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This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the Duplication Policy section for more information.
|Size||67.5 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 48,000 items)|
|Abstract||Arthur Franklin Raper (1899-1979) was a rural sociologist, civil rights activist, and social science analyst both in the United States and in other countries. Papers document Raper's work for the Commission on Interracial Cooperation (1926-1939); the Southern Commission on the Study of Lynching (1930-1931); the Carnegie-Myrdal Study of the American Negro (1939-1940); the United States Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Agricultural Economics (1940-1952); the United States Foreign Operations Administration and the United States International Cooperation Administration (1952-1962); and the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development (1962-1964). Of special interest are data sets on counties and towns throughout the South that were compiled for the Carnegie-Myrdal Study of the American Negro and photographs by Jack Delano, Dorothea Lange, and others depicting the rural South during the Depression. Postwar materials document Raper's international work and the implementation of rural development programs in North Africa, the Middle East, and Asian countries including Japan and Taiwan. The papers include Raper's correspondence and private reflections; correspondence concerning the ten books and dozens of articles he published; extensive genealogical and biographical information and family letters and other materials; clippings; photographs; slide sets; audiotapes; and videotapes. The collection also contains correspondence, writings, photographs, and other papers of Arthur's wife Martha Jarrell Raper (1905-1979).|
|Creator||Raper, Arthur Franklin, 1899-1979.|
|Curatorial Unit||University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection.|
Processed by: SHC staff, 1980
Reprocessed by: Jessica Sedgwick, May 2009
Description added by: Laura Clark Brown, Danielle Fasig, Sara Mannheimer, and Julie Seifert 2013-2014 and Amelia Holmes, Laura Hart, and Erin Dickey 2015-2016. The project to enhance description of the files is ongoing.
Updated by: Laura Hart, February 2019; Laura Smith, June 2023
Encoded by: Jessica Sedgwick, May 2009
Container list updated by: Dawne Howard Lucas, July 2020, January 2022
Processing staff retained Arthur Raper's original order and arrangment in four parts, "Chronological File" (Part I) and "Support File" (Part II, III, and IV). Researchers may consult Raper's own index to "Chronological File." Index is found in boxes 1a and 1b.Back to Top
The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.
Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.
Arthur Franklin Raper (1899-1979) attended both the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill and Vanderbilt University. The early years of Raper's career were devoted to an analysis of rural problems and racial discrimination in Depression-era South. He was an activist who delivered speeches and gathered data as he worked to alleviate rural poverty and for the social and legal equality of African Americans. In 1940, Raper began his 22-year career as a social scientist and research analyst for several federal government agencies. His concern for southern agricultural reform continued, but after World War II, he became involved with problems of rural development on a global scale. He studied conditions in Japan, Taiwan, and several other countries in Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East. During these years, Raper continued the activism that had characterized his earlier career. In 1962, he became senior advisor to the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development. He returned to America two years later, and was a visiting professor at Michigan State University until he retired in 1967. Between the time of his retirement and his death in 1979, Raper maintained an active interest in the worldwide struggle against social and political injustice.
|1899||Born on 8 November in Davidson County, N.C., the third son of William Franklin and Julia Selina Crouse Raper.|
|1929||Married Martha E. Jarrell of Atlanta, Ga., on 12 June.|
|1930||Birth of first son, Charles F., on 5 May.|
|1932||Birth of second son, Harrison C. (Roper), on 10 May.|
|1934||Birth of third son, A. Jarrell, on 24 March.|
|1937||Birth of daughter, J. Margaret (Hummon), on 21 November.|
|1979||Died in Oakton, Va., on 10 August.|
|1924||Received A.B., University of North Carolina.|
|1925||Received M.A. in sociology and political science, Vanderbilt University.|
|1931||Received Ph.D. in sociology and rural economics, University of North Carolina.|
|1925-1926||Research Assistant for the Institute for Research in Social Science, University of North Carolina.|
|1926-1939||Research Secretary for the Commission on Interracial Cooperation, Atlanta, Ga.|
|1930-1931||Member of the Southern Commission on the Study of Lynching.|
|1932-1939||Part-time professor of sociology at Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Ga.|
|1938-1940||Executive Secretary of the Council on a Christian Social Order.|
|1939-1940||Research Associate for the Carnegie-Myrdal Study of the American Negro.|
|1940-1942||Social Science Analyst for the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.|
|1942-1952||Social Science Analyst and Principal Social Scientist for the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.|
|1943-1952||Taught graduate courses at the United States Department of Agriculture, at American University, and at the University of Maryland.|
|1946-1952||Trustee of the Delta Cooperative Farms, Inc., Bolivar County, Miss.|
|1947-1950||Made three trips to Japan as a consultant on agrarian reforms for the Allied Occupation Command.|
|1951||Made a trip to Southeast Asia as a consultant on increasing aid to villagers for the Mutual Security Administration (MSA).|
|1951||Made a trip to the Middle East as a consultant on increasing agricultural production for the American Friends of the Middle East.|
|1952||Consultant to the Far East Division of MSA.|
|1952-1954||Project Evaluation Advisor for the Foreign Operations Administration's Mutual Security Mission to China (Taiwan).|
|1954-1955||Consultant to the Community Development Division of the International Cooperation Administration (ICA).|
|1955-1958||Regional Community Development Advisor to the Middle East and North Africa for ICA.|
|1958||Member of the Training Development Staff for ICA.|
|1958-1961||Assistant Chief for the Orientation and Counseling Branch of the Career Development Division of ICA.|
|1959-1962||Taught courses on community development at Catholic University.|
|1961-1962||Acting Chief for the Orientation and Counseling Branch, ICA.|
|1964||Senior Advisor to the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, Comilla, East Pakistan.|
|1964||Worked with the Pakistan Project in the College of Education at Michigan State University.|
|1965-1967||Visiting professor with the Asian Studies Center and an affiliate in the Department of Sociology, Michigan State University.|
|1967||Retired in July to his home in Oakton, Va.|
|1933||The Tragedy of Lynching (reprinted in 1969).|
|1936||Preface to Peasantry (reprinted in 1968).|
|1941||Sharecroppers All, with Ira DeA. Reid (reprinted in 1971).|
|1943||Tenants of the Almighty (reprinted in 1971).|
|1949||Rural Life in the United States, with Carl C. Taylor, et al.|
|1950||The Japanese Village in Transition, with Herbert Passin, et al.|
|1951||Guide to Agriculture, U.S.A., with Martha J. Raper (revised and reprinted in 1955).|
|1953||Rural Taiwan: Problem and Promise, with the Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction.|
|1954||Urban and Industrial Taiwan: Crowded and Resourceful, with Han-sheng Chuan and Shao-shing Chen.|
|1970||Rural Development in Action: The Comprehensive Experiment at Comilla, East Pakistan, with Harry L. Case, et al.|
The Arthur Franklin Raper papers offer detailed documentation of Raper's activities, interests, and reflections. The earliest papers are drawings by Raper, which are followed by essays written while he was attending the University of North Carolina and Vanderbilt University. While Raper was working both with the Commission on Interracial Cooperation and with the Southern Commission on the Study of Lynching, he gathered information, such as statistical analyses, clippings, and case studies, from cities and towns throughout the South on the problem of lynching and other, more subtle, forms of racial intimidation. These materials are included among the 1920s-1930s papers.
In addition to the correspondence and materials on lynching, the papers from 1925 to 1942 also include a number of clippings on rural poverty; audiotapes; speeches and essays by Raper; Race and Class Pressures, Raper's monograph for the Carnegie-Myrdal Study of the American Negro; and reviews and correspondence about his first four books: The Tragedy of Lynching (1933); Preface to Peasantry (1936); Sharecroppers All (1941); and Tenants of the Almighty (1943). Of special interest is data on counties and towns throughout the South, which was compiled by Raper and Ralph Bunche for the Carnegie-Myrdal Study of the American Negro, 1939-1940. In addition, photographs made by the Farm Security Administration (some of which appeared in Raper's books) highlight the rural poverty of the depression-ridden South.
Raper moved from Greene County, Ga., to Washington, D.C., in 1942, and his papers subsequently broadened in scope. Working for the United States Department of Agriculture, he collected a variety of field notes on various locales across the country. The fruits of some of this labor can be found in Rural Life in the United States (1949) and Guide to Agriculture, U.S.A. (1951), both of which are documented in the papers, although not as extensively as his first four books. As his interests shifted to the problem of worldwide rural development, Raper continued to make speeches and write essays, copies of which are included in his papers.
