liverpool, England, and Charleston, S.C., relating to land in Georgia and the effect of diplomatic events on the price of cotton. In addition, there are Page's letters from Newport, R.I., New York, and Charleston to his daughter Anna Matilda, giving her instructions about running the plantation and punishing a person who was enslaved and had attempted to self emancipate, and correspondence from Anna in Savannah to her mother, giving news of friends, social life in the city, and a meeting of Methodist ministers.
Chiefly correspondence between Thomas Butler King and various individuals dealing with his purchase of part of the Middleton estate in southeast Georgia. Notable correspondents include: James Hamilton (several letters, 1830-1832); L (several letters, 1830-1832).
Chiefly correspondence of King and his business associates dealing with their mutual investments in I in Brunswick and elsewhere in Georgia. There are also letters discussing politics in Georgia, King's Middleton purchase, and from Anna Matilda King to her husband.
Notable correspondents include: Laomi Baldwin (one letter, 1836); James Gillespie Birney, American Anti-Slavery Society (one letter, 1839); James S. Calhoun (two letters, 1839); Thomas G. Cary (several letters); S. T. Chapman (two letters, 1838, 1840); Duncan Lamont Clinch (one letter, 1840); H. K. Curtis (several letters); R. R. Cuyler (one letter, 1840); Edward H. Eldredge (several letters, 1836-1837); James Hamilton, Jr. (several letters); Reverdy Johnson (one letter, 1840); J. L. Locke (several letters, 1838-1839); Joseph Lyman (several letters, 1838); B. F. Perham (several letters, 1836-1838); Joseph M. White (one letter, 1837)
Chiefly correspondence related to King's activities during his congressional service. This includes requests and petitions from those seeking services and federal appointments in Georgia, Florida, and elsewhere, and letters dealing with his interest and involvement in naval affairs, politics, and the Zachary Taylor presidential campaign of 1848. There are also several letters from King's overseers at Retreat, John and George Dunham, and from Anna Matilda King on a number of topics: her husband's financial difficulties, the plantation, tutors, and the disadvantages of raising children around slavery. Particularly noteworthy is a handwritten copy of a 8 January 1845 letter from General Charles Floyd to Captain Thomas Bourke describing a duel on Amelia Island between Thomas Butler King and Charles Spaulding. Correspondence on internal improvements in Georgia ceases in the early 1840s.
Notable correspondents include: E. F. Aldrich (one letter 1848); Anthony Barclay (several letters, 1841, 1843); Francis Stebbins Bartow (several letters, 1846-1848); William Bellinger Bulloch (two letters, 1847); James S. Calhoun (several letters); Thomas G. Cary (two letters, 1846, 1848); S. T. Chapman (several letters); Duncan Lamont Clinch (several letters); Zebeden Cook (one letter, 1846); R. R. Cuyler (several letters throughout); Samuel Draper (several letters, 1848); John Dunham (several letters); Stephen Elliott (one letter, 1841); Charles Floyd (one letter, 1845); William Hodgson (several letters throughout); Samuel Jaudon (several letters, 1846-1848); John Jay (several letters throughout); Reverdy Johnson (several letters); David Law (several letters); J. L. Locke (several letters); Matthew Fontaine Maury (several letters, 1846, 1848); George Meacham (one letter, 1848); Henry Morgan (one letter, 1848); James D. Ogden (two letters, 1848); Francis Oxnard (one letter, 1846); Josiah Quincy (one letter, 1841); James Rees (one letter, 1848); John O. Sargent (several letters, 1847-1848); Henry H. Scranton (one letter, 1848); John G. Shoolbread (two letters, 1841); Alexander Hamilton Stephens (several letters, 1844-1845); Joseph Story (one letter, 1841); Timothy Timpkins (two letters, 1844); Robert Augustus Toombs (one letter, 1847); Daniel Webster (several letters, 1841-1843); Thurlow Weed (one letter, 1848); F. Winter (several letters, 1845-1846).
Chiefly family letters dealing with the everyday affairs of plantation life, with the education of the King children, and with King's activities in California. King, his wife, and their two oldest sons, Butler and Lordy, are the principal correspondents. These letters include King writing from California to his wife and children; Butler, in his early letters, from Franklin College to his parents, then later, from California to his mother; Lordy from Yale University to his parents; and Anna Matilda King to her husband, sons, and other children. In addition, there are family letters from the other King children to their father and several business and political letters from Californians and northern capitalists to King. (For additional information on King's activities in California see Series 2, folder 478.)
