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Collection Number: 03615

Collection Title: Penn School Papers, 1862-2005 and undated (bulk 1862-1949)

This collection has access restrictions. For details, please see the restrictions.

This collection has use restrictions. For details, please see the restrictions.

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the Duplication Policy section for more information.


Preservation of and access to the sound recordings in the Penn School Papers were made possible through a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

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Size 38.5 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 15,500 items)
Abstract The Penn School on Saint Helena Island, S.C., was founded during the Civil War by northern philanthropists and white missionaries for former enslaved individuals in an area occupied by the United States Army. Over the years, with continuing philanthropic support, it served as school, health agency, and cooperative society for rural African Americans of the Sea Islands. The first principals were Laura M. Towne and Ellen Murray, followed around 1908 by Rossa B. Cooley and Grace B. House, and in 1944 by Howard Kester and Alice Kester. The school closed in 1948 and became Penn Community Services in 1951, with Courtney Siceloff as the first director. The original deposits are papers, mostly 1900-1950 and primarily correspondence of the directors and of the trustees, treasurers, and publicity workers located elsewhere, and photographs. Topics include emancipation, African American education, Reconstruction, political and social change in South Carolina, agricultural extension work, public health issues, damage from hurricanes, World War I and World War II, the boll weevil and the cotton industry, the effects of the Great Depression on the school and the local population, changes in the school leading to a greater emphasis on social action in the outer world, and the end of the school and the turn to community service. Volumes include diaries, extracts from letters, recollections, minutes of the board of trustees, ledgers, cashbooks, inventories, financial records, registers of students and teachers, and minutes of various clubs and societies. Printed materials consists of newspapers clippings, pamphlets, promotional literature, school materials, administrative circulars, and annual reports. There are also about 3,000 photographs in the collection, dating from the 1860s to 1953 (bulk 1905-1944), documenting school activities, Island scenes and Islanders, classes and teachers, baptisms, agricultural activities, parades, fairs, and special events at the Penn School. The Addition of November 2012 includes papers, volumes, printed materials, photographs, audio recordings, and film that are similar in scope and content to the original deposit. Also included is a copy of De Nyew Testament, the Gullah translation of the New Testament (2005).
Creator Penn School (Saint Helena Island, S.C.)
Curatorial Unit Southern Historical Collection
Language English
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Restrictions to Access
This collection contains materials which are permanently closed. The Library permanently closed the original photograph albums in series 4.1. because the volumes are too fragile to be safely handled and the enclosed photographs should not be exposed to light. Access is provided through the existing digital facsimiles and microfilm copy. Duplication requests for these volumes are filled with the existing digital facsimiles, and the volumes will not be re-imaged to fill those requests.
Restrictions to Use
This collection contains materials with restrictions on the use of content in publications, broadcasts, exhibits and displays, and online presentations. In accordance with the deposit agreement, written permission from the Penn Center is required for uses beyond reference and research of photographs, other images, moving images (film and video), and audio recordings. To acquire permission to use photographs, other images, moving images (film and video), and audio recordings contained in the Penn School Papers, send your written request with specific image or recording numbers to the Penn Center, Inc., P.O. Box 126, Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Saint Helena Island, S.C. 29920-0126 or info[at]penncenter[dot]com.
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the Penn School Papers #3615, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Alternate Form of Material
Microfilm copy of most of the collection materials onsite at the Southern Historical Collection as of 1976 is available. "Guide to the Microfilm Edition of the Penn School Papers, 1862-1976" is available at the Manuscripts Department. See Series 5 for reel list.
Acquisitions Information
Deposited by Trustees of Penn Community Services, Incorporated, Frogmore, S.C., 1962-1965, with additions, 1981-2005, 2006 (Acc. 100426), 2011 (Acc. 101490), 2012 (Acc. 101699), and 2022 (Acc. 20220712.1) from the Penn Center, Inc.
Sensitive Materials Statement
Manuscript collections and archival records may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations, the North Carolina Public Records Act (N.C.G.S. § 132 1 et seq.), and Article 7 of the North Carolina State Personnel Act (Privacy of State Employee Personnel Records, N.C.G.S. § 126-22 et seq.). Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill assumes no responsibility.
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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Processing Information

Processed by: Manuscripts Department Staff, 1977-1997, 2003, 2005, 2011, 2015.

Encoded by: Roslyn Holdzkom, May 2003; Nathalie Wheaton, November 2005.

Updated for digitization by: Amanda Loeb, August 2013.

Note that much of this finding aid is based on description written for the Guide to the Microfilm Edition of the Penn School Papers, 1862-1976 (1977), Carolyn Wallace, Project Director; Ellen Barrier Neal, project supervisor; Joseph A. Herzenberg, editor of manuscripts; Lawrence S. Earley, editor of photographs; Edith M. Dabbs, consultant. Included are a few notes on materials not included in the microfilm edition.

Preservation of and access to the sound recordings in the Penn School Papers were made possible through a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. These sound recordings were transferred to Penn Center, Inc. Records (#5539) in August 2015.

Diacritics and other special characters have been omitted from this finding aid to facilitate keyword searching in web browsers.

Updated by Nancy Kaiser, February 2016. Materials dated 1949 and later that document Penn Community Services, the successor to the Penn School, were transferred to the Penn Center, Inc. Records (#5539) in August 2015. These materials were removed from Series 1.5, 4.2.8, 6, 7, and 8.

Updated: April 2019; February 2020; September 2022; October 2022

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subject Headings

The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.

Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Related Collections

Penn Center, Inc. Records (05539) Penn Center of the Sea Islands, formerly Penn Community Services, is located on St. Helena Island, S.C., and is the site of the former Penn School, founded in 1862 as one of the country's first schools for freed slaves. The Penn Board of Trustees closed the school in 1948 but three years later reconstituted Penn as a center for community development and conference site for organizations working to advance African American causes or in support of equality, education, welfare, and other social issues. In the late twentieth century, Penn's mission evolved to include a focus on promoting and preserving the history and culture of the Sea Islands, S.C. Records document the administrative operations and cultural heritage activities of Penn Community Services and Penn Center of the Sea Islands.

Some records, photographs, films, and sound recordings in this collection were transferred from the Penn School Papers (03615) to the Penn Center, Inc. Records (05539) in 2015. Transferred materials include records of Executive Director Courtney Siceloff; correspondence, reports, pamphlets, notes, minutes, and clippings related to the United States Commission on Civil Rights and its state advisory committees; recordings of oral history interviews, group discussions, interviews, music and storytelling performances, community meetings, church meetings, community sings, and other events; and films.

William A. Clement Papers (04024)

Edith M. Dabbs Collection of Papers Relating to Saint Helena Island, S.C. (04285)

James McBride Dabbs Papers (03816)

W. W. H. Davis Papers (03096)

John Edwin Fripp Papers (00869)

George H. Johnston Papers (04273)

Howard Kester Papers (03834)

Martha Schofield Papers (00999)

David Franklin Thorpe Papers (04262)

Marion A. Wright Papers (03830)

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Historical Information

Penn School had its origins in the Port Royal Experiment, which began in Beaufort, S.C., in April 1862. Slavery had ended there in November 1861, when Federal naval forces, after the battle of Port Royal Sound, seized Beaufort and the archipelago stretching from Charleston to Savannah, Ga. These Islands, the site of long-staple cotton agriculture, were populated largely by the blacks who planted, cultivated and harvested this valuable crop. In spite of their investment on the Islands, the white planters and slaveholders abandoned their slaves and plantations and fled to Confederate territory upon the arrival of the Union forces. The task of the more than 50 abolitionists of the Port Royal Experiment, who arrived on the Sea Islands in April 1862, was to begin where the planters had left the slaves, to tutor the freedmen out of slavery and into freedom.

The members of this abolitionist expedition were a mixed group, from Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and elsewhere in the North, affiliated with several freedmen's aid societies and Protestant churches, trained in various professions to work among the black agricultural laborers of the South, but all committed to emancipation of the slaves as the paramount objective of the Civil War then being waged. Among this group was Laura M. Towne (1825-1901) of Philadelphia, representative of the Port Royal Relief Committee of Philadelphia, trained to some extent in medicine and dedicated to Garrisonian abolitionism. Soon after her arrival in Beaufort, Laura Towne moved to nearby Saint Helena Island, the largest of the Sea Islands, where she would live and work for the next four decades. In June 1862, she was joined by Ellen Murray (1834-1908), her friend from Newport, R.I. While Towne at first devoted her time to the medical needs of Saint Helena people, she soon began to join Murray in the work of teaching school, first in a room in their house on the Oaks Plantation and later in Brick Church at Frogmore, near the center of Saint Helena.

The history of the Penn School dates from 18 June 1862, Ellen Murray's first day teaching black students on Saint Helena. Towne and Murray named their school in honor of William Penn and his belief in the brotherhood of all humanity and from their own association with the Pennsylvania Freedmen's Aid Society. This group, composed largely of Friends, sent the first schoolhouse (prefabricated in sections) by boat from the North in 1865 and for years thereafter helped finance the school. The special dedication of these two women and their supporters in Philadelphia sustained them in their work at Penn School until the dawn of the twentieth century. During these years, the two women witnessed the redistribution of land on Saint Helena, carried out by the Federal government during the Civil War and the first years of Reconstruction, and the development of a black yeomanry free, by and large, from white control.

In 1900, hoping to perpetuate their work on Saint Helena, Towne and Murray made plans for the incorporation of their school, and the following year the state of South Carolina chartered the Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School. Hollis Burke Frissell, principal of Hampton Institute in Virginia and the first chair of the board of trustees, became a moving force for the reorganized Penn School. His fellow trustees, mainly whites from the North, included members of a new generation of philanthropists interested in the education of southern African Americans as well as men and women whose interest in race relations dated from an earlier era.

Laura Towne died on 22 February 1901, and, although Ellen Murray was to live and work until 1908, Hollis Frissell began a search for their successors. In Rossa Belle Cooley (1872-1949), daughter of a Vassar College chemistry professor, and Grace Bigelow House (1877-1961), daughter of a missionary teacher in Turkey, he found two unusual women who would lead Penn School for the next 40 years. In selecting Cooley and House, both teachers at Hampton Institute, Frissell helped propagate the gospel of industrial education associated with Hampton Institute and made famous by Booker T. Washington at Tuskegee.

Rossa B. Cooley arrived on Saint Helena in 1904 and Grace B. House came the following year, but it was not until the death of Ellen Murray in 1908 that Hollis Frissell's two proteges assumed their full responsibilities as principal and assistant principal of Penn School. The next three decades were full ones for Cooley, House, and their school. They had the help of their teachers and staff, and of a small group of faithful trustees: Francis R. Cope, Jr., gentleman farmer from Dimmock, Pa., whose grandfather and namesake had raised money for Laura Towne; George Foster Peabody, native of Georgia, who made his fortune in New York and then became a noted if eccentric philanthropist; Henry Wilder Foote, Unitarian minister of Boston and other pulpits; L. Hollingsworth Wood, Quaker, New York attorney, and leader in the National Urban League; Isabella Curtis, the school's publicist in Boston; and Harold Evans, their banker in Philadelphia. Cooley and House also cultivated the friendship of men in various philanthropic foundations interested in African American education: the General Education Board; the Slater Fund; the Rosenwald Fund; the Phelps-Stokes Fund; and the multimillionaire Arthur Curtiss James. With this help, they turned Penn into a model African American school.

Cooley and House applied to their work two principles of progressive education: learning for living and learning by doing. While Laura Towne and Ellen Murray believed in academic education and teacher training as the cornerstones of African American advancement, Rossa B. Cooley and Grace B. House emphasized vocational training, especially in agriculture, and the preparation of African Americans to lead more satisfying and productive lives within their own community. For the execution of their broad vision, they extended their sphere of influence out from the Penn School campus over the whole of Saint Helena Island, which they treated as one school-farm-community. They established a credit co-operative for local farmers; worked with South Carolina State College in teacher-training programs; and carried out plans for improving practically every aspect of the lives of the African American yeomanry, including better homes, modern child care, new cash crops, scientific farming methods, and moral, religious, medical and cultural uplift.

The depth and breadth of their efforts brought Penn School to the attention of educators, journalists, sociologists, philanthropists, missionaries, and a number of socially prominent people. Numerous visitors to Saint Helena helped spread the reputation of Penn School and its gospel not only among Americans interested in African American education, but also to many foreign missionaries and colonial officials, especially in British territories in southern Africa and India.

Not all of the efforts of Rossa B. Cooley and Grace B. House bore fruit and many plans and projects proved to be unworkable for the Island population. But their limited success at the school and on the Island must be set against a background of economic conditions that severely circumscribed the realization of their vision. There were devastating hurricanes in 1911 and 1940, and the arrival of the boll weevil in 1918 destroyed forever the strain of long-staple cotton upon which the income of the Sea Island farmers was based. Difficult economic conditions were accompanied by the continuing exodus of African American people from their Island farms to towns on the mainland and the cities of the North. This out-migration increased during the two world wars and the completion of the bridge between the Island and Beaufort in 1927 made it easy for the people of Saint Helena to leave home. The declining population and the departure of the school's graduates further handicapped the work of Cooley and House.

The principals of Penn School could not continue their experiment on the Island when local conditions presented so many obstacles. Nor, by the late 1930s, did the promotional and fund-raising activities to which Cooley had dedicated so much effort meet the financial needs of the school. The two women were growing old, and by 1940 the trustees were looking for a new pair of principals.

Although Rossa B. Cooley and Grace B. House resisted efforts to retire them, the board of trustees in 1944 appointed two white southerners, Howard "Buck" Kester and his wife Alice, as the new principal and assistant principal. A minister by training, a Christian socialist, and disciple of Reinhold Niebuhr, Howard Kester had worked actively for social and spiritual change in the South, especially with the Southern Tenant Farmers Union and the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen. The Kesters sought to maintain the traditions that their predecessors had established at Penn School and, at the same time, involve the school in a larger way with the changes in race relations then taking place in the South and elsewhere.

In spite of their good intentions, the Kesters provoked resentment from those at Penn School who preferred the ways of Cooley and House, who still lived nearby at Ndulamo, their retirement home. Nor could the Kesters solve the economic problems facing the school. In 1947, the Kesters resigned, and Howard Kester resumed his Fellowship of Southern Churchmen duties in 1948.

Before the departure of the Kesters, the Penn School board of trustees had appointed a committee, headed by the noted Atlanta University sociologist Ira De A. Reid, to study the school and to make recommendations for its future. Reid argued in his report that Penn School should relinquish its academic responsibilities and concentrate its work on community services. The trustees accepted Reid's findings, and in 1948 the students at the school were taken into the South Carolina public schools.

After 86 years, the Penn School of Laura Towne, Ellen Murray, Rossa B. Cooley, and Grace B. House was no more. The trustees renamed the corporation Penn Community Services and dedicated it to "community planning and improvement, sanitation and health, recreation and sport, and mental and spiritual hygiene."

In 1951, the trustees appointed Courtney Siceloff the first director of Penn Community Services, a position he held until 1970. During Siceloff's time as director, the Penn Community Services site was widely used as a conference center for organizations hoping to advance African American causes or to support equality, education, welfare, and other social issues. While director, Siceloff also served as a regional consultant for the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Southern Regional Office, and then, beginning in 1960 and continuing until around 1970, as secretary for the South Carolina Advisory Committee to the Commission.

Researchers interested in the evolution of Penn Community Services and Penn Center from 1949 to the present day should see Penn Center, Inc. Records (#5539).

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Scope and Content

The Penn School papers consist chiefly of office files from the African American school on Saint Helena Island, S.C. Correspondence is primarily of Rossa B. Cooley, Grace B. House, and later Howard Kester. There is also correspondence of trustees, treasurers, and publicity workers located elsewhere. Materials relate to the day-to-day administration of the school and its program. Included are letters dealing with the purchase of supplies and equipment; planning and construction of new buildings, especially Cope Industrial Building in 1912 and Frissell Memorial Community Building in 1925; hiring and assignment of personnel; development of the school curriculum and programs; and the festivals, clubs and contests sponsored by the school that involved the entire community. There are also financial statements and other reports; scattered lists of faculty, students, and contributors to the school; correspondence about fund-raising and promotional campaigns; and articles and speeches about the school by Cooley, House, and others.

Although the work at Penn was carried out by African American teachers for the benefit of African American students and farmers on Saint Helena Island, it was the white principals and trustees who generated and maintained most of the written records found here. While these papers offer a great opportunity to examine the life and history of an African American school in an African American community, it is necessary to note that the greatest part of the literary remains of Penn School was created by and written from the point of view of the white philanthropists who directed the work of the school.

Materials document the influence of Penn School far beyond the Sea Islands. There is a substantial body of correspondence with philanthropic and educational organizations, magazine editors, and others interested in the work of Penn School as a model for African American education. Included also are letters from local, state, and federal officials with whom Cooley and House worked, especially on problems of agriculture, health, sanitation, and education.

The quantity of materials for any particular year or period tends to vary directly with the age of the school. There is very little material for the early years, indeed not much at all for the almost four decades of Laura Towne's principalship except among the volumes. Starting with the turn of the 20th century, however, there is a steady increase in the amount of material, which becomes especially heavy in the late 1930s until the school closed in 1948.

Among the volumes are copies of letters and diaries of Laura Towne and Arthur Sumner, 1861-1895; trustee minutes, 1900-1948; account books, inventories and other financial records, 1901-1960; records of the Industrial Committee, Co-operative Society, Corn Club, Better Homes Contest and other school and community organizations; and lists of both students and teachers as well as two guest books. Also included are selected printed materials: annual reports from 1890 to 1947, promotional literature, and newspaper and magazine articles.

The approximately 3,000 photographs, the earliest of which date from the 1860s and the latest from 1953, are an important part of the collection. Photographs are fewest during the years 1862-1890. Most of them date from 1905 to 1944, the tenure of Cooley and House as teachers and principals. They are found chiefly in 26 photograph albums, at least nine of which seem to have been assembled by the principals for display. Photographs (and some drawings) document school activities, Island scenes and Islanders, classes and teachers, baptisms, agricultural activities, parades, fairs, and special events at the Penn School.