In the late 1940s, Raper started making trips abroad as a consultant for various government agencies, and the papers contain a great deal of information on aiding and implementing post-war development programs in foreign countries. Between 1947 and 1964, Raper's papers include correspondence; extensive field notes he made on Japan and Taiwan; reports and statistical analyses of a number of countries in Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East; orientation materials, including pamphlets, tapes, and slides for employees working abroad for the United States government; and a great number of photographs and slides depicting scenes and patterns of life in foreign countries. There is also extensive documentation of the Comilla Project, a rural development project on which Raper devoted two years working with the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development.
Raper returned to the United States in 1964 to close out his career at Michigan State University, but his papers continue, uninterrupted, until his death in 1979. These later papers include correspondence; further materials on the Comilla Project, including the publication of Rural Development in Action: The Comprehensive Experiment at Comilla, East Pakistan (1970); accounts of public appearances by Raper; oral history interviews; correspondence, minutes, and printed materials relating to Raper's involvement in the National Sharecroppers' Fund and the Southern Regional Council; Raper's reflections on a variety of issues; and more photographs and tapes. Among the papers from Raper's last years are newspaper and magazine clippings (many with his annotations) which pertain to civil rights, American political developments, difficulties of Third World nations, and problems of modern technology.
Processing Note: From the time Arthur Raper began his public career, he carefully collected and arranged his own papers, and the ordering scheme which Raper established has been retained. Raper's organizing system divides the entire collection of papers into four parts: one set of chronological files, which comprises the core of the collection and includes writings, correspondence, photographs, audiovisual materials, and other items; and three sets of support files, which include clippings, correspondence, photographs, and other materials that supplement the chronological files for the corresponding years. Each of the four sets of files is divided into a number of "volumes," Raper having originally housed his papers in three-ring binders. For preservation purposes, the papers have been moved from Raper's binders to archival folders. Therefore, Raper's volume numbers have been keyed to folder numbers in this finding aid. Raper also created a 557-page index to the collection, which essentially functions as a chronological, item-level contents list of the papers. A bound paper copy of this index is available for use in the Southern Historical Collection research room. There is also a microfilm copy.Back to Top
This series comprises the core of the papers, and includes correspondence; speeches, essays, books, and other writings by Arthur Raper; photographs; audio and video tapes; slides; clippings; pamphlets; magazine and journal articles; book reviews; family and personal papers; and other materials. The series is organized into chronological volumes compiled and labeled by Raper (see Raper's volume number citations in folder lists). Following the chronological run of papers are separate groupings of materials that span a wider chronological range. The groupings include audiotapes, slides, photographs, printed matter.
Additional materials related to the materials in this series can be found filed in Support files (Series II, III, and IV) under corresponding dates.
Disbound volumes compiled and labeled by Arthur Raper include correspondence; speeches, essays, and other writings by Raper; photographs; clippings; pamphlets; magazine and journal articles; book reviews; videotapes; family and personal papers; and other materials. Note that, though photograph folders are physically filed separately, they are listed here next to their corresponding Raper volume.
Reports with supporting notes and letters written by Raper for various sociology classes at the University of North Carolina. Reports concern race relations, segregation, sociology, and profiles of African Americans in Tampa, Fla., Atlanta, Ga., and other southern locales.
Chiefly materials about Camp Sequoyah for boys in Asheville, N.C., including weekly newsletters and photographs. Clippings pertain to Tennessee's Butler Act, prohibiting instruction on evolution; The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes; and student protests against Fayette McKenzie the white president of Fisk University, a historically black school. Of note is Raper's master's thesis from Vanderbilt University titled Negro Dependency in the Southern Community.
Materials concerning race relations in Tampa, Fla., Atlanta Ga., and other urban areas in the South. A report compiled by Raper titled "Study of Negro Life in Tampa" discusses demographics, housing, health, social and religious organizations, and employment. Materials related to the Georgia Commission on Interracial Cooperation include meeting minutes, a report on work completed, and excerpts from Raper's appointment calendar. Also included is a paper written by Raper for Camp Sequoyah and titled "Science of Hiking."
Reports and statistical data sets on public welfare, education, race relations, and rural conditions in Georgia, Florida, and North Carolina. Contains reports on lynchings in Georgia and on land ownership, tradespeople, and community engagement in African American communities. Of interest are letters and forms used to gather statistics on Negro and white prisoners facing life sentences or executions for various crimes throughout the South. Other items are letters discussing Raper's dissertation defense at the University of North Carolina and personal materials including pictures from his wedding and letters concerning the birth of his first son.
Letters, meeting minutes, case study outlines, and other materials relating to the Southern Commission on the Study of Lynching. Also contains letters from various journal editors, publishers, educational administrators, and churches regarding the publication of Raper’s book, The Tragedy of Lynching.
Letters, reports, maps, and other materials chiefly concerning lynchings in Georgia and Alabama. Also contains reports, letters, and studies of the Great Depression's impact on African Americans, particularly the displacement of Negro workers by whites in urban settings and the impact of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA). One report titled "The Subnormal Negro and the Subnormal Code" by J.F. Ames addresses discriminatory employment practices. Of interest is an anonymous piece titled "Our Two Heritages," which posits that hostility toward immigrants and Negroes "violates our heritage of righteousness and mercy."
Chiefly reviews of Raper’s book The Tragedy of Lynching. Also contains the contract between Raper and the University of North Carolina Press for the book and letters to the Press's editor. Other materials include reviews and letters pertaining to a report by the Southern Commission on the Study of Lynching titled "Lynchings and What they Mean" .
Reports, field notes, statistical data sets, short essays and addresses concerning socioeconomic conditions of rural African Americans, effects of the New Deal, lynch mobs, and crime rates in Georgia and the Black Belt. Of interest are reports by Raper and Taylor C. Miller describing a failed study in Putnam County, Ga. Community members balked at the use of Negro field workers and the equitable pay and treatment these workers received. Also included are data sets on loan company land holdings. In short essays and addresses, Raper reflects on among other subjects, the field of sociology, a white-supremacist group in Atlanta, Ga., called the Men of Justice, and the dangers of another world war.
Reports, clippings, and field notes pertaining to the condition of tenant farmers, particularly the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union in Hillhouse, Miss., and eastern Arkansas. Also contains clippings and reviews of Raper's report, "The Mob Still Rides," and a letter to Raper from former Alabama governor Thomas E. Kilby concerning arrests and convictions of lynch mobs during his term in office. Other materials address the history of race relations, Negro education, the "Buy White," movement, and urban and rural economies.
Clippings, programs, and handwritten notes from addresses and speeches given by Raper on race relations, tenant farmers, and the effects of soil erosion on social conditions. Raper’s membership card for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is included.
Chiefly materials concerning Raper’s book, Preface to Peasantry, including letters, reviews, and excerpts. Most letter writers praise the book; others request review copies. Raper’s responses are attached.
Clippings, notes, statistical data sets, and typescript draft reports on tenant farmers, soil erosion, race relations, African American education, and job displacement in Georgia and the South. Includes copies of "The South’s Landless Farmers" and "The South Strains Towards Decency." Also included are Raper's reviews of others' works and letters concerning his publications.
Image Folder PF-3966/12-15
Reports, articles, and addresses by Raper on socioeconomic conditions and race relations in the South. Titles include "The South Today," "The City Pays for Rural Poverty," "The Negro and the South as Economic Problem No. One," "Overcoming Racial Cleavages," and " Reconciliation in the South," which he delivered to the Fellowship of Reconciliation at an October 1938 meeting. An untitled address was delivered to the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching in November 1938. A letter to a journalist in Chattanooga, Tenn., outlines Raper's position on anti-lynching legislation. Also included are a memorandum about the Delta and Providence Cooperative Farms and correspondence between Raper and James Weldon Johnson concerning a speaking engagement at the YWCA at Agnes Scott College. Raper's brief, handwritten recollection of Johnson's visit and a memorial statement about Johnson a few months later follow. Of interest are reactions by Raper and others to Donald Davidson’s book The Attack on Leviathan: Regionalism and Nationalism in the United States.
Reports and addresses by Raper on "peasantry" in America, education in the South, democracy, social conditions, rural conditions, and farm tenancy. Of interest is a Carolina Magazine article by Howard W. Odum on Negro education and the University of North Carolina. Also includes field notes about Greene County, Ga., a Southern Tenant Farmers Union conference, peonage, and Will Percy's plantation. A study by Raper examines state reactions to the United States Supreme Court case Gaines v. University of Missouri. Correspondence is primarily with Lillian Smith and concerns publication of Raper’s book Sharecroppers All.
Chiefly clippings, notes, and programs related to delivering various speeches. Topics of the speeches delivered include soil erosion, population growth, race relations, and democracy. At the Southern Students’ Christian Conference, Raper remarked that "American civilization is going to hell" as a result of soil erosion and the depletion of natural resources. Also included are Raper's biographical notes and correspondence he had with the Fellowship of Reconciliation about war.