Notable correspondents include: Alex H. Arthur (one letter, 1849); William Henry Aspinwall (several letters); John Barrell (one letter, 1850); Thomas Benning (one letter, 1849); Frederick Billings (one letter, 1850); Simon Fraser Blount (two letters, 1849); Burgoyne & Company (several letters); Henry Clay (one letter, 1851); John Demere (several letters); C. W. Denison (one letter, 1850); Edward M. Dodge (one letter, 1850); Frank Gage (one letter, 1850); Andrew Gray (one letter, 1850); Cyril V. Grey (one letter, 1850); Robert Habersham (several letters); Josiah Holbrook (one letter, 1850); C. H. Hopkins (one letter, 1849); John Eastman Johnson (one letter, 1850); James Longstreet (one letter, 1850); Joseph B. Lynde (two letters, 1850); B. F. Moon (one letter, 1849); W. W. Paine (several letters); John V. Plume (one letter, 1850); Cadwalader Ringgold (several letters); H. E. Robinson (one letter, 1850); Persifor Frazer Smith (one letter, 1849); H. Van Rensselaer (one letter, 1849); Franklin Williams from Shanghai (several letters); Wolcott, Bates & Company, Shanghai (several letters).
Family letters on domestic matters form the bulk of the correspondence during this period. After his economic and political failures in California, King began investing in and promoting railroads in Georgia and elsewhere in the South. He was particularly involved with a transcontinental railroad through Texas. There are a number of letters discussing these ventures (which King promoted and managed by constantly traveling between Washington, New York, New Orleans, Texas, and England), but for the most part they reveal little about the projects. Like most of his other business plans, these fell through, and, by 1859, it was clear that for the time being the transcontinental project was dead. (Additional information on King's railroad activities can be found in Series 3.)
Anna Matilda King and Butler, the King's oldest son, are the most frequent correspondents. Butler's letters deal with the management of Retreat Plantation, with his efforts to settle with the Treasury Department his father's accounts as collector at San Francisco, with his own plans to become a cotton factor in Savannah, and with his and his mother's attempts to purchase Hamilton, the neighboring plantation. Anti-semitism surfaces in several of Ann Matilda's letters regarding Hamilton. For the most part, however, her letters concern plantation and local affairs: enslaved people who were sick, entertaining a constant stream of visitors, news from Brunswick and Savannah, and other topics. Particularly noteworthy are several letters from the spring and summer of 1856 in which Anna Matilda discusses table-tipping and her contacts with the spiritual world. Butler died suddenly in January 1859, and Anna Matilda died in August of that year.
Notable correspondents include: Jeptha Fowlkes (several letters, 1857-1858); Samuel Jaudon (several letters); Thomas B. Lincoln (several letters, 1857-1859).
Chiefly family correspondence that reflects the effects of the Civil War on the King family. There are letters from the sons from their different war stations. Lord was near Williamsburg in 1861, and, until his death in December 1862, with General McLaws in eastern Virginia (see volume 11 for his diary between 4 June and 16 November 1862). Floyd wrote from various places in Virginia and eastern Tennessee throughout the war (mainly from western Virginia as a Major in the artillery under Henry Heth). Mallery wrote from James Island, S.C., in 1862, from Mississippi with Gist's Brigade in 1863 and 1864, and from Pocataligo, S.C., in 1864. Cuyler was near Chattanooga, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge, Tenn., and Marietta, Ga., in 1863 and near Atlanta and Dalton, Ga., in the spring of 1864.
The letters of King's daughters deal with the family's relocation from the coast to the interior of Georgia and with news of friends in the army and elsewhere. Georgia King, who married William Duncan Smith in the summer of 1861, wrote most of these: from Richmond in 1860 on meeting Mrs. Jefferson Davis, James Longstreet, and J. E. B. Stuart and riding Stuart's horse; from Fairfax Courthouse, Va., in the fall of 1861 with her brother Floyd and her husband William; from Manassas, Va., in 1861 with the news of Hamilton Couper's death; and from Savannah and elsewhere in Georgia during the rest of the war. Also included are papers dealing with the Charleston convention of 1860, the political situation, King's service in the Georgia legislature during November of that year, Georgia's seizure of Fort Pulaski in 1861, and King's mission to Europe for the state of Georgia.
Notable correspondents include: Lafayette McLaws (several letters); William Duncan Smith (several letters).
Chiefly letters from Floyd in Mississippi and Louisiana (in and near Natchez), where he was managing plantations with workers who were German and Black. Included also are letters from Georgia and Florence King and the Capertons.
Chiefly letters to Richard Cuyler King #01252, Series: "1. Correspondence, 1809-1868." Folder 547-548
Acquisitions information: Addition of May 1989 (Acc. 89034)
Richard Cuyler King was the son of Thomas Butler and Anna Matilda Page King. Included are letters from various family members to Richard Cuyler King during his service with the 1st Battalion, Georgia Sharp Shooters during the American Civil War. Among these letters are several from his brothers, who were serving with other Confederate forces. Letters largely discuss family matters. Includes typed transcriptions of the letters that were made in 1975 and 1978 by Jeannette Adams.