The Addition of November 2012 includes materials similar in scope and content to the original deposit. Some of the papers, printed materials, and photographs duplicate materials found in the original deposit; new content includes scrapbooks created by Penn students, photograph albums, recordings of Sea Island spirituals made during production of "To Live As Free Men", and silent films of people, places, and events at Penn School. Note that some of these materials had been preserved by Penn in its York W. Bailey Museum and Archives.

Most materials dated 1949 and later that document Penn Community Services, the successor to the Penn School, were transferred to the Penn Center, Inc. Records (#5539) in August 2015. These materials include manuscripts from Series 1.5; photographs from Series 4.2.8; all of the sound recordings from Series 6 (Addition of 2003); all of the films from Series 7 (Addition of 2003); and all of Series 8 (Addition of 2005), which consisted of the papers of Courtney Siceloff, director of Penn Community Services, 1950-1970, and secretary of the South Carolina Advisory Committee of the United States Commission on Civil Rights, circa 1960 to 1970. Researchers interested in the evolution of Penn Community Services and Penn Center from 1950 to the present day should see the Penn Center, Inc. Records (#5539).

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Contents list

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series Quick Links

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 1. General Materials, 1863-1951 and undated.

About 9,000 items.

The following description is based on the Guide to the Microfilm Edition of the Penn School Papers, 1862-1976 (1977).

Correspondence and related materials make up most of this series. Note that bills and receipts are in a separate chronological run at the end of the series.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.1. Early Years, 1863-1906.

Correspondence begins in 1863, but only a handful of letters survive from that year. Two letters are of special interest: Captain Edward Hooper commented, 23 February 1863, on the condition of the freedmen, and Henry Lowndes, apparently a former slave, 9 October 1863.

From 1872 through 1877, there is a series of more than 50 letters from Laura Towne to Francis R. Cope (the elder). Most of this correspondence deals with financial arrangements for the support of the school, for which Cope was the chief agent, but Towne also wrote, 13 July 1874 and 27 November 1874, about general political conditions in South Carolina. At the end of reconstruction, there is a set of letters from Towne to Cope describing the local activities of the Ku Klux Klan, the faith of the freedmen in the federal government, and their fear of losing the lands they owned and worked. These letters to Cope supplement the material published in Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne (1912).

Papers for the final years of Ellen Murray's tenure are scant, including only a small number of letters and manuscript annual reports. Her report to the trustees in 1906, which marked the end of more than 40 years of service to the school, contains a statement of her education philosophy and program.

Three letters of recommendation written for Grace B. House by professors at Columbia University Teachers College in 1900 and a copy of the [1901?] by-laws of the Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School signal the slow start of the regime of Rossa B. Cooley and Grace B. House. A letter, 25 July 1903, from Robert D. Jenks to Rossa B. Cooley marks the first appearance of the woman who would be the dominant figure at the school for the next 40 years. There is also one letter, 14 July 1904, from Frances Butler, the Hampton teacher who accompanied Rossa B. Cooley as her assistant and who died a few months after arriving on Saint Helena.

For additional information on the early years of Penn School see also the correspondence in 1912, the 50th anniversary of the school, undated materials, printed materials, and volumes 1-5.

Folder 1a

1863, 1872-1873

Folder 1b

1874-1875

Folder 1c

1876-1900

Folder 1d

1901-1902

Folder 2a

January-May, 1903

Folder 2b

June-December, 1903

Folder 2c

1904

Folder 3

1905-1906

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.2. New Beginning, 1907-1917.

Many of the papers for this decade are the records and correspondence of the school's treasurer, George Foster Peabody, who served Penn School in many capacities until his death in 1938. Other trustees who were correspondents in this period include Francis R. Cope, Jr. (Frank), the grandson of Laura Towne's friend; Henry Wilder Foote, the Unitarian minister; Robert Darrah Jenks, Laura Towne's great-nephew; James R. Macdonald, a Saint Helena merchant; Hollis Burke Frissell, the first chair of the board of trustees; and Alfred Collins Maule, a Philadelphia Quaker who for years was in charge of publicity and fund-raising for Penn School.

Throughout her years at Penn School, Rossa B. Cooley concentrated much of her efforts on fund-raising and publicity. In a 1907 letter she referred to Leigh Richmond Miner from Hampton Institute whose photographs she later used extensively in publicity. By 1914, Paul U. Kellogg, the editor of Survey and later Survey Graphic, had become interested in the work of Penn School. Thereafter, there is correspondence with him as well as drafts of articles written for Survey Graphic and other magazines, beginning with a 1916 article, "How Freedom Came to Big Pa," by Grace B. House. For copies of this and other articles see printed materials.

The principals and trustees had contacts with agents of several foundations especially interested in the education of African Americans in the American South, including the John F. Slater Fund and Phelps-Stokes Fund. In 1915, Julius Rosenwald, patron of African American education, wrote to Cooley, and in 1916 there are general lists of contributors to Penn School. Jackson Davis and his colleague Trevor Arnett, both of the Rockefeller General Education Board, were among the most helpful friends of the school. A letter of 1917 marks the beginning of Davis's long association with the school. For additional information on fund-raising during these years see volume 22 and printed materials.

Among the school and community programs begun by Cooley and House during this period, agriculture took priority. In 1909, Seaman A. Knapp wrote Cooley about starting agricultural extension work on Saint Helena, and in 1911, Joseph Enoch Blanton, later president of Voorhees College, became supervisor of industrial education at Penn School as well as county agent. On 30 November 1912, he wrote at length to the United States Department of Agriculture about the progress in his program of demonstration work. There are also letters from Juno Washington, who was born a slave and became an early student and later an agricultural teacher at Penn School.

On 27 August 1911, a devastating hurricane struck Saint Helena, and there is considerable material dealing with the storm and its aftermath, including the campaign for relief funds. As part of these efforts, Penn School, with the help of trustee L. Hollingsworth Wood, organized the Saint Helena Co-operative Society to furnish credit to the farmers on the Island. In each year for the next two decades, there are numerous applications for loans from the Society. These application forms, along with the Society's records, found in volumes 30-32, 41, and 43, and in the undated and printed materials, contain a good deal of information about life on the Island's small farms.

Two other important developments followed in the wake of the hurricane. Construction of the Cope Industrial Building, begun before the hurricane and financed by the General Education Board, offered work relief for Island residents and later provided new facilities for the school's shops, which became increasingly important as the new curriculum developed. In 1912, Penn School for the first time required vocational competence as well as academic skills for graduation. An upper division was added to provide the necessary additional training.

1912 marked the 50th anniversary of Penn School and the attendant celebrations generated much fund-raising activity and publicity. There is also some correspondence with men and women active in the 1860s, including abolitionists William Channing Gannett, Harriet Ware, and Helen M. Philbrick, and Robert Smalls, the onetime slave who had become a local Civil War hero and member of Congress. Harriet Ware wrote on 19 March 1912 of her recollection of the first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation on 1 January 1863.

There are also drafts of the article Grace B. House wrote on the anniversary celebrations for the Southern Workman. Other prominent correspondents at this time include Ray Stannard Baker, the progressive journalist; Samuel Chiles Mitchell, president of the University of South Carolina; Helen C. Jenks, Laura Towne's niece; Ethel Paine, a new member of the board of trustees; and Willis D. Weatherford and James Hardy Dillard, two leading southern white participants in the interracial movement.

Although seldom directly involved in politics, Penn School did maintain contacts with the government of South Carolina and the larger world. In 1911, for example, agitation began for the bridge to the mainland, which the principals of Penn School opposed in vain until its completion in 1927. W. C. Gannett expressed his fears, 12 May 1914, about the proposed South Carolina law that could prohibit white teachers from instructing African American students. In 1914 and 1915, Rossa B. Cooley carried on correspondence with J. LaBruce Ward, a South Carolina public health officer, dealing with the problems of typhoid and hookworm on the Sea Islands.

The school in 1917 went on a year-round schedule geared to local agricultural cycles, and all teachers became home visitors. The papers thereafter, including letters of Benjamin Barnwell, a graduate of the school who took charge of the school farm in 1916, reports on "Home Corn Acres," reviews of the "Model Acre," and minutes of agricultural meetings, document the increasing emphasis on agricultural education. Within the community, the faculty of Penn School took the lead in the foundation of Homemakers' Club, Corn Club, YMCA-YWCA, and other organizations, and in 1916 representatives of these organizations along with the school principals, local ministers, and the Island doctor formed a Community Council to coordinate the work of this expanded classroom. See also volume 33.

The first decade of Cooley and House ended on a somber note with the death in 1917 of Hollis Burke Frissell, chair of the board of trustees, who had inspired and guided so much of their work.

Folder 4

1907-1909

Folder 5

1910-1911

Folder 6

January-February, 1912

Folder 7

March, 1912

Folder 8

April, 1912

Folder 9

May-December, 1912

Folder 10

January-February, 1913

Folder 11

March-December, 1913

Folder 12a

January-February, 1914

Folder 12b

March-June, 1914

Folder 13

July-December, 1914

Folder 14

1915

Folder 15a

1916

Folder 15b

1917

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.3. Years of Calm, 1918-1930.

From 1918 to 1931, Cooley and House were able to further the development of Penn School and at the same time spread their program as the model for African American education far beyond the Island. Although World War I, the destruction of the cotton agriculture by the boll weevil, and the completion of the bridge to the mainland in 1927 spurred out-migration, Cooley and House continued to expand the role of the school within the community and undertook new fund-raising and publicity campaigns, culminating in the dedication of the Frissell Memorial Community Building in 1925 and the publication of Homes of the Freed in 1924 and School Acres in 1930. They also welcomed to the school visitors from Africa and elsewhere, including three sociologists who undertook a detailed study of the school and community in 1928.

There is a good deal of material, mainly in 1918, about World War I. The United States Marine Corps developed a training camp on Parris Island, next door to Saint Helena, and the Red Cross was active in civilian war work on the home front. Robert Russa Moton of Tuskegee Institute and Anson Phelps Stokes of the Phelps-Stokes Fund wrote Cooley about matters relating to the war. She and George Foster Peabody interceded with the Draft Exemption Board on behalf of local men. There are also letters from Penn School students and graduates, including D. Cook Jones, Ceasar Wright, and Benjamin Barnwell, in army training camps or with the American Expeditionary Force in France. On Armistice Day, Cooley wrote to James P. King, who later replaced Joshua Blanton as superintendent of industrial education at Penn School, of "this Great Day."

Along with the war came the boll weevil, which destroyed the long-staple cotton agriculture which had been the economic mainstay of the Island. In 1919, there is a report on the advance of the boll weevil throughout the South. In 1920, Cooley wrote Arthur Curtiss James, the railroad magnate who made semi-annual contributions of $2,500 to the school, that it had been an "intense and difficult year." The papers contain a good deal about the effort to find a replacement for cotton as the staple crop of the Islands. People at Penn School were especially interested in growing peanuts.

The farmers of Saint Helena often risked losing their lands for non-payment of taxes, and there is considerable material on efforts to save the lands of the African American yeomanry. William H. Mills of Clemson College, one of the first white southerners to serve as a trustee of the school, devoted much of his time and agricultural expertise to help the people of the Island.

To halt the migration precipitated by the agricultural crisis, Cooley and House expanded their efforts to improve the quality of life on the Island and to secure funds to expand the role of the school. From 1918 to 1925, they conducted a major campaign to raise funds for a building, dedicated to Hollis Burke Frissell, to house their community activities. Included is correspondence with Thomas Jesse Jones of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, J. H. Dillard of the John F. Slater Fund, and Wallace Buttrick of the General Education Board. See also volume 48. The building was dedicated on Founders Day in April 1925.

In 1925, supporters of the school began establishing Penn School Clubs at Vassar College, New York City, Philadelphia, Boston, and elsewhere, and there is much correspondence between the principals and club officers. Of particular interest is the Penn School Club of New York City, made up of emigrants from Saint Helena in Harlem, who regularly contributed scholarship funds for students at the school. Rosa Long provided, 17 October 1927, a membership list of the club. See also volume 42, records of the Penn School Club of Boston, 1918-1922, and club year books among the printed materials.

Others with whom Cooley corresponded about fund-raising include James E. Gregg, who succeeded Hollis B. Frissell at Hampton Institute and on the Penn School board of trustees; George Foster Peabody, who tried, 17 August 1926, to interest John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford in one of his favorite philanthropies; Hollingsworth Wood, who sent Cooley a draft, 26 January 1927, of his letter to the General Education Board outlining the financial needs of Penn School; Alfred R. Stern of the Rosenwald Fund, who indicated in September 1927 that the fund would provide money for building a school at Coffin Point on the Island; and Arthur Curtiss James, who sent $500 for a new barn in March 1929.

Along with their fund-raising, Cooley and House worked to obtain greater public recognition for the achievements of Penn School. Ambrose E. Gonzales, editor of the Columbia, S.C., State, featured articles about the school in his newspaper and offered prizes for the annual farmers' fair. Beginning in 1923, Cooley published a series of articles on her work in the Survey Graphic, and she received letters about these articles from its editor Paul Kellogg and from readers who liked what she had written. In 1926, Homes of the Freed, a collection of her articles, was published, and there are a number of letters from Countee Cullen of Opportunity; David Mebane of the New Republic, which published the book; and others congratulating her. Copies of the articles and the book are among the printed materials. Also in 1926, Henry Wilder Foote, Isabella Curtis, a Boston trustee of the school, and Margaret McCulloch, a white woman long active in the interracial movement, helped organize a northern tour for the Penn School Quartet to attract attention and money to the school.

Although they devoted much time to fund-raising and publicity, Cooley and House did not neglect their vision of an expanded role for the school on the Island. Using the Frissell Memorial Community Building as a base, they established a number of new school programs between 1918 and 1930. In 1920, the school held its first Baby Day to educate mothers about child care and to evaluate the health of each baby. Much attention was also given to the National Better Homes Campaigns, which were held every year across the nation. From 1922 to 1924, Penn School won third, second, and a special first prize in these national contests. There is a letter, 5 July 1924, from Calvin Coolidge congratulating Penn School on its prize in the contest, along with other correspondence and reports. See also volumes 50B and 50C.

During the years of national prohibition, the principals, particularly House, were active in reporting illegal stills to the federal enforcement officials, who did not share her enthusiasm for the crusade against alcohol. On temperance work, see also volumes 27 and 40. Cooley was more successful in the effort, aided by money from the Rosenwald Fund, to increase state expenditures for the public school on Saint Helena. Beginning in 1926, there are reports on the public schools of the Island made by Maud J. Sanders, a traveling supervisory teacher.

There is also considerable material on other projects of Penn School on the farms and in the homes of Saint Helena Island: in January 1927, a short history of community health work; in late 1928 and early 1929, a number of reports on student farm plots; in November 1929, a list of home visits made by the county teacher during Potato Week; and, for 1930, the report of the Corn Club. See also volumes 49, 50A, and 50D, records of Penn student clubs.

Scattered throughout the papers for these years are comments on the status of African Americans and race relations. J. P. King told an insurance agent on 14 July 1923 that it was "not necessary to put the word 'colored' on mail addressed to us in order for us to receive it." George Foster Peabody sent out a series of letters, 8 October 1923, inquiring about racial ideas, South and North. In April 1924, L. Hollingsworth Wood wrote revealingly of his own racial attitudes. Mabel Carney, professor at Columbia Teachers College, discussed on 16 March 1925, the Hampton-Tuskegee fund-raising drive and the course she was teaching on African American education. In October and November 1925, several students wrote brief essays on the aims of Penn School. In August 1928, Hollingsworth Wood inquired about the possibility of African American trustees and Robert Russa Moton agreed in February 1929 to serve on the Penn School Board.

In the late 1920s, Margaret C. McCulloch replaced the two principals of Penn School when they each took a year's sabbatical in Europe, and there is considerable correspondence with her. Especially interesting is the description of Penn School in McCulloch's letter, 15 September 1927, to Alice Busbee.

In 1918, Gregorio Torres Quintero, a Mexican specialist in rural education who visited Saint Helena, wrote about his visit to Cooley. He was the first of many visitors to Penn School in the 1920s to record their impressions of the school. Many were missionaries about to report to stations in Africa and elsewhere who hoped to apply the principles and practices of Penn School in other countries. Of particular interest are the letters in 1925 from Emory Ross, African missionary and friend of Albert Schweitzer; a discussion in May 1926 by Mabel Carney of the influence of Penn School in Africa; letters in 1926 and 1928 from Charles T. Loram, a professor of education who taught in South Africa and later at Yale; material about the 1928 visit of Winold Reiss, a German-born artist who executed unusual portraits of the Island people; and a form letter to contributors, June 1930, in which Cooley spoke of teaching at Penn School. See also volume 65B, guest register 1905-1962, and reports by African visitors among the printed materials.

In 1927 and 1928, two sociologists and a historian from the University of North Carolina carried out extensive research on Saint Helena Island. Thomas J. Woofter, Jr., who headed the group, discussed with Cooley the proposed study, which was sponsored by the Social Science Research Council and the Institute for Research in the Social Sciences at Chapel Hill, and sent her a copy of his proposal, "Saint Helena Island: A Study of Negro Culture and Social Development." There is also correspondence with the other two scholars, Guy B. Johnson and Guion Griffis Johnson, and a considerable amount of statistical data on the families and schools of Saint Helena. Much of this material seems to have come from the 1920 census. Another aspect of this research was carried out in New York City, where Clyde V. Kiser studied Saint Helena people who had resettled in Harlem and Brooklyn. There is also correspondence between Cooley and University of North Carolina sociologist E. C. Branson after Cooley's visit to Chapel Hill in 1927.

Cooley wrote a second series of articles for Survey Graphic that were illustrated by the paintings of Winold Reiss, and in 1930 the Yale University Press published School Acres: An Adventure in Rural Education, her second book. There are a number of letters about the book from Roscoe Conkling Bruce, son of Senator Blanche K. Bruce, editor of Dunbar News; Jackson Davis, who wrote Paul Kellogg about placing copies of the book in the libraries of all the Rosenwald schools; and others.