Typescript draft of Raper’s Race and Class Pressures written for the Myrdal study titled The Negro in America, and correspondence with publishers dating from 1945 and 1970. Race and Class Pressures examines race in the context of policing, courts, crop liens, peonage, labor unions, lynching, the Ku Klux Klan, violent crime, and vice, particularly vice in New Orleans, La.
Chiefly materials pertaining to Sharecroppers All, co-written by Raper and Ira De Augustine Reid. Materials include correspondence, reviews, articles, excerpts from the book, and Raper's written accounts of events. Of note is an account of the Southern Sociological Society's "embarrassing afternoon with W.E.B. DuBois." Also notable are Raper's observations on the treatment of white and African American defendants in a police court and his description of testimony he gave before the Greene County, Ga., grand jury. He had been summonsed because of his liberal social views, his treatment of Negroes, and his non-conformity to accepted racial norms. Other materials include notes on lynching; a summary of the Conference on Lynching in Alabama; a clipping advertising a Ku Klux Klan meeting and parade; one of Raper's addresses on sharecroppers; notes and transcriptions from a meeting about the nutrition of low-income families; and clippings concerning Raper’s involvement in the U.S. Wage Hour Division Textile Industry Committee. Of interest is a typescript document about the daily life and welfare of the Rapers's cook and other Negro community members. Written by by Martha J. Raper and titled "Living and Dying in Greene County, Georgia," the document includes discussion of health, birth control, and social conditions.
Correspondence, reviews, and advertisements for Sharecroppers All, co-written by Raper and Ira De Augustine Reid. Correspondence is chiefly with Ira Reid, Howard Odum, Will W. Alexander, and William T. Couch and concerns preparation for publication, the book's reception, and royalties. Correspondence with others pertains to a possible Hollywood adaptation and the preparation and distribution of a circular leaflet to advertise the book.
|Image Folder PF-3966/16||
Reviews of Sharecroppers All.
Field notes, chiefly typescript, on Greene County, Ga., by Raper and his assistant Carolyn Blue, a white woman. Raper’s notes concern relations between Black and white community members, African American schools, the Farm Security Administration (FSA), and healthcare and include profiles of individual white and African American community members. Of particular interest are Raper’s notes on FSA clients that describe conflicts over taxes and rent and include transcriptions of confidential conversations between Raper and various clients. Blue’s notes chiefly describe white women in the community, particularly their treatment of domestic servants they employed most of whom were Black. Other topics addressed in Blue’s field notes are white community members’ suspicions about Raper’s “subversive activities” as a white civil rights activist, etiquette between Black and white children, and educational and political inequalities for Black and white community members. The file does not contain any consent agreements from the community members represented in the field notes.
|Image Folder PF-3966/17||
Reports, speeches, radio scripts, and field notes for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Rural Life Trends in Wartime project. Field notes address labor shortages, wages, and rural attitudes to post war conditions with observations made in Ward County, N.D., Lowndes County, Ga., Polk County, Fla., Corcoran, Calif., Dallas County, Ala., Dent County, Mo., Belknap County, N.H., and Hampshire County, Mass. A report titled "Cultural Reconnaissance" of Greene County, Ga., describes the community's cultural origins, work patterns, class structure, race relations, family life, schools, churches, ideas, and values. One section, "Worth of Man," examines the valued qualities of men of different classes. Also included is a detailed guide for reconnaissance surveys. In "Regional Values are Important", Raper explores the "Attitudes toward Ethnic Differences in the Midwest and in the South." Articles and speeches address the role of private agencies in post war rehabilitation and the use of courthouse records, specifically observations made in a police court, for a social science study. In one letter Raper discusses his family’s activities, including their use of the "Pasteur treatment" for rabies.
Chiefly reports, outlines, memoranda, and other materials pertaining to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Rural Life Trends in Wartime project. Materials include descriptions of the purpose and context of the project, procedural guidelines for surveying and reporting on communities, and samples of county descriptions. Of interest is a report by Arthur Raper titled "Prohibition on Cultural Studies" in which he addresses condemnation of the cultural reconnaissance surveys by U.S. Representative, Jaime L. Whitten, of Mississippi. Whitten claimed that Frank D. Alexander’s survey of Coahoma County, Miss. had slandered his state. His complaints halted federal funding for the surveys. Other materials are reports, transcriptions of speeches and meetings, and articles on topics such as the effects of cotton mechanization on the South, the post war prospects for farming, "southern rural slums," the impact of education on race relations, and Camp Sequoyah, a youth summer retreat near Asheville, N.C. In a September 1945 letter, Raper's brother John R. Raper discusses the atomic bomb and the future of atomic energy for "constructive and destructive applications." John was a Harvard University biologist who had worked on the Manhattan Project.
Chiefly articles, reports, and speeches by Raper on rural topics including mechanization of cotton farming, rural employment, farm workers' wages, and the future of the family-sized farm. Many documents pertain to the social effects of agricultural technology on rural education, juvenile delinquency, and rural churches. One article describes the social and demographic characteristics of the "Deep South." Of interest are reports from sociological surveys of 13 selected counties in the "Cotton Belt" states, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas. Also of interest are Raper’s notes written after learning that his speeches and statements required clearance from the Economic Information office at the U.S. Department of Agriculture prior to the event or public release. Other materials include clippings about democracy in India, the death of Georgia's governor-elect Eugene Talmadge, and the ensuing "Three Governors Controversy."
Chiefly articles, speeches, statements, drafts, and reports concerning rural conditions and in particular the role of rural churches in land use and land policy in the South. Correspondence concerns the Rural Section of the Southern Catholic Committee. A conference publication "Land Policy and Church Stability" describes improving living conditions in the South and the effects of increased use of mechanized farming methods. Other materials include incomplete notes about Raper’s trip to Japan in 1947 and correspondence with John Rust of the Rust Cotton Picker Company about small equipment for family farms.
Reports, drafts, notes, correspondence, project proposals, and outlines of speeches by Raper. Topics include the decline of family farms, the commercialization and mechanization of farming, and rural churches. Correspondence with Will W. Alexander of the Julian Rosenwald Fund concerns an enclosed proposal for a study of rural laborers titled "Nearly Quittin' Time." Of note is Raper's 1949 narrative account of a 1939 trip through Georgia and Alabama with Gunnar Myrdal and Myrdal's African American research associate Ralph Bunche. The three were gathering information for the Myrdal Study. During the trip, Myrdal had to duck a warrant sworn out on him for insulting a white woman in her Atlanta, Ga., home. He had asked her if she ever had "intercourse with a Negro man."
|Image Folder PF-3966/18|
Typescript drafts of Rural Life in the United States with handwritten emendations. Chapters six through nine focus on rural regions in the United States including wheat country, range livestock country, and western specialty crops country. The remaining chapter is a discussion of rural life and its differences with urban life. Also included are the citations, maps, and appendices for this publication and a report published by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics and titled "Generalized Types of Farming in the United States."
Chiefly materials about international agricultural programs run through the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Foreign Service of the United States, and the International Cooperation Administration. Most items pertain to rural life and agriculture in Japan, with some materials concerning the Philippines and nations in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Of interest are an outline of an international training program on tropical agriculture, an instructional document titled "Securing the Cooperation of the Villagers,"" and a memo "Comments by Agricultural Attache on NRS Publication Entitled 'The Japanese Village in Transition.'" Other materials include reports, speeches, conference proceedings, and notes on rural and social trends in the United States. Of interest is a bulletin with proceedings from the 1950 Tuskegee Rural Life Conference titled "The Changing Status of the Negro in Southern Culture." An isolated handwritten document addresses a question posed by a census taker working in Robeson Co., N.C. about the birth and death rates of Lumbee Indians and Black people living in Robeson County, N.C.
A study for the International Motion Pictures Division, Department of State titled "A Recommended Film Program on Agriculture and Rural Life for Eleven Countries in the Near East and South East Asia." The document contains plans, guides, recommendations, maps, and other details for a project to produce and distribute educational films and other visual materials for villages in Asian and Middle Eastern countries. Notes from a 1952 meeting offer Raper’s observations of rural villages in Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Burma, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Egypt during a 1951 trip for the film program. Raper was sent to observe rural conditions in relation to potential acceptance of "technical aid." He also recorded villagers' reactions to Americans and American aid.
|Image Folder PF-3966/19||
|Image Folder PF-3966/20||
Magazine and newspaper clippings, chiefly concerned with black urban life and civil right struggles. Major topics include race riots in Detroit, Mich., Newark, N.J., Washington D.C., and other cities; the black power movement and the white backlash against it; civil rights legislation; the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Black Panther Party, and other civil rights organizations; media coverage of race relations; the death and funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.; the Vietnam War; and South African apartheid. Of interest is a letter to Dr. Edward P. Morgan of Channel 26, WETA with comments on that station's recent television report on police and minority groups. Identifying the migration of rural farm families to crowded city centers as a forgotten factor in contemporary urban agitation, Raper notes, "Thus it is that the people least equipped to participate in a complex modern economy are accumulating in the heart of the big cities, within sight and sound of the most advanced economic and cultural segments of American life."