Speeches and Writings by Thomas Butler King, 1830s-1863 #01252, Series: "2. Speeches and Writings." Folder 463-476
Speeches and writings by Thomas Butler King related to presidential campaigns and to his own political campaigns in Georgia. Also included are reports on his tenure as collector of the port of San Francisco and a pamphlet dealing with his correspondence and activities as agent to Europe from Georgia during the first years of the Civil War.
Speeches and writings on the King family and other topics by family members and others.
Documents related to internal improvements in Georgia. Included are reports, bills, charts, and receipts, as well as a map of town lots in Brunswick, Ga., and maps of certain lands in Florida.
Documents associated with King's railroad activities in Texas. These include maps, reports, bills, contracts, speeches, and newspaper editorials.
Miscellaneous documents related to King's interests in naval affairs. These include a list of French Navy vessels; information on mail steamers and contracts; a memorandum on railways for the depot of war ships; an act relating to surveyors and pursers of the navy; notes on changes brought about in European navies as a result of the introduction of steam; notes and memos on a steam war Navy; information on Mr. Bancroft and "retrenchment"; a proposal to establish a Navy Yard at Brunswick; a piece entitled "Stand Still or Reform"; and a map "Drawn to Accompany Ambrose W. Thompson's Proposal to Establish Steam Communication between the United States and China."
Lists of people who were claimed as property and enslaved by the King family and probably others during the slavery era.
Deeds, bonds, indentures, maps and plats. Most relate to King's purchase of part of the Middleton estate in the mid-1830s.
Invitations, Replies, Calling Cards, Receipts, and Miscellaneous Items #01252, Series: "4. Other Papers." Folder 516-523
Chiefly calling cards and replies to an invitation to a public dinner given in King's honor in New York, 23 March 1847.
Printed form letters sent to King covering a wide variety of topics and a lithograph of an execution in San Francisco.
Lithograph: "The First Trial & Execution in S. Francisco" #01252, Series: "4. Other Papers." Folder 528
[1851-1852?], Quirot & Company, San Francisco, 8 x 11-1/2
Newspaper clippings dealing with King and his various interests.
"Some Bible and Cemetery Records of the Page-King Family," 2003 #01252, Series: "4. Other Papers." Folder 549
Acquisitions information: Addition of September 2003 (Acc. 99657)
Compiled by Edwin R. MacKethan III.
"Memorandum on the King Family of Palmer, Massachusetts," 2003 #01252, Series: "4. Other Papers." Folder 550
Acquisitions information: Addition of September 2003 (Acc. 99657)
Compiled by Edwin R. MacKethan III.
Typed transcription of diary of Captain R. Cuyler King, 1st Georgia Sharpshooters #01252, Series: "4. Other Papers." Folder 551
Acquisitions information: Addition of August 2004 (Acc. 99873)
Diary documents the campaign of Hood from Jonesboro, Ga., into Tennessee in Autumn 1864. Also included are biographical materials related to King.
"The Ancestors and Descendants of Thomas Butler King, 1797-1864 and his wife Anna Matilda Page, 1798-1859," 2014 #01252, Series: "4. Other Papers." Folder 552
Acquisitions information: Addition of September 2015 (Acc. 102316)
A family tree compiled by Edwin R. MacKethan III.
|Oversize Paper Folder OPF-1252/1|
|Extra Oversize Paper Folder XOPF-1252/1|
Miscellaneous account records.
Volume 2: "Preliminary Remarks on the State of France previous to the Revolution of 1789", 1848 #01252, Series: "5. Volumes." Folder 535
"Preliminary Remarks on the State of France previous to the Revolution of 1789 to serve as an introduction to the history of the French Revolution, 25 February 1848". 17 pages
Miscellaneous accounts and travel record.
Tobacco, shoes, candy.
Volume 5: Anna Matilda Page in account with William Page, 1822 #01252, Series: "5. Volumes." Folder 538
Clothes and personal expense.
Volume 6: J. M. Snelling, H. A. Snelling, Augusta, Ga., undated #01252, Series: "5. Volumes." Folder 539
|Oversize Volume SV-1252/8|
Brief daily entries.
The diary (4-27 June, 6 August-16 November 1862) was sent in pieces to King's sister Flora as indicated by enclosed notes. During the Civil War, Henry Lord Page King was aide-de-camp to Confederate Brigadier General Lafayette McLaws. The diary discusses troop movements from Williamsburg into Maryland and refers to generals McLaws, Robert E. Lee, T. J. Jackson, D. H. Hill, J. B. Kershaw, and James Longstreet. Typed transcription included.
Civil War sketches on flyleaves.
Filmed in 1988. Additions to the collection after 1988 are not available on microfilm.
Processed by: Walter Campbell and Roslyn Holdzkom, November 1989
Encoded by: Roslyn Holdzkom, July 2002
Revisions: Finding aid updated in December 2003 by Linda Sellars.
Revisions: Finding aid updated in January 2006 and May 2017 by Nancy Kaiser.
Updated by: Laura Hart, July 2021Back to Top