On 13 February 1930, there was a dinner in New York City celebrating the 25th anniversary of the arrival of Cooley and House at Penn School. Francis Cope, Jr., spoke at the dinner, and there is an outline of his remarks in the papers. Cooley wrote the Rosenwald Fund on 10 April 1930 that it had been "a splendid year."

Folder 16

January-February, 1918

Folder 17

March-May, 1918

Folder 18

June-December, 1918

Folder 19

1919

Folder 20

January-March, 1920

Folder 21

April-December, 1920

Folder 22

January-February, 1921

Folder 23

March-December, 1921

Folder 24

January-August, 1922

Folder 25

September-December, 1922

Folder 26

January-March, 1923

Folder 27

April-May, 1923

Folder 28

June-August, 1923

Folder 29

September-October, 1923

Folder 30

1923

Folder 31

1924 (undated)

Folder 32

January, 1924

Folder 33

February-March, 1924

Folder 34

April-July, 1924

Folder 35

August-December, 1924

Folder 36

January, 1925

Folder 37

February-March, 1925

Folder 38

April-June, 1925

Folder 39

July-December, 1925

Folder 40

January-June, 1926

Folder 41a

July, 1926

Folder 41b

August, 1926

Folder 42

September-October, 1926

Folder 43

November, 1926

Folder 44

December, 1926

Folder 45

January, 1927

Folder 46

February-April, 1927

Folder 47

May-September, 1927

Folder 48

October, 1927

Folder 49a

1-10 November, 1927

Folder 49b

11-30 November, 1927

Folder 50

December, 1927

Folder 51a

1928: Penn Survey (part A)

Folder 51b

1928: Penn Survey (part B)

Folder 52

January-February, 1928

Folder 53

March-September, 1928

Folder 54

October-December, 1928

Folder 55

January-March, 1929

Folder 56

April-July, 1929

Folder 57

August-December, 1929

Folder 58a

January, 1930

Folder 58b

February-April, 1930

Folder 59

May-October, 1930

Folder 60a

November, 1930

Folder 60b

December, 1930

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.4. Years of Crisis, 1931-1941.

Most of the correspondence for the 1930s reflects the economic distress of the Great Depression, which hurt Penn School most through the reduced financial resources of its leading supporters. In 1931, Penn was forced to abandon its year-round schedule. In October 1931, there is a poignant series of notes, apparently one from each member of the Penn School staff, accepting a voluntary five percent reduction in salary, and in October 1933, there is a salary list with reductions of up to 25 percent. Later some industrial courses were discontinued, and in 1937 there is an outline of the revised curriculum.

Cooley wrote to the trustees, especially L. Hollingsworth Wood, and others about obtaining additional funds. Her correspondents included Arthur Curtiss James, J. H. Dillard, John H. Towne, Jackson Davis, Trevor Arnett, and W. W. Brierley of the General Education Board, Ralph S. Rounds of the Keith Fund, Edwin R. Embree of the Rosenwald Fund, Frederick M. Keppel and Robert M. Lester of the Carnegie Corporation, and Edward T. Esty of the Alden Trust. Of particular interest is the campaign in 1937-1938, in conjunction with the school's 75th anniversary, for a sustaining fund. See also volume 55.

There are scattered letters from Islanders describing economic difficulties, including Benjamin Barnwell, July-August 1932 and January 1933, and Ethel K. Bailey, wife of the Island physician, who in a letter, July 1935, described her anxiety over the future of Saint Helena. Also in 1935 is a letter from W. Brantley Harvey to Senator James F. Byrnes about the relief rolls in Beaufort County and a list of local families in danger of losing their land for non-payment of taxes.

For help in developing new crops and in obtaining federal relief funds, Cooley turned to W. H. Mills of Clemson College. Mills's letters appear throughout the decade, including comments, September 1933, on the work of the Resettlement Administration; a letter, March 1935, to Harold Evans indicating his support for the Wagner-Costigan anti-lynching bill; and a letter, November 1938, about the ruins on another of the Sea Islands. There is also information on the anti-lynching bill in January 1934.

Penn School throughout this period sought the aid of various New Deal agencies, especially those concerned with rural relief and development. There is correspondence with rural relief administrators, including Rexford Guy Tugwell, R. H. Hudgens, R. F. Kolb, James C. Derieux, and T. J. Woofter. In 1935, there is information on the Saint Helena Island Rehabilitation Project, including lists of applicants for work on the project, and in 1936, correspondence about Resettlement Administration proposals for the Sea Islands.

On 15 November 1937, Clarence C. Pickett, executive secretary of the American Friends Service Committee, wrote Eleanor Roosevelt introducing Rossa B. Cooley, although Cooley was unable to have an interview with Roosevelt because of schedule conflicts. Roosevelt's secretary corresponded from 1939 through 1940 about placing an orphan boy at Penn.

In the midst of its financial crisis, Penn faced another challenge when South Carolina raised its requirements for teacher certification. In 1932, Cooley asked James H. Hope, the state superintendent of education, about accreditation and teacher training at the school, and in 1933 announced the accrediting of the 12th year of work at Penn. In 1936, however, Penn was forced to turn over its teacher training work to South Carolina State College at Orangeburg with which Penn thereafter operated a co-operative program financed in part by the General Education Board. There is material about the program, including correspondence with Raymond Fosdick of the General Education Board in 1940 and with Mabel Carney of Columbia University Teachers College and Jane Ellen McAllister of Miner Teachers College in Washington, D.C., about the Rural Teachers Institute held at Penn in March 1941. See also "Guide to Cooperative Teacher Training Program" in the printed materials.

In August 1940, a hurricane, the greatest storm of its kind to hit Saint Helena Island since 1893, struck Penn School. The intensity of the storm and the repair of damage were the major topics of interest at the school throughout that year and well into 1941. Of special interest are the nearly 200 essays written by the students of Penn, mostly in the form of letters to the principals, dealing with the Great Hurricane Storm of 11 August 1940. These essays are a rare example of the work of Penn School students.

In spite of the setbacks and problems, Cooley and House remained optimistic. Cooley wrote in December 1937 that "the influence of Penn School seems to go farther and farther steadily, and ... to be making a deep dent on attitudes toward Negro education." There is continued correspondence from visitors including W. D. Weatherford in 1931 and 1934; Charles T. Loram in 1932; Albert Bushnell Hart, who had visited Penn 30 years earlier in 1933; Will Alexander in 1934; Edgar T. Thompson in 1936; and Gunnar Myrdal in 1939.

The work of publicizing the school also continued. Of particular interest is correspondence in 1934 about the performance of the Penn School Quartet at the British Embassy in Washington, D.C., arranged by Elizabeth Lindsay, wife of the British ambassador and a native of Saint Helena. There are also letters from writers and students interested in the school; an essay by Cooley in 1937 on "Vassar Influence on the Sea Islands of South Carolina"; and letters from John A. Silver, a new trustee, who in June 1938 suggested making a motion picture about Penn School as a fund-raising project.

The film, later called To Live as Free Man, was to prove a final tribute to the work of Cooley and House, for the search had already begun for new leaders to take over the direction of Penn School. Correspondence among Francis Cope, L. Hollingsworth Wood, James E. Gregg, Isabella Curtis, and other trustees about a new principal begins in 1941 and continues for several years.

Folder 61a

January, 1931

Folder 61b

February-March, 1931

Folder 62

April-May, 1931

Folder 63a

June-September, 1931

Folder 63b

October, 1931

Folder 64

November-December, 1931

Folder 65

January, 1932

Folder 66

February-March, 1932

Folder 67a

April-May, 1932

Folder 67b

June, 1932

Folder 68a

July-October, 1932

Folder 68b

November-December, 1932

Folder 69a

January, 1933

Folder 69b

February-May, 1933

Folder 70a

June-August, 1933

Folder 70b

September-October, 1933

Folder 71

November-December, 1933

Folder 72a

January, 1934

Folder 72b

February-March, 1934

Folder 73

April-September, 1934

Folder 74

October-December, 1934

Folder 75

January-February, 1935

Folder 76

March-May, 1935

Folder 77

June-August, 1935

Folder 78

September-October, 1935

Folder 79

November-December, 1935

Folder 80

January-February, 1936

Folder 81

March-April, 1936

Folder 82

May-July, 1936

Folder 83

August-December, 1936

Folder 84

January-March, 1937

Folder 85

April-September, 1937

Folder 86

October-December, 1937

Folder 87

January-February, 1938

Folder 88

March-August, 1938

Folder 89

September-December, 1938

Folder 90

January-March, 1939

Folder 91

April-July, 1939

Folder 92

August-December, 1939

Folder 93

January, 1940

Folder 94

February-April, 1940

Folder 95a

May-June, 1940

Folder 95b

July, 1940

Folder 95c

August, 1940

Folder 96

September-December, 1940

Folder 97a

Students' Letters, September, 1940

Folder 97b

Students' Letters, October, 1940

Folder 98a

January, 1941

Folder 98b

February, 1941

Folder 99a

3-18 March, 1941

Folder 99b

20-31 March, 1941

Folder 100

April, 1941

Folder 101a

May, 1941

Folder 101b

June, 1941

Folder 102

July, 1941

Folder 103a

August, 1941

Folder 103b

September, 1941

Folder 104

October, 1941

Folder 105

November-December, 1941

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.5. Years of Change, 1942-1949.

For access to folders 227-242b, please contact Research and Instructional Services in advance of your visit to Wilson Library.

For access to folders 227-242b, please contact Research and Instructional Services in advance of your visit to Wilson Library.

In 1942 and 1943, there is much correspondence about To Live as Free Men , which premiered in November 1942, but the principal subject of the papers is the selection of new principals. The first reference to Howard Kester as a candidate for the position appears in a letter, 24 October 1942, from Rossa B. Cooley to Francis Cope. In May and June 1943, both Cope and L. Hollingsworth Wood expressed doubt about the Kesters as principals, but Cooley was pleased with a visit from Kester in May, and Kester wrote that he was prepared to accept the position. Included are biographical materials about Kester and letters of recommendation from Fred L. Brownlee of the American Missionary Association, Walter White of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Liston Pope of Yale Divinity School, Benjamin E. Mays of Morehouse College, A. D. Beittel of Guilford College, Mordecai W. Johnson of Howard University, and Reinhold Niebuhr of Union Theological Seminary.

According to the trustee minutes (volume 12), Howard and Alice Kester were elected principal and assistant principal on 8 July 1943. Although Cooley wrote, 18 October 1943, to Francis Cope that "this retiring business isn't so easy as I always thought it was," preparations were made for the transition to a new regime, and Howard and Alice Kester arrived on 19 December 1943.

For the next four years the Kesters brought Penn School a wide acquaintance with interracial, trade union, religious, and social reform leaders of the South and the nation. Among their regular correspondents were Liston Pope, Broadus Mitchell, Dave Burgess, H. L. Mitchell, Kirby Page, James Dombrowski, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Ursula Niebuhr. There are also letters from Walter White, Pearl S. Buck, David Lilienthal, DeWitt Wallace, Guy B. Johnson, Walter Sikes, A. Philip Randolph, William Howard Melish, Willard Uphaus, and Louis R. Wilson.

In spite of his pacifist views, Kester continued Penn School's participation in the war, but he made a number of other changes that are reflected in his first report to the trustees on 1 January 1944 and in other papers. After a land survey done by Clemson College, he reorganized the farm program and began a project to repair the school buildings, and he recruited new teachers in an effort to raise the school standards. In 1945, he secured seats on the board of trustees for Benjamin Mays and Joshua Blanton, two African American college presidents, and hired Alice Frank Merriam to run a publicity and fund-raising office in the North.

Unlike Cooley and House, who saw Penn School as a force for improving life on the Island and thus discouraging emigration, Kester saw Penn as a means of preparing its students for life in the world outside and a vehicle for promoting better relations between whites and blacks. Francis Cope, chair of the board of trustees since 1924, wrote repeatedly to his fellow trustees of his dissatisfaction with the Kesters' work and, according to a memo, 12 April 1945, by trustee John Silver, the presence of Cooley and House, who still lived nearby, caused problems for the Kesters. The personal tensions between Francis Cope and Howard Kester intensified, and in 1946, Cope resigned from the board.

A new board, led by chair William E. Cadbury, Paul Brown, Jr., Harold Evans, John Silver, and L. Hollingsworth Wood, realized in January 1948 that Penn School would have to be reorganized if it were to survive in a world of new economic and racial relationships. Ira De A. Reid of Atlanta University headed a team to study Penn School and made suggestions for its future development, and his report, submitted 19 February 1948, recommended changes in the functions and staff of the school. Howard Kester, who had resigned to return to the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen, stayed on to supervise the transition, and at the end of the 1948 school year, Penn School gave up its academic responsibilities and turned to community service, not only for the Sea Islands, but for the entire South.

On 25 January 1950, Courtney Siceloff was hired as director of Penn Community Services. With the change in name came also a new program emphasis, a new perspective toward the South, and a new leadership that is reflected in the slight, scattered papers after 1948 in this series. Northern domination of the board ended in 1957, with the election of Marion A. Wright of Beaufort, S.C., as chair and James McBride Dabbs, his successor in 1963. The prime concern of Penn Community Services had become community service, not just for the Sea Islands but for the entire southern region. But the past was not forgotten, and the papers record the work of Willie Lee Rose and Edith M. Dabbs in documenting the history of Penn School and Saint Helena Island.

Researchers interested in the evolution of Penn Community Services from 1950 to the present day should see Penn Center, Inc. Records (#5539).

Note that materials documenting 1950-1970s (folders 227-242b) have been transferred to the Penn Center, Inc. Records (#5539).

Folder 106a

1-5 January, 1942

Folder 106b

6-29 January, 1942

Folder 107a

February, 1942

Folder 107b

March, 1942

Folder 108a

April, 1942

Folder 108b

May, 1942

Folder 109a

June-August, 1942

Folder 109b

September-October, 1942

Folder 110

November-December, 1942

Folder 111

January, 1943

Folder 112a

February-March, 1943

Folder 112b

April-May, 1943

Folder 113

June, 1943

Folder 114

July-August, 1943

Folder 115a

September-October, 1943

Folder 115b

November-December, 1943

Folder 116

Undated Material, 1944

Folder 117a

1-8 January, 1944

Folder 117b

9-15 January, 1944

Folder 118a

17-24 January, 1944

Folder 118b

25-31 January, 1944

Folder 119a

1-10 February, 1944

Folder 119b

11-15 February, 1944

Folder 120a

16-23 February, 1944

Folder 120b

24-29 February, 1944

Folder 121

1-15 March, 1944

Folder 122

16-31 March, 1944

Folder 123

1-10 April, 1944

Folder 124a

11-14 April, 1944

Folder 124b

11-19 April, 1944

Folder 125

20-30 April, 1944

Folder 126a

1-9 May, 1944

Folder 126b

10-15 May, 1944

Folder 127a

16-20 May, 1944

Folder 127b

22-31 May, 1944

Folder 128

June, 1944

Folder 129a

1-15 July, 1944

Folder 129b

17-29 July, 1944

Folder 130

August, 1944

Folder 131a

1-12 September, 1944

Folder 131b

13-31 September, 1944

Folder 132

1-15 October, 1944

Folder 133

16-31 October, 1944

Folder 134

1-9 November, 1944

Folder 135

10-20 November, 1944

Folder 136

21-30 November, 1944

Folder 137

1-10 December, 1944

Folder 138

11-20 December, 1944

Folder 139

21-31 December, 1944

Folder 140

Undated Material, 1945

Folder 141

1-10 January, 1945

Folder 142

11-20 January, 1945

Folder 143

21-29 January, 1945

Folder 144

30-31 January, 1945

Folder 145

1-10 February, 1945

Folder 146

11-20 February, 1945

Folder 147

21-28 February, 1945

Folder 148

1-10 March, 1945

Folder 149

11-20 March, 1945

Folder 150

21-30 March, 1945

Folder 151

1-10 April, 1945

Folder 152

11-20 April, 1945

Folder 153

21-30 April, 1945

Folder 154

1-10 May, 1945

Folder 155

11-17 May, 1945

Folder 156

18-31 May, 1945

Folder 157

1-15 June, 1945

Folder 158

16-30 June, 1945

Folder 159

1-19 July, 1945

Folder 160

20-31 July, 1945

Folder 161

1-10 August, 1945

Folder 162

11-20 August, 1945

Folder 163

21-31 August, 1945

Folder 164

1-10 September, 1945

Folder 165

11-20 September, 1945

Folder 166

21-30 September, 1945

Folder 167

1-10 October, 1945

Folder 168

11-31 October, 1945

Folder 169

1-10 November, 1945

Folder 170

11-20 November, 1945

Folder 171

21-30 November, 1945

Folder 172

1-10 December, 1945

Folder 173

11-31 December, 1945

Folder 174

Undated Material, 1946

Folder 175

1-10 January, 1946

Folder 176

11-20 January, 1946

Folder 177

21-29 January, 1946

Folder 178

1-10 February, 1946

Folder 179

11-20 February, 1946

Folder 180

21-29 February, 1946

Folder 181

1-10 March, 1946

Folder 182

11-20 March, 1946

Folder 183

21-31 March, 1946

Folder 184

1-10 April, 1946

Folder 185

11-20 April, 1946

Folder 186

21-30 April, 1946

Folder 187

1-15 May, 1946

Folder 188

16-31 May, 1946

Folder 189

1-10 June, 1946

Folder 190

11-20 June, 1946

Folder 191

21-30 June, 1946

Folder 192

July, 1946

Folder 193

August, 1946

Folder 194

September, 1946

Folder 195

October, 1946

Folder 196

November, 1946

Folder 197

December, 1946

Folder 198

Undated Material, 1947

Folder 199

1-10 January, 1947

Folder 200

11-20 January, 1947

Folder 201

21-31 January, 1947

Folder 202

February, 1947

Folder 203

March, 1947

Folder 204

April, 1947

Folder 205

May, 1947

Folder 206

June, 1947

Folder 207

July, 1947

Folder 208

August, 1947

Folder 209

September, 1947

Folder 210

1-15 October, 1947

Folder 211

16-31 October, 1947

Folder 212

November, 1947

Folder 213

December, 1947

Folder 214

Undated Material, 1948

Folder 215

January, 1948

Folder 216a

February, 1948

Folder 216b

Reid Report - 19 February, 1948

Folder 217

1-20 March, 1948

Folder 218

21-31 March, 1948

Folder 219

April, 1948

Folder 220

May, 1948

Folder 221

June, 1948

Folder 222

July-September, 1948

Folder 223

October-December, 1948

Folder 224

January-March, 1949

Folder 225

April-August, 1949

Folder 226

September-December, 1949

Folder 227-242b

1950-1970s

These files have been transferred to the Penn Center, Inc. Records (#5539) and chronologically integrated into Series 1.1.1. Administrative Records of Courtney Siceloff.