Chiefly correspondence, notes, and clippings related to Raper's 1970 tractor accident and planning materials related to the Raper Family reunion. Also included are correspondence with Akhter Hameed Khan, Director of the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development in Comilla, and manuscript materials related to a study of rural development projects in Comilla, East Pakistan; publications related to rural development; clippings pertaining to farm labor; correspondence with Mills B. Lane, IV., about Lane's preparation of an illustrated history of Georgia; acquisition inquiries from archivists; letters relating to Raper's inclusion in the anthology, Sociology of Underdevelopment, and his book, Rural Development in Action; and correspondence with family.
Chiefly correspondence relating to the publication, receipt, promotion, and review of Raper's book, Rural Development in Action, which explores development efforts in the Comilla district of East Pakistan. Included are congratulatory letters from friends and associates; sample book jackets for Rural Development in Action; lists related to the distribution of complimentary copies of the book; clippings of the book's catalog and journal listings; notes about printing and citation errors; and clippings and draft versions of reviews. Some reviews mention bombings in the Comilla district as a result of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
Correspondence, clippings, notes, and manuscript materials, relating mainly to a paper and presentation, "The Crucial Role of the Villager in the Comprehensive Rural Development Experiment at Comilla, East Pakistan," delivered at the 1971 meeting of the Rural Sociological Society. Also included are correspondence and clippings about Akhter Hameed Khan; Martha and Arthur Raper's annual Christmas letter to friends; and correspondence, program, draft remarks, and travel documents related to a U.S. Agency of International Development conference on population, agriculture and rural development.
Chiefly correspondence related to an oral history interview with Raper conducted by Daniel J. Singal, then a graduate student working on his dissertation on southern intellectual history in the 1920s and 1930s. The folders also include correspondence related to the interview's subsequent transcription and deposit in Columbia University's Oral History Research Office and promotional materials about Columbia's oral history collection. Of particular interest is the transcribed and indexed interview, which spans Raper's early life, upbringing, and education as well as the whole of his career. Other correspondence with Singal relates to his repeated visits to the Rapers' farm and his dissertation progress.
Mainly correspondence with Morton Sosna, graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, concerning an interview with Raper and the subsequent transcription and deposit of that interview in the manuscripts division of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Also included is the transcribed interview; a review of Cry from the Cotton: The Southern Tenant Farmers' Union and the New Deal, written for the Wisconsin Magazine of History; and tax documents. Other notable correspondence is related to Raper's receipt of the Stuart A. Rice Merit Award from the District of Columbia Sociological Society; A. Jarrell Raper's letter to Supreme Court Justice Warren E. Burger on school desegregation in Richmond, Va.; and the death of family member Ralph Raper.
Chiefly correspondence, promotional materials, and clippings. Of interest is a letter from Raper to the National Coalition for Land Reform drawing a connection between the spread of agri-business and the plight of the inner city: "The problems of farm and city must be dealt with as a composite whole." Materials concerning the US/AID official Ernest Neal are heavily represented; Neal worked with Raper in the 1940s at the Tuskeegee Institute, and was an official at the U.S. Agency for International Development when he died at the age of 60. Documents include letters about Neal's festschrift, correspondence containing Raper's draft corrections of Neal's work-in-progress, and clippings and letters concerning Neal's death. Also included are correspondence, program materials, and remarks from Raper's participation in the Tuskeegee Institute's conference, "The Changing Status of Southern Agriculture: A Twenty Year Review", and published proceedings.
Correspondence relating to and mimeographed copies of Ernest Neal's "Reflections on My Life up through 1947" and "Hope for the Wretched: A Narrative Report of Technical Assistance Experiences, 1939-1971".
Chiefly correspondence, clippings, reports, publications, and notes concerning the 1971 civil war in East Pakistan, the liberation of Bangladesh and subsequent refugee crisis; and relief efforts in East Pakistan in the wake of cyclone and flood devastation in 1970. Also included are letters relating to the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development at Comilla, both before and after the formation of Bangladesh; correspondence and donation receipts concerning humanitarian aid in East Pakistan,including a telegram sent by Raper to President Nixon; and correspondence and program materials related to Raper's participation in conferences and meetings concerning relief efforts for Bangladesh. Of particular interest is a letter noting that Akhter Hameed Khan, long-time Director of the Academy, left East Pakistan after the conflict because he was not Bengali.
Primarily letters from associates inside Pakistan describing firsthand experience of the civil war in East Pakistan,including one from Akhter Hameed Khan after his resettlement in Lyallpur, Pakistan; copies of scholarly reports on Bangladesh and Comilla after the war ended; and clippings about Pakistan's diplomatic recognition of Bangladesh. Also included are a fundraising solicitation from the Emergency Relief Fund and a final report released after that organization's resolution to dissolve.
Primarily personal correspondence, clippings, programs, and pamphlets related to Raper's deposit of his papers in the Southern Historical Collection at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; events at the Oakton United Methodist Church, the Organic Living Society of Northern Virginia; and the death of Frank P. Graham, who was one of Raper's professors at UNC. Other materials include correspondence with H. L. Mitchell of the Southern Tenant Farmers Union, a request for comments on a research proposal concerning white sociologists and black studies, clippings about ventriloquist Arty Freda, personal letters from Raper's grandsons, and various notes.
Chiefly correspondence, clippings, pamphlets, notes, draft proposals and writings sent to Raper for his advice and comments. Personal and business letters include several exchanges with Ed Kemp, librarian at the University of Oregon, on the proposed disposition of Raper's files; a copy of Jarrell Raper's letter to the United States Supreme Court justices on integration in Richmond, Va.; and family letters, one of which includes Raper's reflections on the 1972 presidential election. Proposals sent to Raper include a plan for an experimental farm and training center from the National Sharecroppers Fund, a draft synopsis of a meeting at the International Center for Dynamics of Development, and a pilot program for a human resource center in downtown Toronto, Canada inspired by the Comilla, Pakistan development program. Other materials include clippings about segregation and bussing, oil rights in Saigon, economist Gunnar Myrdal, and the death of sociologist Thomas Jackson Woofter, Jr.; notes related to events at the Oakton United Methodist Church; and informational materials on the Southern Tenant Farmers Union Records.
Chiefly correponspondence and program materials concerning recent sales information on Rural Development in Action and Raper's participation in meetings for the American Friends Service Committee, Inc., and the Southern Regional Council. Also contains Ernest Neal's publications "Hope for the Wretched," "Men, Ideas, and Institutions: The Keys to Development," and "The Alternative to Black Power." Other notable clippings and personal letters include a discussion between Raper and George H. Esser of the Southern Regional Council about Jarrell Raper's collected materials on the integration of Richmond, Va., city schools.
Contains correspondence with civil rights activist Eliza Paschall Morrison; Morrison's draft texts on the women's movement and civil rights in Atlanta, Ga.; documents related to planning, travel arrangements, and summary reports for a National Sharecroppers Federation meeting concerning rural movements in North America and China; and correspondence with Edward Hake Phillips on a discrepancy Phillips found in Raper's book, The Tragedy of Lynching. Of particular interest is detailed correspondence with A. E. Cox on the early history of the Mississippi-based Delta Cooperative Farms, Inc., a project of the Southern Tenant Farmers Union, on whose Board of Trustees both Cox and Raper served. Cox provides copies of letters from William Amberson alleging financial malfeasance on the part of another Trustee, Sherwood Eddy. Also included are other personal notes, letters, and clippings, some pertaining to Oakton United Methodist Church activities, Howard Raper's retirement, and a manuscript about the Raper family written by Carlene (Cardy) Raper.
Varied correspondence, clippings, draft remarks, and manuscripts, including correspondence with Bill Finger, the son of a former student. Also included is the text of Finger's summary of his visit with the Rapers, "Recollection of a Visit", which provides context for Raper's 1932 work with Mississippi's Delta Cooperative, an initiative of the Southern Tenant Farmers Union. Of particular interest in this work is Raper's mention of his decision over whether to accept a teaching post at Black Mountain College, in Asheville, NC. Also contains correspondence and draft text related to Raper's unpublished article, "Needed: A Third House of Congress." Other notable materials include clippings on executive seizure of legislative power, President Nixon, and Watergate; correspondence with University of Virginia graduate student Nevin C. Brown on landlord-tenant relationships in tobacco agriculture; and requests for Raper's remarks and comments on scholarly manuscripts in the areas of land reform, the economy in Bangladesh, and rural development. Family correspondence includes some discussion of Watergate amd a detailed letter from Martha Raper discussing the context behind and reasons why Raper wrote his book, The Tragedy of Lynching.
Chiefly correspondence and clippings, with some of Raper's notes and writings. In an unpublished piece "Out of Watergate Comes...?" Raper meditates on ways the country might improve after the Watergate scandal. Of interest is a letter from Marilyn Keyes Raper with an account of her arrest during an anti-Nixon demonstration. Includes a large number of newspaper clippings on race relations from the Herald-Journal of Greene County, Georgia. Correspondence topics include urban community improvement projects; plans for the National Sharecroppers Foundation's Graham Center, a training cooperative for low-income farmers; and political scientist Ralph Bunche. Other materials include publications by Akhter Hameed Khan, program and draft remarks for the Annual Meeting of the Rural Sociological Society, clippings on the growing income gap and proposed public financing of elections, and an itinery of the Rapers' 1973 trip through the southeastern states.
Detailed manuscript account of the Rapers' roadtrip through Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida to visit relatives, friends, and past sites of Arthur's professional activity, including the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Agnes Scott College in Atlanta, Ga., and the Tuskeegee Institute in Alabama. Of the trip, Raper wrote, "Was it an attempt to recapture something from the traditional 'good old days'? Hardly, for those days...were not better days than these now, even if sometimes less confused and hectic." Also included are copies of some of Martha Raper's letters written during and about the trip, along with a photograph of the Rapers in Florida.
Chiefly materials related to Raper and H. L. Mitchell's visit to Chapel Hill for a panel session on "The New Deal at the Grassroots" at the University of North Carolina History Honor Society in January 1974. Contains indexed transcripts of that session, along with interviews of Raper by Jacquelyn Dowd Hall for her dissertation, for an oral history class at UNC, and for the Southern Oral History Program. The interviews largely center on Raper's research on lynching and sharecroppers in the 1930s. Also included are letters from Gunnar Myrdal requesting Raper's assistance in updating arguments from his 1944 book, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy; memos about the Graham Center; clippings on Egil Krogh's defense in his Watergate testimony; fundraising materials for the Oakton United Methodist Church; and family letters.
Varied correspondence, clippings, and notes, chiefly concerning real estate in the Rapers' neighborhood, attempts by scholar Winifred K. Vass to publish her master's thesis, updated sales figures for Rural Development in Action, a report on the Graham Center, and materials pertaining to the 40th anniversary reunion of the Southern Tenant Farmers Union. Of particular interest are letters exchanged with Father Dan Kennerk, a missionary stationed in Comilla, concerning the aftermath of severe flooding in Bangladesh; and with United States Senator Sam Ervin, to whom Raper sent his unpublished work, "A Third House of Congress."
Chiefly correspondence, clippings, condolence notes, and copies of eulogies for Raper's brother, John Robert Raper, a noted biologist at Harvard University. Also included are letters, clippings, programs, and planning materials related to Raper's 50th class reunion at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a detailed account of Raper's unpleasant experiences during the weekend.
Mainly correspondence, memos, minutes, clippings, and and board member lists pertaining to the Rural Advancement Fund, part of the National Sharecroppers Foundation; materials related to John Wilson's campaign for Washington D.C., City Council; and an exchange of letters with Robert Lindley concerning the post-1971 War status of the Academy for Rural Development in Comilla, Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan).
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Photographs: Ladies Night Out at the Oakton United Methodist Church (corresponds to Raper's volume 39-Q)
Clippings, primarily from the Washington Post, on the congressional vote to impeach President Nixon, his subsequent resignation, Gerald Ford's ascension to the presidency and pardoning of Nixon, and the removal of many of Nixon's tapes and papers from the White House after the pardon.
Varied correspondence, clippings, and notes, chiefly pertaining to the Graham Center, rising oil prices, the congressional campaign of Joseph L. Fisher, the recently opened Mormon Temple in Washington D.C., Henry Kissinger, and white collar crime. Also included are transcripts of life and family histories, one of which details Orrin Sage Loomis's 1850s journeys on the Oregon Trail. This history is accompanied by maps and excerpts from a publication on the Oregon Trail.
Includes correspondence with Raper's sister Blanche on her writings on religion, with Cornell University Press and Richard Niehoff on Rural Development in Action, and with George Esser and Raymond Wheeler of the Southern Regional Council concerning Raper's participation at the annual meeting. Contains guest list, cards, and correspondence pertaining to Raper's 75th birthday party. Also included are clippings and associated notes relating to Muslim rebels in the southern Phillippine islands of Mindanao and Sulu; famine in Dacca, Bangladesh; the U.S. response to world hunger; Gerald Ford's economic plan; Ford's testimony to the House Judiciary committee on pardoning Nixon; the bankruptcy of John H. Candler, a Coca-cola scion; the discovery of early human fossils in Ethiopia; oil discovery in South Vietnam; OPEC and oil prices; the journal Social Forces, founded at the Universiry of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Howard Odum; the publication of a book on Nate Shaw, a member of the Alabama Sharecroppers Union; Gunnar Myrdal's receipt of the Nobel Prize; and the poet John Beecher.
Varied clippings and correspondence related to the Graham Center, the National Sharecroppers Fund, and the Bangladesh famine of 1974. Of interest is correspondence from Father Dan Kennerk and clippings pertaining to the famine in Bangladesh and an International Development Review article by Akhter Hameed Kahn, "The Comilla Projects--A Personal Account." Other clippings pertain to the famine and to world hunger more broadly. Also includes agenda, correspondence, board member list, and other planning documents associated with the board meeting of the National Sharecroppers Fund; and notes prepared for meetings of the Men's Club at Oakton United Methodist Church; and an exchange of letters with a graduate student who interviewed Raper on his experience with the Commission on Interracial Cooperation, and with Nevin C. Brown, who sent Raper his paper, "A Sociologist for the South: Arthur Raper and the Discovery of the 'Problem South.'"
Chiefly correspondence, notes, publications, and reports related to Raper's service on a committee to evaluate the Tuskeegee Institute in the area of international affairs and correspondence, notes, index, and transcription related to Raper's interview with a graduate student focusing on the Henry Wallace campaign for president. Also contains clippings on various subjects including the verdict in the Watergate coverup trial, Iran and OPEC, and the Graham Center. Other Graham Center-related documents include minutes from a Rural Advancement Fund meeting and correspondence on committee reports and grant funding. Also included are some drafts of Raper's writings, including remarks given near Christmas at Oakton United Methodist Church and reflections on the book Children of Pride, which contains correspondence of southern plantation owners before and after the Civil War.
Primarily clippings from the Greene Country, Ga., newspaper, the Herald-Journal, including an article proposing a new economic system for the United States, to which Raper responded to the editor with his article, "A Third House of Congress." Other clippings and Raper's corresponding notes and writings pertain to Bangladeshi refugees, famine and food research, oil prices, the nationalization of rural lands in Ethiopia, Kurdish refugees from the 1975 Iraqi-Kurdish conflict, and the death of southern sociologist Carl Taylor. Other writings include a review of All God's Dangers: The Life of Nate Shaw, remarks on hunger for the Oakton United Methodist Church, and a reflection "Some Thoughts on Many Things" about farming, industrial production, and the economy.
Primarily excerpts from Raper's writings, interviews, and conference talks compiled into "Some Paragraphs written by AFR since mid-1962." The excerpts cover a range of topics, including the Comilla development project, segregation, lynching, reflections on the Rapers' time in Taiwan in the early 1950s, and Bangladesh. Also includes an exchange with economist Laurence Hewes, in which Raper provided comments for Hewes' draft text of "A Study on Integrated Rural Development in Developing Countries. Also included are clippings on the CIA, the death of Chiang Kai-shek, industrial farms, the evacuation of Vietnam and oil firms' subsequent abandonment of investment in Vietnam, the death penalty, white collar crime, and the John B. Connally acquittal on allegations of taking a bribe to influence a milk price decision.
Primarily clippings concerning the end of the Vietnam War and U.S. foreign policy in southeast Asia and Raper's handwritten notes on these topics. Other materials include a letter from Father Dan Kennerk on conditions in Bangladesh, Raper's handwritten writings on current events and farm activities, minutes and notes from the annual meeting of the National Sharecropper's Fund, and family correspondence. Of interest are clippings, notes, and correspondence pertaining to the death of Federal Communications Commissioner Clifford Durr, who defended Rosa Parks during the Montgomery bus boycott.
Chiefly correspondence, photographs, and planning documents relating to the 1975 Raper family reunion; various clippings and reflections on current events, including the deaths of agricultural economist Wolf Ladejinsky and deposed Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie, the August 1975 coup in Bangladesh, and world hunger; and correspondence pertaining to the Graham Center. Of interest is a letter from Father Dan Kennerk, describing reactions to the Bangladesh coup. Also included are clippings and correspondence pertaining to the fraud trials of members of the Pomponio real estate family, former neighbors of the Rapers.