Folder 243a

Maps, Sketches, and Blueprints of Penn School

Folder 243b

Maps, Sketches, and Blueprints of Penn School

Extra Oversize Paper Folder XOPF-3615/1

Maps, Sketches, and Blueprints of Penn School, circa 1900-1935

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.6. Undated Materials.

Among the undated papers are miscellaneous correspondence and writings of and about Laura Towne, Ellen Murray and Alice Lathrop, including an essay on "Ellen's Frank,"a former slave; a description of the arrival of Sherman's troops on the Sea Islands in 1865; and two descriptions of Laura Towne and Ellen Murray by contemporaries. There are mostly routine letters to Rossa Cooley, Grace House, and Howard Kester from visitors and contributors to the school and board members, including a five-page letter describing the impact of World War II on the Island and letters about getting surplus military goods following the war; a handbill by A.C. Reynolds exhorting the wives and mothers of St. Helena to disarm their sons and husbands; and other miscellaneous materials.

There follow reports and writings about the school; a story by Mrs. James R. Macdonald; a sketch of Uncle Sam Polite, a former slave who lived to be over one hundred years old; and a series of reports, applications, accounts and memos of the Co-operative Society, many related to peanuts; and a copy of the Society's articles of incorporation.

Folder 244a

Miscellaneous correspondence and writings of and about Laura Towne, Ellen Murray, and Alice Lathrop

Folder 244b

Miscellaneous correspondence of Cooley and House

Folder 245

Miscellaneous correspondence of Kesters

Folder 246a

Miscellaneous correspondence, undated

Folder 246b

Miscellaneous correspondence, undated

Folder 247

Penn Cooperative Society

Folder 248

Promotional and historical material

Folder 249

Post-World War II veterans' training program

Folder 250

Penn School physical plant

Folder 251

Board of trustees lists

Folder 252

Plantation lists, price lists, and administration of Penn School, undated

Folder 253

Lists of contributors and contributions

Folder 254

Civic organizations and miscellaneous

Folder 255

Music and music programs, undated

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.7. Bills, Receipts, and Banking Records, 1872-1951.

See also series 2 for financial materials.

Folder 256-257

Folder 256

Folder 257

Bills and receipts, undated

Folder 258

Bills and receipts, 1872-1880

Folder 259

Bills and receipts, 1901

Folder 260-261

Folder 260

Folder 261

Bills and receipts, 1902

Folder 262-263

Folder 262

Folder 263

Bills and receipts, 1903

Folder 264-273

Folder 264

Folder 265

Folder 266

Folder 267

Folder 268

Folder 269

Folder 270

Folder 271

Folder 272

Folder 273

Bills and receipts, 1904

Folder 274-285

Folder 274

Folder 275

Folder 276

Folder 277

Folder 278

Folder 279

Folder 280

Folder 281

Folder 282

Folder 283

Folder 284

Folder 285

Bills and receipts, 1905

Folder 286-296

Folder 286

Folder 287

Folder 288

Folder 289

Folder 290

Folder 291

Folder 292

Folder 293

Folder 294

Folder 295

Folder 296

Bills and receipts, 1906

Folder 297-308

Folder 297

Folder 298

Folder 299

Folder 300

Folder 301

Folder 302

Folder 303

Folder 304

Folder 305

Folder 306

Folder 307

Folder 308

Bills and receipts, 1907

Folder 309a-309b

Bills and receipts, 1908

Folder 310

Bills and receipts, 1909-1919

Folder 310a

Bills and receipts (Acc. 83224)

Folder 311

Bills and receipts, 1920-1922

Folder 312

Bills and receipts, 1923

Folder 313

Bills and receipts, 1924

Folder 314

Bills and receipts, 1925

Folder 315

Bills and receipts, 1926

Folder 316

Bills and receipts, 1927-1929

Folder 317

Bills and receipts, 1930-1939

Folder 318

Bills and receipts, 1940-1946

Folder 319

Bills and receipts, 1947-1949

Folder 320

Bills and receipts, 1950-1951

Folder 321

Miscellaneous banking records, 1923-1924

Folder 322

Miscellaneous banking records, 1939-1941

Folder 323

Miscellaneous banking records, 1942

Folder 324

Miscellaneous banking records, 1943

Folder 325

Miscellaneous banking records, 1944-1946

Folder 326

Miscellaneous banking records, 1947

Folder 327

Miscellaneous banking records, 1948

Folder 328

Miscellaneous banking records, 1949

Folder 329

Miscellaneous banking records, 1950

Folder 330

Miscellaneous banking records, 1951

Folder 331

Bank deposit books, 1923-1936

Folder 332

Canceled checks, 1901-1908

Folder 333

Canceled checks, bank statements, and deposit slips, 1915-1931

Folder 334

Canceled checks, 1947-1951; deposit slips, 1947

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.8. General Materials, 1868-1952 (Addition of November 2012).

About 800 items.

Acquisition Information: Accession 101699

General materials (Addition of November 2012) are similar in scope and content to the original deposit and in some cases may be duplicates. Note that some of these papers may include an identification number that indicates that the item had been preserved by Penn in its York W. Bailey Museum and Archives.

Box 55

Folder 468

1879, 1881, 1889, 1897

Sale of land by U.S. Tax Commission, teacher's report to State of South Carolina, recollection of storm by Johnson Atkins' seventeen year old son, and copies of letters to Francis R. Cope from Ellen Murray and Laura M. Towne.

Box 55

Folder 469

1901-1924

Fundraising appeals, Board of Trustees, advice from St. Helena Cooperative Society about the cotton boll weevil, dedication of Frissell Memorial Organ, threat of African Americans losing their land, farm management course outline, directions for how to use rat poison, and resolution upon death of Ellen Murray.

Box 55

Folder 470

1927-1928

Essay on community health work at Penn, class song, educational survey by plantation of St. Helena and Lady's Island, letters to Francis R. Cope Jr. and his daughter Theodora Cope, and letters from Penn students who spent the summer with the Cope family in Dimock, Pa.

Box 55

Folder 471

1932-1939

Board of Trustees, "A Stamp Story" with descriptions written by children of images depicted on different stamps.

Box 55

Folder 472

1940-1947

Teachers Agricultural Council manual, thank you letters written by children, newsletter with writings by children, school prayer, library books ordered from gift of General Education Board, list of Penn School employees, correspondence with the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen, planning for the arrival of the Kesters, contributions of rural youth to the war effort, retirement of Rossa Cooley and Grace House, and installation of the Kesters, snapshots (negatives) of Penn School people.

Box 55

Folder 473

1948, 1952

Fellowship of Southern Churchmen correspondence, committee report and correspondence relating to the reorganization of Penn School, and a Penn High School diploma.

Box 55

Folder 474

Board of Trustees, 1932-1944

Box 55

Folder 475

Board of Trustees, 1945-1946

Box 55

Folder 476

Board of Trustees, 1947

Box 55

Folder 477

Board of Trustees, 1948

Box 55

Folder 478

Board of Trustees, 1948

Box 56

Folder 479

Board of Trustees, 1949

Box 56

Folder 480

Cooperative Teacher Training, 1936-1946

Penn School and State College, Orangeburg, S.C.

Box 56

Folder 481

Curriculum, 1945-1946 and undated

Box 56

Folder 482

Curriculum: Teachers College of New York: Education coursework, 1920, 1922

Box 56

Folder 483

Farm Loan Fund, 1935-1942

Public health responsibilities of the Penn School nurse; cooperative or collective-individualistic farming rehabilitation project on St. Helena's Island, S.C., to help preserve black land ownership; Works Progress Administration and Resettlement Administration projects; and Farm Home Scholarships and Farm Loan Fund to help recent graduates of Penn buy land and cultivate it.

Box 56

Folder 484

Financial Materials, 1905-1939

Also includes materials relating to St. Helena Cooperative Society.

Box 56

Folder 485

Financial Materials, 1940-1945

Box 56

Folder 486

Financial Materials: Disbursement, 1938-1949

Box 56

Folder 487

Financial Materials: Report, 31 May 1922

Box 56

Folder 488

Financial Materials: Statements, 1931-1933

Box 56

Folder 489

Financial Materials: Statements, 1941-1943

Box 56

Folder 490

Financial Materials: Summary Statements of Receipts and Disbursements, 1941-1945

Box 56

Folder 491

Financial Materials: Summary Statements of Receipts and Disbursements, 1946-1949

Box 56

Folder 492

Fundraising, 1935-1946

Box 56

Folder 493

"Guardian Angels," undated

Typescript recollection of a dream with Rossa Cooley.

Box 56

Folder 494

Hurricane Fund, 1911, 1935, 1940-1941

Box 56

Folder 495

Hymns and prayers, undated

Includes "Aunt Jane's Prayer," "Litany of Thanksgiving and Remembrance," "St. Helena's Hymn," and "Founders Hymn."

Box 56

Folder 496

Kester, Howard, 1943-1944

Candidacy for a position at Penn School and Alice Kester's responsibilities at Penn.

Box 57

Folder 497

"Memory" by Amoretta Daise, 1862

Student at Penn School.

Box 57

Folder 498

Penn history, undated

Box 57

Folder 499

Penn School Club, 1925-1929

Volume of Penn School Club of Boston members and donation amounts.

Box 57

Folder 500

Penn presentation graphics, circa 1920s

Penn's educational philosophy, curriculum, and achievements as expressed in hand-drawn graphics.

Box 57

Folder 501

Poetry

"The Marshes of Glynn" by Sidney Lanier and "The House by the Side of the Road" by Sam Walter Foss.

Oversize Paper Folder OPF-3615/4

Polawana Island map, 1870

Hand drawn map.

Box 57

Folder 502

Programs, 1911-1947

Box 57

Folder 503

Scrapbooks, 1886-1937

Images and printed material

Box 57

Folder 504

St. Helena Cooperative Society

Box 57

Folder 505

To Live As Free Men, 1941-1943

Box 57

Folder 506

Towne, Laura M., letters of, 1868-1879

Typed, excerpted transcriptions.

Box 57

Folder 507

Towne-MacDonald School Dedication, undated

Address given by Margaret McDonald Sanders, daughter of James Ross McDonald.

Box 57

Folder 508

"The Vision of St. Helena," 1925

Typescript text describing the copy of Paul Veronese's painting given to Penn by George Foster Peabody for the Frissell Community House.

Box 57

Folder 509

World War II, 1942-1944

Ration book distribution report, watch schedule and certificate of Army Air Forces Aircraft Warning Service Reserve.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 2. Volumes, 1862-1964 and undated.

About 115 items.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.1. Volumes, 1862-1964 and undated.

About 100 items.

The following description is based on the Guide to the Microfilm Edition of the Penn School Papers, 1862-1976 (1977).

Folder 335a

Volume 1a: Original of Laura M. Towne diary, 8 April 1862-26 July 1863.

Folder 335b

Volume 1b: Original of Laura M. Towne diary, 28 July 1863-30 May 1864.

Folder 335c

Volume 1c: Typescript copy of Laura M. Towne diary, 3 April 1862-30 May 1864.

This version of the Towne diary varies from the manuscript diary, a photocopy of which is located in the Edith M. Dabbs Papers (#4285) in the Southern Historical Collection, and from the published Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne (1912), edited by Rupert Sargent Holland.

Folder 336

Volume 2: Typescript copy of Laura M. Towne letters, May 1861-November 1895

Folder 337-341

Folder 337

Folder 338

Folder 339

Folder 340

Folder 341

Volume 3: Extracts from the letters and diary of Laura M. Towne, 1862-1895, including some photographs from the 1860s.

This version of the Towne letters and diary was apparently used in preparation of the book edited by Rupert Sargent Holland and published in 1912. Included at the end of these extracts are the original copies of letters to Laura Towne from Wendell Phillips (6 December 1862), Thomas Wentworth Higginson (14 November 1863), Edward W. Hooper (6 September 1864), Edward S. Philbrick (24 February 1866), and Sarah Orne Jewett (circa 1889).

Folder 342

Volume 4: Papers of Arthur Sumner, 1862-1865 and 1884.

Sumner, a teacher from Cambridge, Mass., took part in the expedition to the Sea Islands in 1862. His papers include letters to Nina Hartshorn and Joseph Clark, transcribed from the original copies, and a circular of the Port Royal Relief Committee.

Folder 343

Volume 5: "Recollections of Southern Plantation and School" by Mrs. William R. Wister, 15 November 1926.

Mrs. Wister was the daughter of Frederick A. Eustis, who had come to the Sea Islands in 1862 to look after his stepmother's property and remained as a plantation superintendent. Mrs. Wister herself came to the Islands in 1864 and worked as a teacher until 1866.

Folder 344

Volume 6: Commonplace book of Louise H. Mason, March 1894.

Folder 345

Volume 7: Rossa B. Cooley's syllabus for Bible course at Hampton Institute, 1897.

Folder 346

Volume 8: Board of trustees minutes, 1900-1911.

Folder 347

Volume 9: Board of trustees minutes, 1912-1926.

Folder 348

Volume 10: Board of trustees minutes, 1927-1930.

Folder 349

Volume 11: Board of trustees minutes, 1931-1938.

Folder 350

Volume 12: Board of trustees minutes, 1939-1948.

Folder 351

Volume 13: Ledger containing accounts for various school departments and categories, 1901-1906.

Folder 352

Volume 14: Journal of cash receipts and dispersals, 1902-1908.

Folder 353

Volume 15: Register of teachers, 1904-1919.

Folder 354

Volume 16: Ledger containing various expenses, 1905-1906.

Folder 355

Volume 17: Cash book, 1905-1907.

Folder 356

Volume 18: Book of accounts with individual students, 1905-1917

Folder 357

Volume 19: Annual inventories, 1906-1920

Equipment for farm and industrial departments, nurse's office, livestock, carpentry and boarding departments, cooking room, and academic departments

Folder 358

Volume 20: Cash book, 1907-1908.

Folder 359

Volume 21: Cash book, 1909-1913.

Folder 360

Volume 22: List of donations, 1909-1914.

Oversize Volume SV-3615/23

Volume 23: Ledger of operating expenditures, 1910-1913.

Folder 361

Folder number not used

Folder 362

Volume 24: Cash book of James P. King and partner, 1910-1911.

Folder 363

Volume 25: Student work lists, 1911-1912.

Oversize Volume SV-3615/26

Volume 26: Cash book, 1912-1913.

Folder 364

Volume 27: Temperance meetings programs, 1912-1914.

Folder 365

Volume 28: Cash book, 1912-1914.

Folder 366

Volume 29: Lists of monthly expenditures and receipts, 1912-1914.

Folder 367

Volume 30: Minutes of Saint Helena Cooperative Society, 1912-1918.

Folder 368

Volume 31: Financial records of Saint Helena Cooperative Society, 1912-1919.

Folder 369

Volume 32: Records of individual members of Saint Helena Cooperative Society, 1912-1922.

Folder 370

Volume 33: Minutes of Industrial Committee, Community Council, and Executive Committee, 1912-1914.

Folder 371

Volume 34: Cash book, 1913-1914.

Oversize Volume SV-3615/35

Volume 35: Cash book, 1913-1914.

Folder 372

Folder number not used

Folder 373

Volume 36: Lists of personal accounts, 1914-1917.

Folder 374

Volume 37: Cash book, 1914-1918.

Folder 375

Volume 38: Cash book, 1914-1921.

Folder 376

Volume 39: Annual audits, 1913-1915, 1920-1922, 1927-1937, 1939-1944, 1948, 1951-1953, 1956, 1958-1960.

Folder 377

Volume 40: Minutes of Penn School Band of Hope (temperance society), 1915-1918.

Folder 378

Volume 41: Saint Helena Cooperative Society individual accounts, 1916-1940.

Folder 379

Volume 42: Contribution lists of Penn School Club of Boston, 1918-1922.

Folder 380

Volume 43: Minutes of Saint Helena Cooperative Society.

Folder 381

Volume 44: Register of students, listing names, grades, plantations, and parents' names, 1919-1948.

Folder 382

Volume 45: Register of teachers, 1921-1926.

Folder 383

Volume 46: Cash book, 1921-1925.

Folder 384

Volume 47: Minutes of Industrial Committee, 1922-1925.

Folder 385

Volume 48: Ledger containing various accounts (e.g., scholarships, special donations, livestock, water system, electric plant), 1924-1936.

Folder 386

Volume 49: Notebook of Faithful Garden Workers, 1928-1929.

Folder 387

Volume 50a: Notebook of Chariot Corn Club, 1928-1929.

Folder 388

Volume 50b: Better Homes of Saint Helena Island, 1932.

Folder 389

Volume 50c: Better Homes of Saint Helena Island, 1933.

Folder 390

Volume 50d: Peanut Corn Club, 1932-1933.

Folder 391

Folder not used

Oversize Volume SV-3615/51

Voucher register, 1931-1934.

Folder 392

Volume 52: Inventories, 1931-1936.

Oversize Volume SV-3615/53

Volume 53: Record of special donations, 1931-1936.

Folder 393

Folder number not used

Folder 394

Volume 54: Ledger containing various accounts receivable and payable, 1936-1947.

Oversize Volume SV-3615/55

Volume 55: Record of special donations, 1936-1943.

Folder 395

Folder number not used

Folder 396

Volume 56: Check stubs, 1938-1943.