Varied professional correspondence and material, including Raper's review of "An Analysis of the Emergence of a Rural Development Innovation in Comilla, Bangladesh" for The Journal of Developing Areas; a letter from Richard Niehoff informing Raper that Ahkter Hameed Khan had been forced to resign from the Rural Development Academy because of the political situation in Bangladesh; and letters and reports pertaining to the Graham Center, citing complaints from the Center's volunteers on the quality of the initiative's trainees. Other National Sharecroppers Fund material includes executive committee meeting minutes and organizational bylaws. Also included are clippings on earthquake preparedness, the death penalty in Alabama, atomic war, and inflation, as well as detailed remarks delivered at Oakton United Methodist Church center on the upcoming American Bicentennial.
Chiefly correspondence with Bob Worrell of the East-West Center on his use of Raper's Comilla development project slides in a training program; clippings and notes on the death of Francisco Franco and on Eldridge Cleaver and Kathleen Cleaver; reports on training and the farm at the Graham Center; and executive committee meeting minutes from the Rural Advancement Fund. Also includes other clippings on Leon Jaworski's decision to block the Nixon indictment, the firing of Defense Secretary James Schlesinger, and the death of sociologist Rupert Bayless Vance and communications from the Sponsors of Open Housing Investment on the resignation of Executive Director Stanly Bigman.
Primarily clippings with accompanying handwritten and typewritten notes concerning nuclear energy, the death of Paul Robeson, the civil war in Lebanon, farming, and the backlash against Nixon's 1976 trip to China. Also includes correspondence and notes related to Raper's acquaintanceship with Chuck Winslow, a frequent attendee of countercultural "Gathering of Tribes" events, including the "Rainbow Family Health Gathering". Professional correspondence includes a memo written by Raper after his 1976 visit to the Graham Center, discussing the problems of the Rural Advancement Fund in recent years; documents indicating that Raper planned to retire from the board of the National Sharecroppers Fund at the expiration of his term in 1976; and other NSF reports and meeting documents.
Mainly correspondence with former associates and graduate students containing comments on their manuscript materials, including a chapter from Dan Singal's dissertation chapter on Howard Odum. Also included is board correspondence from the Southern States Cooperative, Inc. and the National Sharecroppers Fund. Of note is Raper's detailed reply to local PBS station WPBT's inquiry about developing a program on the history of the rural poor in the South and a letter to the editor from Martha Raper on food coloring and artificial food additives. Some clippings from the Greensboro Herald-Journal, and from other periodicals relating to family planning progams, voter turnout, farming in Bangladesh, and apartheid.
Index and manuscript of "On the Crests of Forming Waves: Some Autobiographical Notes," Raper's account of his life from growing up on his family farm to settling down at his Oakton, Va., farm in the late 1960s. In providing a framework for his life, Raper writes,"How I was able (I should say we, for Martha and I have always been there together) to maneuver through, I'm not sure except that we tried to tell the truth, and we tried to tell it in an acceptable manner...If I know myself, I've never wanted to be a martyr, or a status-quo-er. I've often been asked if I consider myself a true southerner: no, and yes."
Chiefly minutes from executive committee meetings of the Rural Advancement Fund discussing the Graham Center's troubled financial situation, publications, correspondence, and Raper's informal writings. Topics include the opening of the Lyndon B. Johnson Memorial Park and the American Bicentennial celebration at Oakton United Methodist Church. Correspondence contains exchanges with graduate students on southern agrarianism in the 1930s; with members of the Mt. Olivet Methodist Church regarding Raper's family history with the church; with Father Dan Kennerk on improvements in the political situation in Bangladesh; with Father Regis Rodda on Rodda's Toronto community development project; and with Winifred K. Vass on the status of her manuscript, "The Bantu-Speaking Heritage of the U.S." Also included are clippings on Jimmy Carter's presidential campaign, Representative Barbara Jordan's keynote address to the 1976 Democratic Convention, the environment, and the death penalty.
Mainly Raper's informal writings with correspondence and clippings. Raper comments on news articles with topics including the death of Howard University president Dr. Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, who Raper knew through the Commission on Interracial Cooperation; the company R.J. Reynolds' questionable payments to the Securities and Exchange Commission; Jimmy Carter's presidential campaign; race relations in England, South Africa, and Argentina; and the death of Mao Tse-tung. Other writings include an extended meditation on the physical attributes, plants, and other living things at Slope Oaks, Raper's farm. Detailed letters from Bill Bridges, describing his year-long missionary trip in South Korea, are heavily represented in the correspondence materials. Also included are letters, clippings, and a photograph pertaining to Raper's donation of a collection of books to George Mason University's sociology department.
Primarily clippings on social, economic, political, and environmental topics, including the controversy surrounding Ford Cabinet Member Earl L. Butz's use of a racial slur; the death penalty, Pakistan leader Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the shrinking of the corporate tax burden, the campaign of Georgia Congressman Andrew Young, and issues surrounding Jimmy Carter's election to the presidency, including the controversy over Carter's interview with Playboy magazine, in which he said, "I've committed adultery in my heart many times;" criticism of political cartoonist Pat Oliphant's caricature of Carter's southern and rural background; and protests against the segregationist policy of Carter's church. Other materials include Raper's notes on remarks given by AID Assistant Administrator for Program and Policy Phillip Birnbaum at a meeting of the Society for International Development; on a program honoring poet Sterling A. Brown; and on a request for information about Raper's involvement in 1930 meetings concerning a report on African Americans in agriculture and rural life, "A Study of the Economic Status of the Negro."
Chiefly cards, letters, handwritten notes, and typewritten reflections related to Raper's 24-day hospitalization for a heart condition. In his writing, "Heart Ailment Masked by Indigestion," Raper describes in detail the history and manifestation of his condition and his hospital stay. Martha Raper, in a letter to Bob Hall of Southern Exposure magazine, describes her son Jarrell taking the bedridden Raper's whispered dictation of a book review Hall requested prior to the hospitalization. Other notable materials include the texts of remarks delivered at church; lectures given to a sociology class at George Mason University; Martha Raper's correpondence with a commissioner at the Federal Trade Commission on her appearance as a witness before a public hearing on truth in food advertising; and many clippings on the societal impact of the TV series Roots.
Varied clippings, correspondence, publications, and handwritten notes. Raper provides comments on daughter-in-law Gwynn B. Raper's essay, "Religious Ferment in the 18th Century: Prelude to Revolution," and recommends the essay to The Bulletin of King and Queen County, Historical Society of Virginia. Other notable correspondence includes family letters, a letter from Father Dan Kennerk, providing an update of his mission in Bangladesh, detailed letters from former Comilla development project associates Richard Niehoff and Ed Schuyler, and letters from graduate student Walter Jackson, requesting an interview on the topic of blacks in American social science, focusing on Raper's work with Gunnar Myrdal. The indexed transcript of the resulting interview is included. Clippings include articles on unauthorized immigration, Jimmy Carter's church in Plains, Ga., the Peace Corps, energy policy, and nuclear weapons.
Clippings and correspondence, some related to the deaths of three of the Rapers' neighbors and associates. Other collected documents include family letters; a published essay, "An Analysis of the Emergence of a Rural Development Innovation in Comilla, Bangladesh;"a memo to the board of directors of the Rural Advancement Fund about the Graham Center's new staff; and clippings on world hunger, the TV miniseries Roots., and the loss of optimism in the United States about what technology can accomplish. Of note is a 1963 report on the Comilla project that includes a detailed description of working with Akhter Hameed Khan.
Acquisitions information: Received as Addition of May 1990
One of three videotapes titled "I Think Mankind Will Do It: A Conversation with Arthur Raper," apparently taped for the National Sharecroppers Fund by North State Public Video in 1978. The tape shows Raper and unidentified interviewers at a rural location where Raper discusses his career and thoughts.
Acquisitions information: Received as Addition of May 1990
Two of three videotapes titled "I Think Mankind Will Do It: A Conversation with Arthur Raper," apparently taped for the National Sharecroppers Fund by North State Public Video in 1978. The tape shows Raper and unidentified interviewers at a rural location where Raper discusses his career and thoughts.
Acquisitions information: Received as Addition of May 1990
Three of three videotapes titled "I Think Mankind Will Do It: A Conversation with Arthur Raper," apparently taped for the National Sharecroppers Fund by North State Public Video in 1978. The tape shows Raper and unidentified interviewers at a rural location where Raper discusses his career and thoughts.
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Two volumes of family letters. The letters, written by various family members, are chiefly about individual and family group activities.
Audiotapes relate to the Comilla Project in East Pakistan and overseas orientation programs in the Middle East. Slides are narrated by corresponding audiotapes. Other audiotapes are of interviews with Arthur Raper, family conversations and songs, and other subjects.
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Photographs collected by Arthur Raper, chiefly in the South during the 1930s and 1940s, and in Asia in the 1940s and 1950s. Included are a number of photographs of Raper, circa 1920-1977. The photographs of the South are of the same nature as the Farm Security Administration photographs by Jack Delano in the Series II. Support File, 1925-1942, and are probably chiefly Farm Security Administration photographs as well. Several photographs of Dorothea Lange, photographer, appear, and it is possible that some of the photographs in this group were taken by Lange. As well as documenting living conditions in the South during the Great Depression, these photographs also document southern folk architecture and agriculture during this period, as well as Raper's travels in Asia.
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Rural scenes, most of which are from the Delta Cooperative Farm, Hillhouse, Miss., 1936 (See image folder PF-3966/90). Images depict houses, automobiles, barns, windmills, farm equipment, cotton fields, privies, roads, soil erosion, windmills, water tanks, power lines, cattle, mules, wagons, and African American and white adults and children.
Processing Information: The original nitrate negatives were digitized by the Northeast Document Conservation Center in 2009 and then destroyed as a precaution.
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These are of the same nature as the Farm Security Administration photos elsewhere in this collection, and are probably Farm Security Administration photos as well, circa 1930-1945.
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Published books and pamphlets written by Arthur Raper and others.
Formerly Volume 1
Formerly Volume 2
Formerly Volume 3
Frank Shay, Judge Lynch: His First Hundred Years, with an introduction essay, "Lynching and Racial Exploitation," by Arthur F. Raper (1938: reprint, 1969)
Formerly Volume 4
Formerly Volume 5
Formerly Volume 6
Formerly Volume 7
Formerly Volume 8
Formerly Volume 9
Formerly Volume 10
Formerly Volume 11
Formerly Volume 12
Raper's Volume 13
This series includes material, chiefly clippings, articles, and scattered correspondence, that supplements the 1925-1942 segment of the Chronological File (Series I). It provides further details about Arthur Raper's study of rural and racial problems in the United States, especially in the South, through 1942.
Chiefly correspondence, reports, and clippings. Correspondents include Will W. Alexander, Howard Odum, W.E.B. DuBois, and Jonathan Daniels of the Raleigh News and Observer and 1945 White House Press Secretary.The materials document Raper’s involvement with the Commission on Interracial Cooperation, including proposed and reported research, anti-lynching campaigns, budget matters, and race relations. Other materials pertain to African American schools and hospitals and to the onset of World War II and its social repercussions. Of note are 1956 field notes on Asia and North Africa "based on a decade of observations."
Notes, clippings, reports, articles, pamphlets, op-ed's, reviews, and interview excerpts related to race, agriculture, rural economics, sharecropping and farm tenancy, and rural conditions especially in the southern cotton belt. Materials also address rural conditions in Utah, California, and Mexico and land reform in Taiwan and Japan. Of interest is a paper co-written by Raper and Pearl Wheeler Tappan about low income families in the South who need to increase their own food production. Also of interest is a series of reports and field notes titled "Cultural Reconnaissance Survey of Coahoma County, Miss."and marked confidential. Abstracts of Raper’s publications from 1942 to 1943 chiefly pertain to regional planning and ethnic groups in the southeast United States. Other materials include synopses and reviews of books on race and class inequalities, labor, agriculture, race relations in the South and the United States, and the incarceration or internment of Japanese Americans during the Second World War.
Papers, essays, reports, field notes, and meeting minutes pertain to race, tenant farmers, cotton farming, lynching, federal relief aid particularly in Georgia, and class or caste differences in the South's black and white communities. Of interest are reports titled "Social Problems and Community Resources in Two Georgia Black Belt Counties" and "The City Pays for Rural Poverty." Field notes from a 1938 trip to Hillhouse, Miss. and eastern Arkansas document Raper's visit to the Delta Cooperative Farm and his introduction to the leaders of the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union. Of note are the meeting minutes of the Southern Commission on the Study of Lynching's executive committee. Syllabuses and lecture notes on sociology are from Raper's courses at Agnes Scott College.
Papers, essays, reports, and field notes chiefly pertain to federal relief particularly in Georgia, race relations, tenant farmers, and cotton farming. A few documents have slight content about the National Youth Administration. Of interest are a set of brief notes on race relations in Pine Bluff, Ark., Oklahoma City, Ok., and Dallas, Tx. In the notes, Raper relays a brief story about Walter White and an NAACP meeting in Dallas. Drafts of Raper's work include a lecture titled "The College and the Negro Farmer." and "A Comparative Study of Race Relations as Observed in Decatur, Georgia and Albany, New York." Other rural community studies document Taiwan in 1952 and Karachi, Pakistan in 1963."Two Years to Remember," is a memoir co-written with Martha J. Raper about his family’s experience in Greene County, Ga., where they lived from September 1940 to September 1942. Excerpts from letters to his family during a “round the world trip” from 15 October to 20 December 1951 describe observations and experiences in New York City, N.Y., San Francisco, Ca., Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, India, Lebanon, and Jordan.
Correspondence, reports, research data, and clippings pertaining to the Industry Committee of the United States Department of Labor, which was examining wages and hours of workers in the textiles, furniture, sawmills, and railroad industries and in the government.
The autograph collection was returned to the Raper family.
Chiefly clippings about African Americans, both prominent public figures including intellectuals, inventors, athletes, artists, and educators and agricultural and domestic laborers. Also included are clippings and a printed booklet about technocracy.
Pamphlets on race relations, "mob murder" and lynching, rural community development and agricultural reform, sharecropping, and economic conditions.
Clippings, correspondence, printed items, and reports pertaining to "racial attitudes." Topics include interracial cooperation, cotton mills, employment, crime, and education. Of note are newsletter issues from an organization called the Blue Shirts. Under the masthead of the self-titled newsletter, published in Jacksonville, Fla., the Blue Shirts are described as the "Chamber of Commerce of the white working class."
Clippings, correspondence, printed items, press releases, reprints, and reports pertaining to "racial attitudes." Topics include suffrage, lynching, white on black crime, southern industry, the minimum wage pay scale, and education. Of note is a copy of a letter to Mark Etheridge editor of the Louisville, Ky. Courrier-Journal. The letter dated 10 August 1937 is from J.A. Lawrence of the Equal Rights for Whites Movement, a group formed "to dissuade anti white labor policy." Writing from Greensboro, Ala., Lawrence states that "curing the rape evil cures the lynching evil." Also included is a brochure for the Blue Shirts.
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Chiefly newspaper clippings related to African American labor organizer and Communist Party member Angelo Herndon, who was convicted in Atlanta, Ga., on charges of inciting insurrection. The United States Supreme Court overturned the conviction. Many clippings are from the Georgia Woman's World published by the Southern Association of White Women for the Preservation of the White Race. Correspondence between Raper and J.R. McCain, president of Agnes Scott College, addresses the Herndon case. Also included are materials related to corporate opposition to federal wage hour law, what became the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. Of note are items pertaining to a 1937 interracial student rally for peace held in Atlanta and a printed statement from the citizens of Atlanta concerning freedom of speech and assembly. Also of note is a detailed report on an anonymous telephone call received by Jesse Daniel Ames that pertained to her work on the prevention of lynching.
Chiefly materials related to racial inequality in education. Statistical data sets show public school expenditures per child according to race and provide percentages of students in Detroit, Mich., public schools held back three of more years, by state of birth. The latter data sets suggest that African American students from the American South who had migrated north were at a disadvantage in school. Printed materials include an NAACP pamphlet titled "Racial Inequalities in Education" and an issue of The Journal of Negro Education published by Howard University. Other materials, including clippings, relate to cotton farming. Of note for their inclusion in Raper's supplemental research files are copies of Eugene ONeill's play All God's Chillun Got Wings, "The Ku-Kluxer" by Gerald W. Johnson, "Lion" by William Faulkner, and the call-and-response script for a performance of "Ceremony of the Land. "
Chiefly clippings, statistics, correspondence, and pamphlets related to education and to "economic reconstruction and human exploitation." Many items pertain to the Julian Rosenwald Fund, which sought to build schools in rural communities and improve educational opportunities for African Americans. Several pamphlets dated between 1927 and 1930 describe the progress of schoolhouse construction. Of note are a pamphlet titled "Racial Inequality in Education" and related correspondence dated November 1938 between Raper and Walter White, secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Also included is a long essay addressing Atlanta's central role in the higher education of Negroes. Other materials, including correspondence, clippings, pamphlets, and a report titled "The Economic Status of the Negro," describe the exploitation of workers and other negative effects of capitalism. Several clippings pertain to capitalist, William Randolph Hearst.