Folder 397

Volume 57: Cash book, 1939-1942.

Folder 398

Volume 58: Cash book, 1940-1948.

Folder 399

Volume 59: General contributions and special donations, 1942-1946.

Folder 400

Volume 60: General contributions and special donations (This volume, which duplicates portions of volumes 59 and 62, is not included in the microfilm edition of Penn School Papers).

Folder 401

Volume 61: Check stubs, 1946-1949.

Folder 402

Volume 62: General contributions and special donations, 1946-1950.

Folder 403

Volume 63: Ledger containing various accounts with People's Bank of Beaufort and with Girard Bank and Trust Company of Philadelphia, 1947-1954.

Folder 404

Volume 64: Check stubs, 1949-1952.

Folder 405

Volume 65a: Receipt book of Saint Helena Island Credit Union, 1941-1942.

Folder 406

Volume 65b: Penn School guest book, often with comments from visitors, 1905-1964.

Folder 407

Volume 65c: Copy of volume 65b, 1905-1944, in Grace B. House's hand.

Folder 408

Volume 66a: Notebook of Grace B. House, 1898-1911.

Folder 409

Volume 66b: Commonplace book of Grace B. House, 1902-1913.

Folder 410

Volume 66c: Notebook of poetry and prose of Grace B. House, 1922-1939 and undated.

Folder 411

Volume 66d: Notebook of Grace B. House, 1925-1926.

Folder 412

Volume 67: Plantation (near Beaufort?) account book, 1864-1865.

Folder 413

Volume 68: List of graduates, 1902.

Folder 414

Volume 69: Report of Ellen Murray to the trustees, 1904.

Folder 415-416

Folder 415

Folder 416

Volumes 70-71: Ellen Murray's program, 1904.

Folder 417-418

Folder 417

Folder 418

Volumes 72-73: Juno Washington's reports, 1906-1907.

Folder 419

Volume 74: Frederick Tallmadge Towne memorial volume, 1872-1906.

Folder 420

Volume 75: Robert Darrah Jenks memorial volume, 1875-1917.

Folder 421

Volume 76: Tributes to Rossa B. Cooley and George Foster Peabody, undated.

Folder 422

Volume 77: "The Vision of Saint Helena,"  Mary E. Langford's scrapbook, undated.

Folder 423

Volumes 78-98: Photograph albums (see photograph descriptions).

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.2. Volumes (Addition of November 2012), 1893-1933.

15 items.

Acquisition Information: Accession 101699.

Note that some of these volumes may include an identification number that indicates that the item had been preserved by Penn in its York W. Bailey Museum and Archives.

Oversize Volume SV-3615/100

"Stories from History" by Penn School student, circa 1900s

Poetry about Hiawatha and handwritten essays on mound builders, new world explorers, colonial wars in North America.

Oversize Volume SV-3615/101

"Stories from History" by Penn School student, circa 1900s

Handwritten essays on new world explorers and colonial wars in North America.

Oversize Volume SV-3615/102

"Notes of Lessons--Temperance Pledge, etc." by Penn School students, circa 1900s

Hand drawn maps and essays, and curriculum descriptions.

Oversize Volume SV-3615/103

"A Study of Leaves" by Penn School students, circa 1900s

Hand drawn pictures of leaves.

Oversize Volume SV-3615/104

"Problems in Arithmetic" by Penn School students, 1901

Oversize Volume SV-3615/105

"St. Helena Island," "In Memory of Laura M. Towne," "Our State" by Viola L. Chaplin, class of 1898, circa 1900s

Writings and drawings.

Box 57

Folder 510

Miscellaneous photocopies, circa 1900s

Photocopies of pages from volumes of writings and drawings.

Box 57

Folder 511

Stono, S.C., and Johns Island, S.C., money order book, 1893-1921

Box 57

Folder 512

Stono, S.C., Post Office cash book, 1893-1896

Box 57

Folder 513

"Introduction to Bible Study: A Curriculum Guide," 1904

Box 58

Folder 514

"Nature Study, St. Helena Island Trees," 1933

Collected by Vashti Tonkins, Girl Scout leader, English Department, Penn School.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.3. Volumes (Addition of July 2022), 1903-1932.

Acquisition Information: Accession 20220712.1.

Oversize Volume SV-3615/114

The Poems and Prose Sketches of James Whitcomb Riley, 1903

Oversize Volume SV-3615/115

Financial ledger for Macdonald Wilkins & Company, St. Helena Island, S.C., 1903

Oversize Volume SV-3615/116

Financial ledger for Macdonald Wilkins & Company, St. Helena Island, S.C., 1908

Oversize Volume SV-3615/117

Financial ledger for Macdonald Wilkins & Company, St. Helena Island, S.C., November 1904-December 1909

Oversize Volume SV-3615/118

Ledger containing the grocery accounts of community members; charity accounts; and monetary assitance received by Beaufort County for road work, September 1914-July 1916

Oversize Volume SV-3615/119

Ledger containing the grocery accounts of community members and charity accounts, August 1916-April 1917, 1918

Oversize Volume SV-3615/120

Financial ledger for Macdonald Wilkins & Company, St. Helena Island, S.C., 1918

Oversize Volume SV-3615/121

Diagnotic test for grades 3-8, mathematics, July 1932

Box 63

Miscellaneous papers

Includes loose materials found with Oversize Volumes SV-3615/114-121.

Image Folder PF-3615/863

Loose photographs, 1928-1932

Photographs appear to have fallen out of an album. Images include:

Tonsil clinic, 1928

Better Babies health exhibit, 1928

1928 Baby Day

1932 Baby Day, Ellen Wood Memorial Nurses

Midwives, 1932

Nurse King [vaccinating] children at her office

Image Folder PF-3615/864

Portraits

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 3. Printed Materials, 1862-1977 and undated.

About 2100 items.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 3.1. Printed Materials, 1890-1977.

About 2,000 items.

The following description is based on the Guide to the Microfilm Edition of the Penn School Papers, 1862-1976 (1977).

Researchers interested in Penn Community Services, especially from 1950 to 1970, should also see Series 8. Courtney Siceloff Papers (Addition of 2005).

Among the newspaper clippings, 1902-1956 and undated, are articles about the history of Saint Helena Island and Penn School and about specific events at Penn School and on the Island; general descriptions of Penn and its programs; notices of speeches and visits by Rossa B. Cooley, Grace B. House, and several trustees; other articles about school faculty and trustees, especially George Foster Peabody; and reviews of Homes of the Freed and School Acres. Included are articles from newspapers in South Carolina, New York, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, although few are identified by source.

There are also articles and pamphlets from Survey Graphic, Southern Workman, Outlook, and other publications concerning Penn School. Among the writers are Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Laura Towne, Charles T. Loram, Henry Wilder Foote, and Joshua E. Blanton. Of particular interest are the "Reminiscences" written in 1926 by Annie Heacock, a member of the Port Royal Experiment who taught near Beaufort from 1863 to 1869; a 1934 "Report on A Visit to North America Under the Auspices of the Carnegie Corporation" by Oswin Boys Bull of Meaeru, Basutoland, and a similar report by visitors from Zanzibar; and a folio of material by and about George Foster Peabody. There is also a series of articles by Rossa B. Cooley and Grace B. House, including those printed in Survey Graphic that became Homes of the Freed and a copy of the book itself.

Miscellaneous printed material is primarily fund-raising and promotional literature, including broadsides; pamphlets; Penn School calendars; reprints of speeches by Charles W. Dabney, 1903, Robert Russa Moton, 1923, and others; and yearbooks, 1913-1943, of the Penn School Club of Boston. There are circulars, announcements, invitations to and programs of school events and other school materials, including a 1940 "Guide to Cooperative Teacher Training Program" by Trudelle W. Wimbush of South Carolina State College. Also included are a 1945-1946 catalog and issues of the Penn School Chronicle, 1896-1897; "Plantation Pictures of Saint Helena Island," 1921-1923; and Penn School Journal, 1943.

Included also are broadsides and invitations relating to the Saint Helena Cooperative Credit Union and copies, 1921 and undated, of the Union's rules and studies and promotional material issued by Penn Community Services, including a 1954 newsletter.

There are also annual reports, 1890-1893, 1898, 1901, 1908-1930, 1934-1947, 1951, which are a useful introduction to Penn School. Most include rosters of the board of trustees and school staff; descriptions of school and community activities during the year and changes in the school program; a brief history of the school; and comments on the Penn philosophy and program. Some also contain an outline of the school curriculum, lists of benefactors, and lists of school needs.

Folder 424

Newspaper clippings, 1903-1933

Folder 425

Newspaper clippings, 1934-1960 and undated

Folder 426

Miscellaneous clippings

Folder 427-428

Folder 427

Folder 428

Articles about Penn School

Folder 429

Articles by Rossa B. Cooley

Folder 430

Homes of the Freed

Folder 431

Articles by Grace B. House

Folder 432

Miscellaneous articles

Folder 433

George Foster Peabody materials

Folder 434

Miscellaneous printed items, 1896-1908

Folder 435

Miscellaneous printed items, 1909-1919

Folder 436

Miscellaneous printed items, 1920-1927

Folder 437

Miscellaneous printed items, 1928-1932

Folder 438

Miscellaneous printed items, 1933-1939

Folder 439

Miscellaneous printed items, 1940-1942

Folder 440

Miscellaneous printed items, 1943-1948

Folder 441

Miscellaneous printed items, 1950-1955

Folder 442

Miscellaneous printed items, 1964, 1973-1977

Folder 443

Miscellaneous printed items, undated

Folder 444

Annual reports, 1890-1907

Folder 445

Annual reports, 1901-1910

Folder 446

Annual reports, 1908-1912

Folder 447

Annual reports, 1913-1917

Folder 448

Annual reports, 1918-1922

Folder 449

Annual reports, 1923-1927

Folder 450

Annual reports, 1928-1938

Folder 451

Annual reports, 1939-1947, 1951

Folder 452

Annual reports, 1976-1977

Folder 453

Beaufort and South Carolina items

Folder 454

Credit unions and cooperatives

Folder 455

Fellowship of Southern Churchmen

Folder 456

Friends of the Soil

Folder 457

Music

Folder 458

Releases received from committees, foundations, and colleges

Folder 459

S. C. Armstrong and the Hampton Institute

Folder 460

South Carolina state documents, undated

Folder 461

Temperance Society

Folder 462

World War I: American Red Cross

Folder 463

World War I: Circle for Negro War Relief

Folder 464

Transcript of audiotape T-3615/2 (Acc. 84130)

This item has been transferred to folder 1840 in the Penn Center, Inc. Records (#5539).

Folder 465

Draft photograph inventory

Folder 466

Typed master photograph inventory to microfilm edition

Folder 467

"The Industrial Education Myth: Character Building at Penn School, 1900-1948," Elizabeth Jacoway Burns, dissertation (1974)

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 3.2. De Nyew Testament, 2005 (Addition of May 2006).

1 item.

Acquisitions Information: Accession 100426.

A Gullah translation of the New Testament in the Sea Islands Creole dialect (Geechee).

Box 63

De Nyew Testament, 2005

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 3.3. Printed Materials, 1862-1951 (Addition of November 2012).

About 100 items.

Acquisitions Information: 101699

Printed materials in the Addition of November 2012 are similar in scope and content to the original deposit and in some cases may be duplicates. Note that some of these printed materials may include an identification number that indicates that the item had been preserved by Penn in its York W. Bailey Museum and Archives.

Box 58

Folder 515

50th Anniversary of the Penn Normal Industrial and Agricultural School, 1862-1912

Box 58

Folder 516

"Acres for Class Rooms" by Rossa B. Cooley, undated

Box 58

Folder 517

Aeolian Hill Seed Farms, St. Matthews, S.C., undated

Advertisement for Wannamaker's Pure-Bred Cleveland Big Boll Cotton Seed.

Box 58

Folder 518

Aggrey, James E.K., 1935

"A Great African: James E. K. Aggrey" by Richard Barthe, reprinted from Listen; order form for and review of Aggrey of Africa by Edwin W. Smith.

Box 58

Folder 519

"Alexander Bettis," by G.S. Dickerman, undated

In The Southern Workman. Bettis was the founder of Bettis Academy.

Box 58

Folder 520

American Negroes and South African Bantu by J. E. Holloweay, 1935

Published by the Carnegie Visitors' Grants Committee.

Box 58

Folder 521

Armstrong's Ideas on Education for Life, 1926

Box 58

Folder 522

Articles from The Southern Workman, undated

"A Worth While Work (Miss Juanita Coleman)" by Margaret S. Brawley; "Race Relations: Press Comments"; "The Negro's Opportunity" by Kelly Miller; and "Inter-racial Cooperation" by Monroe N. Work.

Box 58

Folder 523

Bailey, York W., undated

Portrait.

Box 58

Folder 524

Beaufort County, South Carolina: The Shrines, Early History, and Topography, 1929

Box 58

Folder 525

"Black Genius: A Study of a Great Reconciler" by Gilbert Porteous, August 1929

In Reconciliation: Looking Towards a Christian World.

Box 58

Folder 526

Booker Washington's Birthday Suggestions by Alice M. Paxton, February 1922

The Hampton Leaflets Number 109.

Box 58

Folder 527

"Booker T. Washington: Pathfinder of a Race" by William Howard Taft, June 1920

In The Southern Workman.

Box 58

Folder 528

Brochures and leaflets, 1920s-1930s

Appeals for donations and advertisements for publications.

Box 58

Folder 529

"Brown, John, wife of, on her way to say her last goodbye to her husband, who was to die because he tried to free the colored people"

Handwritten account and typed transcription of when Laura Towne met the wife of John Brown in a church in Philadelphia.

Box 58

Folder 530

Calendars, 1940-1941

Box 58

Folder 531

Carver, George Washington, 1942-1943

Obituary and "No Greener Pastures" by Stanley High.

Box 58

Folder 532

"Ceremony of the Soil--A Service of Worship" by Howard and Alice Kester, undated

Box 58

Folder 533

Charleston: 'The City by the Sea'

Pamphlet produced by the Charleston Kiwanis Club.

Box 58

Folder 534

"The Christian Approach to the Race Problem" by J. H. Oldham, September-October 1924

Reprinted from Federal Council Bulletin.

Box 58

Folder 535

Christmas songs composed by Viola L. Chaplin

"On Christmas Day" and "The Birth of Christ." Viola Chaplin graduated from Penn School in 1898 and taught there as well.

Oversize Paper Folder OPF-3615/2

Clippings, 1862, 1868, 1870, 1876

Illustrated pages from Harpers Weekly and Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper concerning South Carolina.

Box 58

Folder 536

Clippings, 1900s-1940s

About Penn history, Laura M. Towne and her family, 75th anniversary of Penn School. Reviews of Homes of the Freed and School Acres.

Box 58

Folder 537

Clippings, 1900s-1940s

Box 58

Folder 538

The Colored American Magazine , June 1904

Box 58

Folder 539

Contemporary Poetry of the Negro by Robert T. Kerlin, undated

Reprinted from The Southern Workman.

Box 58

Folder 540

Cooperative Purchasing of Farm Supplies by Joseph G. Knapp and John H. Lister September 1935

Farm Credit Administration, Cooperative Division, Washington, D.C., Bulletin No. 1.

Box 58

Folder 541

The Curlew, May-June 1891

Box 58

Folder 542

A Day's Work at Penn School by Rossa B. Cooley, circa 1933

Box 58

Folder 543

Deuteronomy chapters 26 and 28

Raised letters.

Box 58

Folder 544

"Education in the Soil" by Rossa B. Cooley circa 1930

Reprinted from Progressive Education.

Box 58

Folder 545

Eustis, Isabel B., news of death of,

Friend of the Penn School.

Box 58

Folder 546

Faith vs. Depression and Encouragement vs. Drought, 15 April 1932

Box 58

Folder 547

Frissell of Hampton by Thomas Jesse Jones, January 1931

Reprinted from The Southern Workman.

Box 58

Folder 548

Frissell, the Builder, by Robert Russa Moton, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, 1923

Address at the Dedication of the Frissell Memorial Organ, in Ogden Hall, Hampton Institute. Reprinted from The Southern Workman.

Box 59

Folder 549

"The Good Samaritan of St. Helena Island" by Mason Crum, 1875

Reprinted from The South Atlantic Quarterly Volume XXXIV, No. 2.

Box 59

Folder 550

Growing up from a One Room Cabin: A Few Facts about Penn School, 1933

Box 59

Folder 551

Hampton in Wartime, 1918

Box 59

Folder 552

Hampton Institute: "Our Alma Mater," undated

Box 59

Folder 553

Historical Handbook of Penn School and St. Helena Island, S.C., 1937

Box 59

Folder 554

"Hollis Burke Frissell and Penn School" by William Anthony Aery, September 1925

Reprinted from The Southern Workman

Box 59

Folder 555

Homes of the Freed by Rossa B. Cooley, 1926

Box 59

Folder 556

"Homes on St. Helena Island," 1926, 1935

Box 59

Folder 557

How Penn School Serves Africa, circa 1925

Box 59

Folder 558

Hurston, Zora Neale, undated

Biographical note.

Box 59

Folder 559

"Insight" by Archibald Rutledge, September 1938

In The Atlantic Monthly.

Box 59

Folder 560

"John Jay Chapman on Lynching: Delivered at a Prayer Meeting Held in Coatesville, Penn., on August 18, 1912, to Commemorate the Anniversary of the Lynching in 1911." 1913

Reprinted from The Southern Workman.

Box 59

Folder 561

The Journal of Charlotte L. Forten

Photocopy.

Box 59

Folder 562

"The Largest Negro High School" by Ambrose Caliver

Reprinted from School Life in The Southern Workman.

Box 59

Folder 563

"A Light to the Island" by Grace Bigelow House, undated

Peter Legare of St. Helena Island, S.C.

Box 59

Folder 564

The Little Foe of All the World by Grace Bigelow House, 1906

Reprinted from The Southern Workman.

Box 59

Folder 565

"The Long Look. Prophet Polite in the Praise-House" by Grace Bigelow House, 31 January 1914

Clipping from The Christian Endeavor World.

Box 59

Folder 566

MacDonald, James Moss, 14 October 1933

Remarks by Niels Christenson on presentation of a picture of MacDonald to hang on the walls of the school.

Box 59

Folder 567

Memorial Addresses in Honor of Dr. Booker T. Washington, 1916

Box 59

Folder 568

Minutes of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and Improving the Condition of the African Race , 1812

Box 59

Folder 569

Music property of Lillie Cary King and J. P. King

Box 59

Folder 570

"Negro Citizens Demonstrate 'Better Homes'" by Blanche Halbert, April 1930

In The Southern Workman.

Box 59

Folder 571

"The Negro Fourth Estate" by Robert T. Kerlin

Reedy's Mirror.

Box 59

Folder 572

The Negro History Bulletin, December 1948

Box 59

Folder 573

"Negro History Week," 12 February 1950

Advertisement for twenty-fifth annual celebration.

Box 59

Folder 574

"A Negro Island Community," 8 May 1924

Reprinted from New York Evening Post.

Box 59

Folder 575

"Overcoming Difficulties Under Adverse Conditions: Address of Honorable Arthur W. Mitchell of Illinois in the House of Representatives," 6 April 1939

Originally delivered as the Founder's Day address at Tuskegee Institute on 2 April 1939.

Box 59

Folder 576

Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School, Annual Report, 1891, 1907, 1914-1919

Oversize Volume SV-3615/110

Volume 110: Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School, Annual Report, 1900

Pages have been pasted into a scrapbook.

Box 60

Folder 577

Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School, Annual Report, 1920-1929

Box 60

Folder 578

Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School, Annual Report, 1934-1936, 1938-1947

Box 60

Folder 579

Penn School on St. Helena Island, South Carolina, Annual Report: First Report of the New Director, 1951

Box 60

Folder 580

Penn School Chronicle, 1897

Box 60

Folder 581

Penn School Catalogue, 1945-1946

Box 60

Folder 582

The Penn School Club, 1925, 1931, 1936, 1938-1941, 1947

Box 60

Folder 583

Penn School Facts, 1931

Box 60

Folder 584

Penn School Journal, 1935: October, December

Box 60

Folder 585

Penn School Journal, 1936, March, December

Box 60

Folder 586

Penn School Journal, 1939: May, October-December

Box 60

Folder 587

Penn School Journal, 1940: January-May, October-December

Box 60

Folder 588

Penn School Journal, 1941: January, March-June

Box 60

Folder 589

Penn School Journal, 1942: January-March, June, October-November

Box 60

Folder 590

Penn School Journal, 1943: January-February

Box 60

Folder 591

Penn School Journal, 1944: February-March

Box 61

Folder 592

"The Penn School on St. Helena Island" by Henry Wilder Foote 1904

Reprinted from The Southern Workman.

Oversize Paper Folder OPF-3615/3

Pennsylvania Colonization Society membership receipt for Andrew Brown, circa 1840s-1850s

Includes printed etching of Bassa Cove in Liberia.

Box 61

Folder 593

"Pictures of Distinguished Negroes," circa 1920

Advertisement.

Box 61

Folder 594

Pioneer Work on the Sea Islands by Laura M. Towne, July 1901

Reprinted from The Southern Workman.

Box 61

Folder 595

Postcards

Images of Penn School people and campus.

Box 61

Folder 596

The Promise of Better Days by Grace Bigelow House, 1908

Reprinted from The Southern Workman.

Box 61

Folder 597

"Race Attitudes in Children," 1925

"Questionnaire,""Some Illustrative Incidents,""Committee on Race Attitudes in Children," and "Opinions and Incidents Summarized."

Box 61

Folder 598

Recollections of Juliana by Clare I. MacDonald, St. Helena Island, S.C., 1924

Box 61

Folder 599

Rural school problems, undated

Typescript copy.

Box 61

Folder 600

Sahara Life, circa 1940

The National Geographic Society Pictorial Geography.

Box 61

Folder 601

"Samuel Chapman Armstrong's Larger Self" by Henry Bradford Washburn, 1932

Reprinted from The Southern Workman.

Box 61

Folder 602

"A School Somewhere" by Joseph K. Hart

Reprinted from The Survey.

Box 61

Folder 603

Sherbro Island map, undated

Box 61

Folder 604

Simango, C. Kamba, undated

Printed images.

Box 61

Folder 605

"Some Coloured Schools in the United States: Memorandum by Mrs. Anna Wicksell", 1927

League of Nations Extract No. 2.

Box 61

Folder 606

"Spirituals in the Church" by Sister Esther Mary, 11 August 1934

Reprinted from The Living Church.

Box 61

Folder 607

St. Helena Island: A Negro Community, 1924

Box 61

Folder 608

"St. Helena Island Spirituals" by R. Nathaniel Dett, November 1925

In The Southern Workman.

Box 61

Folder 609

"Stormy," April 1921

In The Young Christian Worker.

Box 61

Folder 610

"The Story of an Artist's Life" by H. O. Tanner, undated

Box 61

Folder 611

"Suggestions for Christmas!" undated

"Lists enclosed each autumn win Miss Isabella Curtis's annual appeal for funds from Boston and New England donors."

Box 61

Folder 612

"A Survey of Negro Achievement" by Harry S. Murphy, 1 January 1910

Emancipation Day address at Hampton Institute reprinted in The Southern Workman.

Box 61

Folder 613

"The Testimony of Dr. A. J. Gordon as to Those Who Are Gathered Only to the Name of the Lord Jesus. In Lives and Literature,"

Box 61

Folder 614

The Tuskegee Student, 12 June 1920

Box 61

Folder 615

A Unique School in a Unique Community: Being an Account of the Penn Normal, Industrial, and Agricultural School by J. E. Davis, April 1914

Reprinted from The Southern Workman.

Box 61

Folder 616

The University Commission on Southern Race Questions by Josiah Morse, October 1920

Reprinted from The South Atlantic Quarterly.

Box 61

Folder 617

Vigilant Committee certificate, circa 1837-1852

Blank form to certify membership in the Vigilant Committee of Philadelphia, the secret auxiliary of the Vigilant Association. The Vigilant Committee formed to provide assistance to runaway slaves while staying or passing through Philadelphia.

Box 61

Folder 618

What about Their Future? Penn Normal Industrial and Agricultural School, St. Helena Island, South Carolina , undated

Box 61

Folder 619

"The White South's Protest Against Lynching: A Press Symposium"

"The Duty of Stay-At-Homes,""Georgia Women's Protest,""An Economic Drawback,""Get Rid of Cowardice,""A Disgraceful Record," and "A Hopeful Incident." Reprints of southern newspaper editorials in The Southern Workman.

Box 61

Folder 620

Why I Invest in Penn School, undated

Back to Top

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 4. Photographs, 1860s-1953.

About 3,000 items.

Use Restriction: In accordance with the deposit agreement, written permission from the Penn Center is required for uses beyond reference and research of photographs, other images, moving images (film and video), and audio recordings. To acquire permission to use photographs, other images, moving images (film and video), and audio recordings contained in the Penn School Papers, send your written request with specific image or recording numbers to the Penn Center, Inc., P.O. Box 126, Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Saint Helena Island, S.C. 29920-0126 or info[at]penncenter[dot]com.

The following description is based on the Guide to the Microfilm Edition of the Penn School Papers, 1862-1976 (1977). See notes on the image identification number code below.

The Penn School Papers contain about 3,000 photographs, the earliest of which date from the 1860s and the latest from 1962. Like other materials in this collection, the photographs are fewest during the years 1862-1890 and 1948-1962. Most of them date from 1905 to 1944, the tenure of Rossa B. Cooley and Grace B. House as teachers and principals at Penn School. They are found chiefly in 21 photograph albums, nine of which seem to have been assembled by the principals for display. Several others were more hastily assembled by the principals, while the rest came from visitors and close friends of Penn School.

One hundred and twenty-four prints made from 8x10 and 5x7 glass plates exposed by Leigh Richmond Miner are included. In addition, there are about 1,000 unmounted photographs. Most of these are original prints of various sizes, but several hundred are prints made from negatives that were originally part of the collection. Among these unmounted photographs are black-and-white prints of the water colors painted by Winold Reiss.

The amateur and professional photographers who took these pictures were school trustees and faculty, friends of the principals, and other visitors, all of whom were white. Cooley and House are the sources of many of the photographs, but it was not uncommon for visitors to send their prints and often their negatives to the principals. The major photographers were:

Hubbard and Mix, Practical Photographers: These photographers ran a professional studio in Beaufort, S.C., during the 1860s, where they photographed Laura M. Towne and others from Saint Helena. They also seem to have come to Saint Helena and other Sea Islands to photograph freed slaves and slave cabins.

Samuel A. Cooley: A photographer for the federal forces during the Civil War, Cooley worked out of Savannah, Hilton Head Island, and Beaufort after the war and took several of the photographs in the collection.

Helen C. Jenks: The niece of Laura M. Towne and a trustee of Penn School, Jenks was an interested amateur photographer. Her photographs date from about 1890 to 1912.

Rossa B. Cooley and Grace B. House: They were teachers and principals at Penn School and their pictures date from 1904 to 1944. From internal evidence, it is probable that Rossa B. Cooley took most of the photographs. The captions of the album pictures are in her handwriting, as are those on the accompanying negative envelopes. Her pictures comprise the largest part of the Penn School photographs.

Francis R. Cope, Jr.: A trustee and later the chair of the board of trustees of Penn School, Cope was an avid amateur photographer and one of the best to photograph Penn School and Saint Helena. His pictures date from 1901 to 1944.

Isabella Curtis: She was a trustee of Penn School and a friend of the principals. She took photographs on visits made between 1915 and 1930.

Leigh Richmond Miner: He was an instructor in drawing at Hampton Institute and a professional photographer who visited Penn several times between 1907 and 1923. He used a view camera and exposed about 150 plates. Most of his photographs of Saint Helena were published in a volume edited by Edith M. Dabbs, Face of an Island: Leigh Richmond Miner's Photographs of Saint Helena Island (Columbia, S.C.: R. L. Bryan, 1970).

Lewis W. Hine: An important figure in American photography in the 20th century, Hine worked for the Survey Graphic at various times in the 1910s and the 1920s. He was an advocate of child labor laws and is perhaps most famous for his pictures of factory children. He visited Penn School in November 1919. Two photographs, probably from this visit, illustrated Rossa B. Cooley's article, "The Homes of the Freed," published in the Survey Graphic in October 1923.

Mary Isabel House: A sister of Grace B. House, she made many visits over the years.

Margaret Noyes: A friend of the principals, she visited the Island in 1937, taking a great number of photographs.

As might be expected, these and other photographers differed both in their abilities and in their choice of equipment. Among the early amateurs to use the small box cameras on the Island, Helen C. Jenks and Francis R. Cope, Jr., had perhaps the liveliest eye for composition. Jenks sometimes kept records of her exposures, indicating more than casual interest in the medium. This interest is further borne out by the 5x7 glass plates in the collection that are retouched enlargements of small prints appearing in her albums. Cope took many striking compositions of Island scenes that reveal a very proficient photographer with a flair for the dramatic. The different sizes of his negatives indicate that Cope owned a variety of cameras between 1900 and the 1940s. Rossa B. Cooley also used the box camera, but responded more to its utility as a recording instrument than to the pleasures of making beautiful pictures.

Alone among twentieth-century photographers of Penn School, Leigh Richmond Miner used a view camera, a cumbersome machine using very slow film that required long exposures on a sturdy tripod. His photographs consequently lack the candid, spontaneous quality of the pictures taken by Jenks and Cope. His careful poses of people at work are more reminiscent of nineteenth-century photographs. But the large negative utilized by the view camera captured a wealth of sharp detail that the smaller negatives missed, and Miner's photographs are quite valuable for the study of Island dress, architecture, and tools.

A variety of motives were at work in the making of the photographs in this collection. Perhaps the simplest motive was provided by the age itself. When Helen C. Jenks began photographing Saint Helena in the 1890s, photography had entered its popular phase. George Eastman had patented his Kodak in 1888, and many people could afford this simple camera (Beaumont Newhall, The History of Photography [New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1964], pp. 89-94.) Instead of presenting oneself at a professional studio for the standard portrait set against a column or exotic backdrop, one could arrange the family under a favorite linden tree and push the shutter of the small, black camera. It was the age of the snapshot.

Thus there is an exuberance in many of the early photographs of both the young Cope and Cooley and the middle-aged Jenks. It is an exuberance belonging to the youth of photography itself. Saint Helena was picturesque and exotic to these northerners more familiar with city avenues and the drawing room than with live oaks dripping with Spanish moss and African American Islanders living in primitive cabins.

And so with their cameras at the ready these men and women ranged about the Island and around the school grounds, on foot and in horse-drawn buggies, registering on film the strange and beautiful aspects of Saint Helena. They confronted the Islanders in their homes and on the roads, importuning them, sometimes successfully, to "smile for the camera." And of course they took home with them the obligatory group portraits full of faces wincing bravely into the sun. The impulse behind this kind of picture-taking, as George Eastman had recognized in 1892, was the desire for "personal pictures or memoranda of [the amateurs'] everyday life, objects, places or people that interest them in travel & c." (Ibid., p. 94.) These snapshots were gathered in albums, set out for the entertainment of visitors and the amusement of children.

But the collection is more than the naive statements of northern whites witnessing the exotic Saint Helena. It was clear to the principals and to others that the photograph was a valuable institutional record. Cooley and House especially had a strong historic sense, a sense that they were engaged in an important undertaking whose development should be documented.

Thus among the Penn School photographs are hundreds of individual students, of graduating classes, of teachers, and of school buildings under construction and completed. The principals carefully recorded the numerous calendar events at the school: the Farmers' Fairs beginning in 1906, the Planting Week functions, the picnics and trips. They and others brought their cameras to the 50th Anniversary ceremonies in 1912, to the dedication of the Frissell Memorial Community Building in 1925, to the 75th Anniversary of Penn School in 1937, and to the reunion of the Saint Helena Quartette in 1953. In these photographs are the young and old faces of Joshua and Linnie Blanton; Benjamin Boyd; A. J. Brown; Rossa B. Cooley; Hollis Burke Frissell; Grace B. House; Howard and Alice Kester; James P. King; Robert Russa Moton; George Foster Peabody; Benjamin H. Washington; and numerous men, women, and children of Saint Helena Island.

Photographs taken to record Penn's progress could also be used to publicize it, and in the struggle to encourage contributions to one of the first schools for African Americans in the South, the principals were well aware of the value of photography. As early as 1906, the principals were contrasting in photographs the demonstration corn acres to the corn grown by the old method in order to dramatize the improvement in the yield. After the storm of 1911, they photographed the Islanders' cooperative efforts to rebuild their homes. Photographs illustrated Rossa B. Cooley's articles in the Survey Graphic, her books, and Penn's annual reports. Leigh Richmond Miner's lovely photographs may have been conscious attempts to publicize Penn School in the way that Frances Benjamin Johnston's photographs had publicized Hampton Institute in 1900.

Though many of these photographs are personal documents recording private moments, in the main the Penn School photographs were meant to be seen. They were public documents promoting a social ideal and are an important part of the Penn School Papers. For where the manuscripts reveal the school mostly from an administrative point of view, the photographs reveal more directly and concretely the people of Saint Helena and specific details of life there over a 100-year period.

These photographs are arranged with the albums appearing first in chronological order followed by the unmounted photographs arranged as follows: nineteenth-century photographs, published photographs; photographs by Leigh Richmond Miner, photographs by Margaret Noyes, and miscellaneous unmounted photographs arranged chronologically. Description in quotation marks is taken either from the print or the negative of the image. Minor editing of the quoted description has been done to facilitate searching.

IMAGE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER CODE: The image identification number is derived from frame numbers in the microfilm edition of the Penn School Papers.

Images in photograph albums: The location of original images in photograph albums is indicated in this finding aid by photograph album (PA) numbers (e.g., PA-3615/78). Photograph album numbers are not used in forming the image identification number. Identification numbers are generally composed of the microfilm frame number, l for left-hand page or r for right-hand page in the original photograph album, and a lower-case letter indicating the position of the image on the page. Positions are read from top-left to top-right, then bottom-left to bottom-right. For example, image 0001ra is listed in this finding aid as physically located in PA-3615/78. Its identification number indicates that it is on a left-hand page and is the image closest to the upper left-hand corner of that page. In the microfilm edition, this image is found in frame 0001. Note that some images from photograph albums do not have left or right designations, probably because the page in question was loose in the album.

Unmounted images: Identification numbers are composed of the microfilm frame number and a letter indicating how many photographs are in that frame. For example, image identification numbers 0814a, 0814b, 0814c show that there are three images in frame 0814. Image identification number 1012 shows that there is only one image in frame 1012.

If the photographer's name is known it is listed.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 4.1. Photograph Albums, 1899-1944.

Access Restriction: The Library permanently closed the original photograph albums in series 4.1. because the volumes are too fragile to be safely handled and the enclosed photographs should not be exposed to light. Access is provided through the existing digital facsimiles and microfilm copy. Duplication requests for these volumes are filled with the existing digital facsimiles, and the volumes will not be re-imaged to fill those requests.

Glass plate negatives

5x7 glass plates are retouched copy negatives, many of which appear in the albums of Helen C. Jenks.

The numbering of the negatives corresponds with original numbering found on prints in other series and titles from those prints have been included when availible.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/05lb

Retouched glass plate negatives (unidentified)

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/08la

Retouched glass plate negatives (unidentified)

1 image

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0315l

Retouched glass plate negatives (unidentified)

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0920a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Mrs. Abby Jackson in 1909, a midwife and respected member of the community class."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0920b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Jerry Alston, Penn graduate now farming on Tom Fripp Plantation."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0921a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Jesse Dorkins."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0921b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Charles Seymour - Farmer, Church deacon. One of the first Negro Soldiers, 1923."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0922a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Benjamin F. Boyd, the school carpenter."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0922b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Dr. York Bailey, Island physician."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0923a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Robert Green - Farmer, Church deacon. Vice-president of the Saint Helena Cooperative Society. One of the first Demonstrators, 1923

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0923b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Robert Green - Farmer, Church deacon. Vice-president of the Saint Helena Cooperative Society. One of the first Demonstrators, 1923

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0924a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Sidney Simmons, a Penn graduate."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0924b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "John Colonel. Farmer, Church deacon - one of the first Negro Soldiers."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0925a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Island mother with children. Photograph by Leigh Richmond Miner."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0925b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Mrs. Fred (Salome) Fripp with her first baby, Evelyn."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0926a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Mabel Grant (left) and Evelina Black (right). Photograph by Leigh Richmond Miner."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0927a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Maria Alston, midwife. Photograph by Leigh Richmond Miner."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0927b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Thomas Robinson (left), a graduate of Penn and Hampton Institute, now has his Ph.D. degree and teaches at Alabama State. Edwin Smalls (right), a Penn Graduate now deceased."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0928a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Mrs. Louisa Alston (left) and Mrs. Celia Simmons, midwives."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0928b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Mrs. Hagar Parker (left) and Mrs. Maria Alston, midwives."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0929a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The Principals & their ponies - Wonder-Wander & Sunshine. Both Island-born. also Constantine, Son of Saint Helena."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0929b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Girls with their dolls on Baby Day

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0930a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Mrs. Lillian Rhodin with children."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0930b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Temperance club members."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/16

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0931a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The graduating class of Penn School, 1924."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0931b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Lathers dormitory for boys - boarding students. Mr. Benjamin Boyd, 1922-1923."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0932a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "A Dathaw farmer grinds his corn."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0932b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "A Dathaw farmer grinds his corn."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0933a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Mrs. Green winnowing her rice."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0933b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Grinding the corn, Rebecca Green near Penn School, 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0934a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Grinding the corn. Rebecca Green near Penn School, 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0934b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Mrs. Green before her home adjoining Penn property at the waterfront."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0935a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Big Dick Middleton."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0935b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Brutus, an ex-slave, and his wife pose before their ancient cabin on Palawana Island."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0936a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Brutus, an ex-slave, and his wife pose before their ancient cabin on Palawana Island."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0936b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Big Dick Middleton."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0937a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Captain May Green, Island fisherman."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0937b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Aunt Adelaide, 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0938a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Aunt Adelaide, 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0938b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Aunt Adelaide, 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0939a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Alfred Graham, the first teacher of basketry at Penn, brought the craft from Africa as a boy, 1909."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0939b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Alfred Graham, the first teacher of basketry at Penn, brought the craft from Africa as a boy, 1909."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0940a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Student demonstrates deep plowing."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/17

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0940b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Student demonstrates deep plowing."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0941a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Peggy Mack and her family planting corn by the old method."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0941b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Peggy Mack with her cow."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0942a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Peggy Mack with her cow."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0942b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Peggy Mack with her cow."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0943a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Peggy Mack."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0943b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "George Middleton of Corner Plantation bringing in the marsh grass for his home farm."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0944a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Bringing in the marsh grass."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0944b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "A young farmer brings his broken plough to Cope Shop for repair."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0945a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Farmer milking cows."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0945b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Bringing home firewood."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0946a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Cabin on Fuller Plantation."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0946b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Housekeeping lessons, Evelina Watkins, left."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0947a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Housekeeping lessons. Evelina Watkins, left."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0947b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Housekeeping lessons."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0948a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Housekeeping lessons."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0948b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Learning to cook."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0949a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Learning to cook."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0949b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The 'Faraways' come to school by boat from the fringe islands."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0950a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The arithmetic class gets a very practical lesson in cording wood from Miss McGavitt, 1908."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0950b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The arithmetic class gets a very practical lesson in cording wood from Miss McGavitt, 1908."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0951a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Back of Founders Hall, pupils cut wood for the school, 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0951b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Back of Founders Hall, pupils cut wood for the school, 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0952a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Penn School sugar cane mill."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0952b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Penn School sugar cane mill."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0953a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "A History class at Penn School."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0954a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Fall clean-up on the school grounds."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0954b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Fall clean-up on the school grounds."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0955a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Prophet Wyne and his family plant corn on the family farm."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0955b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Prophet Wyne and his family plant corn on the family farm."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0956a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Monthly measuring in Room I. Weights and measures made; personal and better health emphasized, 1923."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0956b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Monthly measuring in Room I. Weights and measures made; personal and better health emphasized, 1923."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0957a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Planting conservation pines in 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0957b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Planting conservation pines in 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0958a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "A. J Brown (in front of stove pipe) instructs his class in cobbling. Students are: left-right: Joseph Colonel, Edward Singleton, Sidney Simmons, William Robinson. Caption by Edith M. Dabbs."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/18

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0958b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "A. J Brown (in front of stove pipe) instructs his class in cobbling. Students are: left-right: Joseph Colonel, Edward Singleton, Sidney Simmons, William Robinson. Caption by Edith M. Dabbs."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0959a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "A parent session on health care and home management before going to the Home Acres."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0959b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Before Starting for the Home Acres."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0960a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Linnie Lumpkins Blanton teaches her first graders."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0960b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Linnie Lumpkins Blanton teaches her first graders."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0961a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Linnie Lumpkins Blanton teaches her first graders."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0961b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Henry Frazier, right, working on farm, 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0962a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Henry Frazier, right, working on farm, 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0962b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Miss Rossa B. Cooley, Principal of Penn School and a Vassar graduate, makes her community calls, 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0963a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Miss Rossa B. Cooley, Principal of Penn School and a Vassar graduate, makes her community calls, 1907."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0963b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Ben Brown and two companions come to school by boat from Palawana Island."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0964a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The Sales House at Penn School. Where the open door often means the chance for an education. Old clothing sold till the House is dry - always a sad day on Saint Helena."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0964b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The carpentry class builds a porch for St. John's School - a small practice school for normal students who would go out as teachers in one-room, ungraded schools over the coastal area."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0965a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Miss Wormley and her fourth grade pick the mainstay of a hot lunch from the school garden."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0965b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Penn Canning Club gives a public demonstration."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0966a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Patriotism at Penn."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0966b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The home-making class works out a problem in upholstery."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0967a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Penn builders excavate for Frissell Community Hall."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/19

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0967b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Penn School Exhibition."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0968a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "[Mr. Benjamin Barnwell and boys] Starting for the State Fair, 1923."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0968b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The cemetery adjoining the Brick Church."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0969a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The cemetery adjoining the Brick Church."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0969b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Tabby ruins of the Sams home on Dathaw Island."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0970a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The Chapel of Ease."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0970b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Tabby ruins of Forth Frederick, Port Royal Island."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0971a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Ruins of Fort Frederick."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0971b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Ruins of Fort Frederick."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0972a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The result of fire protection."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0972b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Live oak covered in Spanish moss."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0973a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Oak grove at Hampton House."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0973b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Oak grove at Hampton House."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0974a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The school road between Brick Church and the Penn School playground."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/20

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0975a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Oak grove at Hampton House."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0975b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The result of an Island forest fire."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0976a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "The school acres."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0976b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Marshes of Saint Helena."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0977a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "High tide on Saint Helena Island."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0977b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Marshes at low tide."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0978a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Island marshes."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0978b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Penn waterfront looking across to Fuller Place."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0979a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Waterfront at Penn School near the center of Saint Helena Island."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0979b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Sunset on the marshes."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0980a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Marshes at low tide."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0980b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Alligator pond near the home of Louisa Alston at Land's End."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0981a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Penn School baskets."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0981b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Penn School baskets."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/0982

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Farmers' Fair exhibition in Darrah Hall. Photograph by Leigh Richmond Miner."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/1333a

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Portrait of Rossa B. Cooley by I.M. Gangengigi, circa 1930."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/21

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/1333b

Retouched glass plate negatives: "Portrait of Rossa B. Cooley by I. M. Gangengigi, circa 1930."

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Title from print of image in other series/sub-series.

Image Box IB-3615/22

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/a

Retouched glass plate negatives (unidentified)

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Image Box IB-3615/22

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/aa

Retouched glass plate negatives (unidentified)

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Image Box IB-3615/22

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/b

Retouched glass plate negatives (unidentified)

1 image

Black-and-White Glass Plate Negative (Copy)

Image Box IB-3615/22

Special Format Image SF-P-3615/bb

Retouched glass plate negatives (unidentified)

1 image

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Back to Top

1899-1905 (Album 78)

One of two albums assembled by Helen C. Jenks, whose photographs are some of the earliest visual records of school activities and Island scenes. Included are pictures of the first Penn School building; classes massed in front of the old Darrah Hall; nineteenth-century Island dress, the aftermath of the 1893 hurricane; Laura M. Towne; Frogmore Plantation; and turn of the twentieth century photographs of Beaufort, S.C. The photographs and captions are by Jenks unless otherwise indicated.

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Photograph Album

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"Behind the school-house."

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Island marsh

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Rhett house, Beaufort, S.C."

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Island boy

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"Front of Penn School - from the High road."

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"Front of Penn School - from the High road."

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"Front of Penn School - from the High road."

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"Front of Penn School - from the High road."

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"Rear of school house, 1899"

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"Temperance Band"

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"Penn Schoolyard, 1899"

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Students at rear of Penn School

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"Road near Penn School"

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"Back steps to School, 1899, Miss Laura M. Towne & Miss Ellen Murray"

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"Going in after recess"

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"Front of the School"

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"Front of the School"

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"Darrah Hall"

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"High Road"

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Island road

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"Penn School Children, 1899"

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Island woman

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"A wayside thicket"

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"A causeway"

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"Butcher cart"

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"Live oak destroyed in 1893"

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"1899," group of school children

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"Native children"

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"Native children"

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Island marshes

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"Near the Baptizing place"

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Island road

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"A negro cabin"

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"1899"

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Frogmore, 1898

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"December 1902: Native Home near Frogmore"

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"1902"

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"1899"

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"An Aunty"

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Island women

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"In the cotton gin"

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"Tree left by the storm of 1893"

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"Mr. Gantt, December 1902"

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"James Miller"

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"Mr. Gantt, 1899"

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"On the cross road, 1899"

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"R.R. station"

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"A highway, December 1902"

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"Beside Darrah Hall, 1899"

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"On Saint Helena Island, 1899," view of the marshes

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"On Saint Helena Island, 1899," view of the marshes

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"On Saint Helena Island, 1899," view of the marshes

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"On Saint Helena Island, 1899," view of the marshes

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"Penn School Children, 1902"

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"People near Frogmore December, 1902"

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"People near Frogmore December, 1902"

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"People near Frogmore December, 1902"

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"Frogmore School & Mr. Brown"

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"Road near School, 1902"

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"Turkey Buzzards"

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"Butcher's cart, 1899"

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"The main road across the Island, 1899"

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"River near the School, 1902"

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"River near the School, 1902"

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"Butcher cart, 1899"

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Island river

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"Near Frogmore, 1902"

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"Near Penn School, 1902"

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"The school pump"

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"Near the Village, 1902"

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"Road by Penn School"

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Penn School

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"Miss Murray, 1902"

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"The Whipping Tree, 1902"

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"La Touche," a mule

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"Frogmore"

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"1899"

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Frogmore

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Frogmore, front

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"Spanish bayonets."

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"Cato"

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Frogmore, side

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"Frogmore Turkeys, 1899"

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"Frogmore Porch"

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Looking toward the sea from Frogmore porch, 1899

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"La Touche at home"

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"James, Miss Towne"

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"Poultry Yard at Frogmore, 1899"

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"From the marsh," Frogmore, 1899

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Frogmore, front, 1899

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"Steps to the garden," Frogmore, 1899

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"The back porch, Frogmore," 1899

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"Frogmore chicken yard, December 1902"

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Miss Lathrop in Frogmore chicken yard

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"Frogmore chicken yard, December 1902"

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Frogmore

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"Penn School Children," 1902

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"Penn School children," 1899

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Marshes, 1899

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Island child, 1899

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Island woman, 1899

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"1902, a cabin in Beaufort"

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Beaufort gateway

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"1899," Carriage

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"1902," Beaufort porch

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Haystacks

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"Ladies Island ferry, 1902"

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Saint Helena Episcopal Church, Beaufort, 1899

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"The sea front," Beaufort, 1899

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"The Rhett House," Beaufort, 1899

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"The ferry," Beaufort, 1899

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"Gate and churchyard, Beaufort"

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"The old Darrah Hall - burned in 1893"

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"Beaufort, 1899"

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"A family mansion," Beaufort, S.C."

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Beaufort scenes

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Beaufort scenes

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"Between Yemassee & Beaufort"

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"Court day near Yemassee, December 1902"

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"By Yemassee station, December 1902"

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"December 1902," Yemassee

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Railroad station, Yemassee

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"Side of school house," Penn School

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"The School yard," Penn School

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"The Scholars at back of the School, Spring of 1901"

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"Group of girls in a breeze"

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"Group of scholars, 1898"

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"Miss Lathrop of Mass. and assistant"

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"Group of Scholars"

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"Teacher & Primaries"

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"Teacher & Pupils"

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"Assistant & pupils"

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"Teacher with Intermediates"

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"Sewing teacher [Mrs. V. Brown] and Pupils"

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"Group of scholars, 1901"

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"Darrah Hall, 1901"

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"House of a graduate"

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"Home of a teacher"

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"Home of a teacher"

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"Frogmore, date uncertain"

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"Frogmore, date uncertain"

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"Frogmore, date uncertain"

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"Frogmore, date uncertain"

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"A Palmetto tree"

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A group of students

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Students near Penn School

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Penn Students

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Group of teachers, Mrs. Juno Washington sitting right

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"School pump. 1901"

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"Rear of Penn School"

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"Darrah Hall, 1901"

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Yard

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"The old School House - The paling fence did not last long"

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"Darrah Hall"

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"Superintendent's Home, 1902"

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"Superintendent's Home, 1902"

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"The library, 1902"

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"The library, 1902"

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"Penn School, 1902"

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"Penn School, 1902"

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"Penn School, Front"

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"Penn School, Front"

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"Temperance Band, December 1902"

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"Temperance Band, December 1902"

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"Near Frogmore, 1902"

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Penn School Student

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"Penn School children, 1902"

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"On the Highway"

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"On the Highway"

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"On the Highway"

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Local road

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"Near the gate of Frogmore, December 1902"

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"On the marsh near Frogmore, December 1902"

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"On the marsh near Frogmore, December 1902"

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"Eustis Plantation"

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"Eustis Plantation"

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"New Carpenters Shop, December 1903"

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"Ebenezer Church"

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Cabin

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"Dawkins' house, Darrah Hall, March 1904."

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"Causeway by Ebenezer Church"

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"Landing on school grounds"

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"Meadows by Ebenezer Church"

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"Site for new school, March 21st 1904"

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Penn School Grounds

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Marching to Darrah Hall

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"Collecting at Darrah Hall for the morning exercises, singing etc."

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View of school house

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"Supply shed for Carpentry Dep't. Built out of Old School House, 1905" See 119ra

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"Rear of old school buildings, March 22, 1904"

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"Rear of old school buildings, March 22, 1904"

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"Rear of old school buildings, March 22, 1904"

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"Front window of school"

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"Rear"

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Darrah Hall, interior

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"Method of heating"

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"Interior of old school, main building"

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"Ellen Murray's room, March 1904"

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"In Darrah Hall, March 22, 1904"

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"In Darrah Hall, March 22, 1904"

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"In Miss Murray's room"

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"Miss L[athrop] - teacher"

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"Singing in Darrah Hall"

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Image P-3615/0053l

"Cotton Field at the End of the Season"

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Image P-3615/0053ra

Marsh scene

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Image P-3615/0053rb

"March 1904," students in classroom

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"Darrah Hall"

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View of Penn School from the road

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View of Penn School from the road

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River scene

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View of Penn School from the road

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River near Penn School

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Children leaving School

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"Miss Lathrop"

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"Miss Murray," and class

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"Miss Murray, Miss Lathrop," and class

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Miss Murray and class

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Group of men

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Image P-3615/0056la

"Mr. and Mrs. Dawkins and baby Wilder"

P. W. Dawkins, Superintendent of Industries; Emma Jennie Dawkins, instructor in cooking and sewing.

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"Mr. and Mrs. Stevens"

W. G. Stephens, school carpenter and instructor in carpentry; Louise Stephen, instructor in nursing.

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"Front street in Beaufort, March 1904"

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"Churchyard, Beaufort"

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"New School house, Founders Hall, January 1905"

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"New school house; to be called Founders Hall, January 1905"

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"Teachers' Home To be called Hampton House, January 1905"

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Scene

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"Near the Teachers' Home, January 1905"

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"Near the Teachers' Home, January 1905"

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"Near the Teachers' Home, January 1905"

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View of Founders Hall

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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Image P-3615/0059lb

"Entrance to school Grounds"

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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Students before Founders Hall, see 0068la

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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Image P-3615/0059ra

"Founders Hall" See 0067rc

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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Image P-3615/0059rb

Road leading to Founders Hall, see 0068ra

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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"Hampton House"

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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Road and tree, see 0068lb

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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Image P-3615/0060lb

Big oak, see 0069la

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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Image P-3615/0060lc

Islanders on road, see 0068lc

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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Man in wagon

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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"Miss Cooley," Uncle Sam and Evelyn Cope in carriage, see 0067ra

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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Children on road, see 0068rc

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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"Cotton Gin"

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Image P-3615/0061r

Founders Hall Plaque to Laura Towne and Ellen Murray

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"Saint Helena Island, S.C. In the Old Days," 1901-1908 (Album 79)

Assembled by Francis R. Cope, Jr. Included are pictures, 1901-1908, of Islanders, Ellen Murray and Alice Lathrop, Frogmore, landscapes, and other people and scenes. The pictures and captions are by Cope unless otherwise indicated.

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"Frogmore in 1901"

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"Near Frogmore Ave. Entrance"

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"Frogmore mansion, [home of] Misses Towne & Murray"

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"Old Slave House, Frogmore"

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Islanders

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"Frogmore (from Island)"

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Hanging tree

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"Frogmore"

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Scene

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"School Road"

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"First Penn School House"

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"Miss Murray and Miss Lathrop"

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Scene

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"Frogmore - from the Island"

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"Frogmore"

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"Causeway to Frogmore Island"

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Low tide, live Oak trees

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Low tide, live Oak trees

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Low tide, live Oak trees

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Low tide, live Oak trees

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"James Miller of Frogmore"

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Little boy

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Island cabin

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Marsh scene

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"Jas. Miller's house"

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Marsh scene

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Image P-3615/0066rc

"[James] Miller [and Mr. Gantt] with Jackies"

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Image P-3615/0066rd

Island home

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Mrs. Macdonald, right, and unidentified woman

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Road

Photograph Album PA-3615/79

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Ruins of Chapel of Ease on Saint Helena Island

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Ruins of Chapel of Ease on Saint Helena Island

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Image P-3615/0067ra

"Miss Cooley, (E[velyn] F.M.C[ope]), & Uncle Sam"

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"Founders Hall (from rear)" April 1904

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Image P-3615/0067rc

"Main School Bldg. (Founders Hall)," April 1903

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Image P-3615/0067rd

"Mother and baby calf," April 1904

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Image P-3615/0068la

Penn School children

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Live oak

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Islanders on road

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Islanders on road

Photograph Album PA-3615/79

Image P-3615/0068ra

Road approaching Founders Hall

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Image P-3615/0068rb

Road near Penn School

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Children returning from garden

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"Penn School Child," April 1904

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"Indian Hill, live oak"

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Man driving ox cart

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Mr. and Mrs. Stevens

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"Hampton House, 1908"

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1902-1905 (Album 80)

Assembled by Grace B. House with photographs by Rossa B. Cooley, Grace B. House, and Helen C. Jenks unless otherwise indicated. The captions are by House unless otherwise indicated. Included are pictures of school buildings, classes and teachers, Hampton teachers, Decoration Day, and Alfred Graham and his native basketry class. Many of these pictures are also displayed in Volumes 78 and 82 and on microfilm between frames 0001 and 0060 and frames 0115 and 0162.

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Photograph Album

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Image P-3615/0071r

"St. John's House for primary [children] - leaks at every pore!"

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Image P-3615/0072l

"Old School house. Supports too rotten to use."

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Image P-3615/0072r

"Darrah Hall - used for all public meetings. White building in background. Frame for house of teacher of Agriculture Wm. Dawkins."

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Image P-3615/0073l

"Brick Church that survived the cyclone."

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Image P-3615/0073r

"Miss Murray, Miss Lathrop"

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Image P-3615/0074r

"Decoration Day"

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Image P-3615/0075l

"Frogmore Home of Miss Murray"

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Image P-3615/0075r

"View from Frogmore."

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Image P-3615/0076l

Islander with ox cart

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Image P-3615/0076r

Cotton field

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"Little Library"

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Old School House, 1902"

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Children back of school house, 1902"

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"New School House, 1904"

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"Grove in front of School House, 1904"

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"Pigs in front of Teachers' House Showing need of fence"

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"Teachers' House, 1905," Hampton House

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"Farmers Conference, 1905," in Darrah Hall

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"Farmers Conference, 1905"

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"Class in basketry, 1905," Mr. Alfred Graham, teacher

Item discovered to be missing as of 20 March 2012.

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Image P-3615/0082r

Alfred Graham's class in Basketry, 1905

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"One of the Agricultural Class, 1905"

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"Primary Class, 1905," Linnie Lumpkins, teacher

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"Class in Community Work, 1905"

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"Class in Community Work, 1905"

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"Community Class, 1905," Mrs. Dawkins, leader

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"Going to hold service in a cabin of a bedridden woman"

Penn School teachers, left-right: J. E. Blanton, holding reins; Antoinette Norwell, Mary Alice Person, Helena McGavitt, Linnie Lumpkins, Mabel Hickman.

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"Big oak on Indian Hill Plantation"

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River near Ebenezer Church

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"Founders Hall"

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"Temporary quarters for teachers - now used as dormitory for boys"

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Image P-3615/0088r

Island home after storm

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Island man on Ebenezer Church road

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"Thanksgiving Turkey and the Basket weaving Teacher, 1905," Alfred Graham

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"An offering, 1905," Robert Gibbs with rice and corn

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"In Darrah Hall"

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"Teachers from Hampton," see 0121rb

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Miss Lumpkins's class before school session

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Miss Lumpkins's class before school session

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Students before school session

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Students before school session

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One of the public schools

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Early 1900s (Album 81)

Album of unknown origin with pictures of a visit to the Island by friends of Rossa B. Cooley. It begins with photographs of Beaufort and the ferry and ends with photographs of a departure from Saint Helena. Included are the first pictures of Rossa B. Cooley and Grace B. House, pictures of the ferry landing in Beaufort, and pictures of Island scenes.

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Photograph Album

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Image P-3615/0096l

Beaufort, S.C. Rhett house

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Beaufort, S.C."

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Beaufort, S.C."

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Ferry landing at Beaufort

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Corner Store, Beaufort

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Hampton House, Saint Helena

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Grace B. House, school principal

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Penn School campus

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Founders Hall

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Penn School grove

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Hampton House

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School library

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Rossa B. Cooley and Joshua Blanton

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Rossa B. Cooley feeding the hogs

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Three young men

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Lumber yard

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Rossa B. Cooley, Penn School principal

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Rossa B. Cooley

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Ruins of Chapel of Ease, Saint Helena

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Oyster boats

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Island home

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Island home

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Storage house

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Big oak on Indian Hill plantation

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Ox Cart allowing the wagon to pass by

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Big pine

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King Yuccas

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Island pine tree

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Island cabin

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Island cabin

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Visitors leaving

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Rossa B. Cooley waving goodbye

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Boat crew

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Rossa B. Cooley on dock

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Ox cart on Penn School road

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Building in a city

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1904-1909 (Album 82)

Volume I of nine official Penn School display albums. The volume was assembled and captioned by Rossa B. Cooley. Photographs are by Cooley or Grace B. House unless otherwise indicated. Included are pictures of Beaufort, Penn School buildings, teachers, classes, Island individuals, and scenery. There is a series of before-and-after shots of Aunt Jane's house being repaired with boards taken from the old school house. There are also pictures of threshing rice, crushing sugar cane in the mill, and the first Farmers' Fair.

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Photograph Album

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"Bay Street, Beaufort, S.C.," circa 1900

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Beaufort, S.C. Taken from the river."

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"The First School House for Negroes. 1862."

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The first Penn School, circa 1900

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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Founders Hall

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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"Founders Hall. 1904."

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"Rear of Founders Hall"

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"Old barn. Torn down in 1905"

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"New barn. Built in 1904-1905"

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"After the storm of 1893"

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Carpenter's Cottage. 1903, moved and changed to Cope Cottage."

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"St John School House."

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"Main Road toward Frogmore"

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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Darrah Hall

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Hampton House. [May] 1904"

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"Dawkins' house Darrah Hall, March 1904," see 0046ra

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Supply shed for Carpentry Dep't. Built out of Old School House. 1905"

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"Carpenter's Shop, 1904"

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Darrah Hall

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Teachers' Group, 1905. Miss Davis, Guest."

Sitting, left-right: Helena McGavitt, Lucy Davis, unidentified woman, Antoinette Norwell (partially obscured), unidentified woman, Linnie Lumpkins, unidentified woman, Mary Alice Person. Standing, left-right: Alfred Graham, Juno Washington, Rossa B. Cooley. Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Teachers' Group, 1905. Miss Lucy Davis, Mrs. Jenks, Guests."

Grace B. House, 2nd from right, bottom step.

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"Hampton House. Built 1904."

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"School Boys, 1904 [March 1905]."

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"First Boarding Department, 1905. Jacob Hipp. Lewis Pinckney. Richard Coles"

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"The Portables - Teachers' Quarters & Dining Room & Kitchen. 1905 [March 1906]"

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"[Hampton] Teachers - 1905" at Penn School

Standing, left-right: J. E. Blanton, Mary Alice Person, Mabel Hickman, Linnie Lumpkins. Sitting, left-right: Helena McGavitt, Antoinette Norwell, 1905.

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"The Boys Barracks, 1906 - Made from the Portables [Called Camp Lincoln, destroyed by wind storm October 1907]"

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"Benezet House. Completed, March 1906."

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"First Benezet House Family. [May 1906]"

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"Tide River by Ebenezer Church at Low Tide."

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Tide River by Ebenezer Church - High Tide [1905]"

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"Missionary Teachers, 1905. [The Missionary Wagon. Teachers Going to Ring to Mary Jenkins, May 1906]"

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"Aunt Elsie's Cabin"

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"At the Ferry. Uncle George, Mrs. F.R. Copein Carriage." Rossa B. Cooley holding horse

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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"Hastings Gantt," 1907

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"Penn School child," April 1904

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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"Factory Children"

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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Island scenic

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Bringing Milk to Hampton House, 1904"

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"Fish for Hampton House, 1904"

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Island cabin

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Community Class. Mrs. Dawkins, leader, 1904."

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"At the Sales House." 1908

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Teachers' home."

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Thaddeus Watkins at home"

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"Aunt Betsy Glover, Hopes Plantation"

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"Seeing the First White Faces, 1904"

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"Aunt Elsie - at Hampton House for 'Rubbin,'" 1905

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"Aunt Jane's Cabin. 1904"

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"Aunt Jane & her [old] Cabin. 1904"

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"School boys. School house, to work cabin."

School boys tearing down old school houseto make cabin.

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"School Carpenter mending leak in Aunt Jane's New Cabin, 1905"

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"Old school house, 1901"

Aunt Jane's New Cabin, made from boards of the old school house and put up by school boys, 1905.

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"Aunt Jane." 1906

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"Aunt Jane & her new Shawl," 1906

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"Mr. & Mrs. Brown, Penn School Graduates, Palawana Island." 1906

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"Uncle Billy Perry"

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Woman on road

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Threshing Rice, 1905."

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"Bowing to de School ladies" 1905

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"Mr. [Alfred] Graham and our Sunday dinner."

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"On Corner Plantation"

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"John Jackson's house"

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Aunt Elsie's Cabin"

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Hoeing ground nuts" 1906

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"Dr. [Mary] Harley and some patients, 1906"

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"Aunt Satira Washington"

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"In the Grove - Ready to march to Darrah Hall." Miss Lumpkins, teacher, 1905

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"Grade I, Miss Lumpkins, 1904."

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"Grade I, Miss Lumpkins, 1904."

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"Grade II, Mrs. Juno Washington, 1904 [1905]"

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"Grade III, Miss Florine Washington, 1904 [1905]"

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"Grade V, Miss Alice Person, 1904"

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"Grade IV, Miss Celia Bailey, 1904"

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"Grade VI, Miss [Viola] Chaplin, 1905"

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"Grade VII, Miss [Viola] Chaplin, 1905"

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"Grade VIII, Miss [Alice] Lathrop, 1905."

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"Grade IX, Miss Murray, 1905."

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"Alice and Fentris Dawkins, Dan and theGoat! [1905]."

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"Dan [Geddis at Hampton House], 1904[1905]."

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"The Twins - Mahala and Viola Green, 1904 [1905]."

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"Dan [Geddis], 1904 [1905]."

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"Thomas and Thaddeus Watkins, 1905"

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"Alex Brown, 1905"

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"Geneva Adele Brown, 1905 [1906]."

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"Daisy Chisholm, 1905 [1906]"

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"Thomas Watkins, 1905 [1906]"

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"Thaddeus Watkins, 1905 [1906]"

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"Dan, 1905"

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"Geneva Gregory, 1905 [1906]"

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"Temperance Monday [1906]."

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"Eddings Point School, Mr. Ezekiel Grant [1906]"

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"Farmers' Fair Exhibit, 1906 [South Side of Darrah Hall]"

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"Farmers' Fair Exhibit, 1906 [North Side of Darrah Hall]"

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"Farmers' Fair, 1906."

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"Stock Exhibit - Farmers' Fair"

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"Mona Smalls and her Exhibit, Sugar Cane, Shuck Mat and Rice."

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"Robert Gibbs and his Exhibit - Rice and Corn"

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"Bale of Long Staple Cotton for Exhibit at Farmers' Fair"

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"Farmers' Fair, 1906"

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"School Road. [Mrs. Brown's] Lunches for Sale [1906]."

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"Cotton for the gin [Plantation Road, 1905]"

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Marsh scene

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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Marsh scene

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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Marsh scene

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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Marsh scene

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Popes Savannah"

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"Palmetto on School Grounds"

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"In Children's Garden, 1905."

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"Day school boys picking Cotton [1905]."

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"School boys [and Joshua Blanton] planting Palmetto by Hampton House"

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"Palmettos at Eddings Point [November 1905].

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"Palmetto on School Grounds"

Photograph by Helen C. Jenks.

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"Shore Line. West side school grounds [1906]."

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"Shore Line. West side of school grounds."

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"Road toward Ebenezer Church [1905]"

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"School Road toward Ebenezer Church [1909]

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"School Pump [by the Road; 1906]."

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"The School Mules Bob & Thaddeus."

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"Cotton for the gin."

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"Turnips for the School [purchased from the store, 1907]."

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"Ben Brown starting for School from Palawana Island [March 1907]."

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"Marshes. Palawana Island [on Corner Plantation, 1905]."

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"Road to Hampton House"

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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"Hampton House Gates, 1906 [May 1909]."

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"The Old People [Cabin at Coffins Point, 1905]"

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"Hastings Gantt, 1907"

Photograph by Francis R. Cope, Jr.

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"Live Oaks at Port Royal."

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"Wood Road. Long needle pines. Mr. Lee's Place."

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"Community Class, 1906." (Mrs. Juno Washington, far right)."

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"Group of students, scholarships paid by Vassar College, 1906 [1908]."

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"William Gregory and Primus Chisholm"

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"Grade I, Miss Lumpkins, 1906."

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"Planting Pines by Hampton House, 1905 [1906]."

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"Planting Cotton."

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Plowing instructions

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"Sugar Cane Mill - at the School [1907]"

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"Saint Helena Island Baskets, 1906"

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"Class in Basketry, Mr. [Alfred] Graham, teacher, 1906."

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"Boarding Pupils, 1908"

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"Teachers' Group, 1908."

Sitting, left-right: unidentified woman, Antoinette Norwell, Rosetta Mason, Linnie Lumpkins, Portia Payton, Lizzie Savage, Rossa B. Cooley. Standing, left-right: unidentified woman, Mabel Hickman, Helena McGavitt, Joshua E. Blanton, Helen Lou James, three unidentified women, and Juno Washington.

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"Edith Warren, graduate, Ed Middleton, Nancy Wright, Graduate, 1908 [First class for Certification. Ed Middleton failed.]."

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"Mulberry Hill School"

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"Grade III, Miss [Harriet] Morris, teacher, 1908."

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"Grade VII, Miss [Helen Lou] James, teacher, 1908"

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"Grades VII & VIII, Miss James, teacher, 1908."

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"Ready for Community Work [Jubilee & the Sunshine Cart - Miss House & Self, 1908]"

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"Teachers' Group. Also M. C. Washington and P. Wilson, 1908."

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"Eustis School house - before Repairs"

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"Eustis School House, repaired by Penn School boys [November 1908]"

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"Marie Seabrook."

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"Boarding Girls - Lula Alston & Ophelia Fields [1908]"

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"Arthur Kenlaw, [boarding student] on his arrival. (Pinckney Island)"

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"Grade I, Miss Lumpkins, Teacher, May 1909"

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"Marion Mitchell in school garden. Help me to be a Farmer [May 1909]."

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"Benezet House [May 1909]."

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"Hampton House."

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"The New Mowing Machine, Mr. Blanton, Farmer"

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"The Berkshire (3 wks old) & the Islanders (3 mos. old)"

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Island pig (for contrast)

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"Berkshire - 3 weeks old. The last of the native Islanders - 3 months old [1909]."

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"The Berkshires - 1909"

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"Martha and her pigs - Mr. Blanton, Farmer, 1909."

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"School boys building the Engine House, 1909."

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"Pump House Completed, April 1909"

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"School children filling ditches for water pipes."

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"The Water Tower. Completed in April 1909. 10,000 gal. 50' Tower."

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"View of grounds from Water Tank. Benezet, Cope Cottage, & Hampton House"

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"Mr. Johnson's Sycamore, one season's growth [1908-1909]."

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"Mr. Johnson's Sycamore, one season's growth [1908-1909]."

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"Graduating Class, May 1909."

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"Hampton House Yuccas, June 1, 1909 [Used for the Blanton's Wedding]."

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"Wharf at Ladies Island, Beaufort in the distance [June 1909]."

Back to Top

1904-1911 (Album 83)

Volume II of official Penn School display albums. The volume was assembled and captioned by Rossa B. Cooley. Photographs are by Cooley or Grace B. House unless otherwise indicated (some are by Francis R. Cope, Jr., or Mary Isabel House). Included are pictures of buildings and scenery; individuals, including William R. Towne, brother of Laura M. Towne; Hollis Burke Frissell at the baptism of a teacher's child; work scenes of men pounding rice; Joshua Blanton, agent for demonstration farms, with demonstration farmers; a river baptism near Ebenezer Baptist Church; and pictures taken on a trip to Savannah, Ga., in 1910.

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"Founders Hall, 1909."

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"Hampton House, 1904."

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"Hampton House, 1908"

Taken from South showing the pine trees.

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"Carpenter's Cottage [before removal], 1904 [1905]"

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"Cope Cottage - The Carpenter's Cottage moved and enlarged [1909]"

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"Cope Cottage - Nurse's office at right of picture [1909]"

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"Cherokee Cottage [1909]"

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"Scholarship Group. Through Horatio Carter Esq [1908]."

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"Aunt Jane [Brantley], 1905."

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"Grade VI. Miss McGavitt, Teacher, 1908."

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"Group of Teachers, 1908."

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"Grade II. Miss Savage, Teacher, 1908 [1910]."

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"Carpenter Shop & Supply Shed, 1905."

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