Scattered issues of Georgia Woman's World and The Statesman. The Southern Association of White Women for the Preservation of the White Race published Georgia Woman's World in Atlanta. Issues in Raper's research files date from June 1936 to November 1937. Many articles pertain to race relations and portray African Americans and their white supporters negatively. Addressing the economy and state and national politics, the articles and editorials criticized President Franklin Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt, and New Deal programs and policies and posited that national politics and many congressional Democrats from the North were corrupt and immoral. Georgia governor Eugene Talmadge was associate editor of The Statesman which published editions in Atlanta and Hapeville, Ga. Issues in Raper's research files date from August to December 1941. The Statesman articles and editorials pertain to national politics and race relations and address local concerns, including agricultural conditions and events at local universities. Of note is an article in the 21 October 1941 issue condemning a Rosenwald Fund poster found on a bulletin board at the University of Georgia that promoted racial equality. Another article in the 5 August 1941 issue criticizes J. R. McCain, president of Agnes Scott College, for following Julian Rosenwald’s teachings and allowing white students from the College to mingle with Negroes.
Chiefly materials related to a proposed study titled "The Participation of the Negro in the Life of the South." Directed by Guy B. Johnson at the University of North Carolina, the study began in 1933, but was never completed. Drafts of memos describe the need for the study, recommend personnel, and outline proposed methods and potential uses of the findings. The introduction to the study, written by J. Herman Johnson, provides historical background on the legal status of free African Americans between 1619 and 1860. In a 15 February 1937 letter to Raper, Guy B. Johnson announces the suspension of the study and suggests areas where the study could have been more successful. Raper's field notes describe a failed 1934 study in Putnam County, Ga., that was disrupted by mob action.
Chiefly materials related to the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) and its largely negative impact on African Americans. A 5 December 1933 report from the Tuskegee Institute and press releases from the Associated Negro Press dated 1934 and 1935 describe the exploitation of African American workers and their exclusion from NIRA regulations and protections. A letter dated 31 August 1933 from Will W. Alexander to members of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation discusses a movement in southern states to exclude African Americans from the fixed minimum wage.
Chiefly materials related to the 1934 textile workers’ strike that affected mills in New England, the mid-Atlantic region, and the South. Newspaper clippings from 1934 chronicle developments in the strike. Three pamphlets provide information about labor laws, support programs for workers, and violence during strikes. Also included is the 1936 Review and Summary of Findings published by the Institute on Southern Regional Development and the Social Sciences at the University of North Carolina.
Chiefly materials related to federal funding for education in Georgia. Statistical data sets show the amounts of money spent on educating white and black students and differential expenditures on repairing school facilities for whites and blacks. Other items, including correspondence, pertains to farm tenancy in Georgia, Florida, Missouri, Alabama, and other southern states.
Contains students' papers written for Raper's courses at the Atlanta University Summer School and the Gammon Theological Seminary. Six papers were written for a course titled " Southern Population Elements and Public Policy." Subjects include industry, economics, race relations, education, lynching, and public policy in the South.
Chiefly correspondence discussing visits to different resettlement farms, homesteads, and communities. Correspondents include individuals affiliated with Scarritt College, the Commission on Interracial Cooperation, and the Rural Resettlement Administration, a New Deal agency. Documents describe resettlement projects, including Tupelo Homesteads in Mississippi and Lake Dick Cooperative Farm in Arkansas. A March 1937 essay titled "Christianity and Social Service" discusses the South's socioeconomic problems and argues that Christian southerners have an obligation to provide an adequate quality of life for all people. A 30 March 1938 report originally published in the Weekly Kansas City Star and titled "100 Missouri Share Croppers Move into a Land of Promise" describes a Farm Security Administration (FSA) resettlement community in La Forge, Mo. Also noteworthy are scattered field notes, including some on Oklahoma's dust bowl.
Press releases, correspondence, statements, reports, and clippings related to the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union (STFU). An 18 September 1938 statement from STFU's executive council to the Arkansas Governor's Commission on Farm Tenancy describes the difficult conditions of tenant farming and reports incidents of violence and injustice. In a 24 January 1937 letter to Raper, an Arkansas planter discusses his experiences with tenant farmers and complains about federal government spending, ineffective extension services, naive extension agents, and the drinking, gambling, and fighting of the tenant farmers. Raper's short reply follows. A 6 May 1938 Delta and Providence Cooperative Farms newsletter, "The Co-Op Call," includes a "Directograph," a "Church Corner," poetry, social notes, and reports about the cooperative. Also included are a press release from the Associated Negro Press titled "Tenant Farmers [sic] Union Offers Plan to End Serfdom and Peonage" and a 1939 report from the secretary of SFTU recounting events, such as National Sharecroppers Week and STFU conventions.
Press releases, clippings, notes, and correspondence related to the Delta and Providence Cooperative Farms in Mississippi and the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union. The Cooperative Farms' secretary-treasurer, Sherwood Eddy, is a frequent correspondent and author of newsletters describing the progress and struggles of cooperative farms. A 1937 report titled "Farm Tenancy and the Delta Cooperative Farm," provides details about the efforts of the farmers, Sherwood Eddy, and others on the Cooperative Farms. Also included are field notes that describe the socioeconomic conditions and people of Hillhouse, Miss., and eastern Arkansas in 1936.
Correspondence and organizational documents pertaining to the Delta and Providence Cooperative Farms in Mississippi. Correspondents, including William Amberson, Sam Franklin, and Constance Rumbough, discuss the farms, board meetings, visitors, and operations. Other documents include a 26 April 1938 auditor's report, minutes of board meetings, and "By-Laws of Cooperative Farms Inc.," which outlines the duties of the board members, president, and members.
Correspondence, minutes of board meetings, and memoranda related to the administrative operations of the Delta and Providence Cooperative Farms in Mississippi and to the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union (STFU). Many items pertain to William Amberson's resignation from the Cooperative Farms' board. Of note is Amberson's 22 February 1939 statement explaining his decision. Also included is an August 1939 letter from a visitor to the Cooperative Farms, Nelle Da Vitte, to Raper expressing her admiration and support for the farm and for Sam Franklin. Raper's brief reply follows.
Reports, minutes of board meetings, pamphlets, letters, and memoranda related to the Delta and Providence Cooperative Farms in Mississippi and to the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union (STFU). Sam Franklin is a frequent correspondent who writes at length about the daily operations of the Cooperative Farms and significant developments such as the installation of a pasteurizer. In a union report, Frank McCallistor describes a visit to Caruthersville, Mo., where he spoke with STFU members victimized by a mob. A pamphlet from the Workers' Defense League recounts the struggles of southern laborers.
Clippings, booklets, and other materials related to the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Committee for Industrial Organization (became the Congress of Industrial Organizations or CIO). Included is a May 1937 booklet, "Americanism versus Communism or American Federation of Labor versus Committee for Industrial Organization," compiled and published by the Southern Labor Federationist. A long essay, "A. Steve Nance: Labor Statesman and Citizen" describes Nance's life, work, and affiliation shift from the AFL to the CIO. Also included is a 14 November 1938 report by John Lewis written for the first constitutional convention of the Committee for Industrial Organization.
Correspondence, reports, and data sets related to educational and socioeconomic conditions of African Americans across the country and the South, especially Georgia. Included are a May 1938 report prepared by Walter D. Cocking and staff, "Outline for the Discussion of Higher Education for Negroes in Georgia," and data showing the average annual incomes of families. Most correspondence pertains to Raper’s study, "The Economic and Social Status of the Negro in Georgia." The correspondents discuss professional meetings, surveys undertaken for the study, and suggestions to improve the study.
Contains the 1938 Report on the Study of Higher Education of Negroes. The report chiefly consists of statistical data and analysis related to population trends, enrollment, and state expenditures on education.
Chiefly materials related to higher education of African Americans in general and specifically the United States Supreme Court case, Gaines v. Canada (1938) brought by the NAACP against the University of Missouri for refusing law school admission to African American Lloyd Gaines. An editorial in The Missouri Student, "The Inevitable Mr. Gaines," urged the University of Missouri to accept the court's decision and admit African Americans. In a letter John Creedy of the Carolina Magazine asks Raper to contribute an essay to a special issue of the magazine devoted to the "problem of Negro education in the South as it relates to the University of North Carolina." Raper did not contribute to the issue, but he retained a copy in his files. Also included is an April 1939 booklet written by Rufus F. Clement, "Legal Provisions for Graduate and Professional Instruction for Negroes in States Operating Separate School Systems."
Clippings, correspondence, and other material related to the Southern Conference for Human Welfare inaugural meeting in Birmingham, Ala., November 1938. An article by Raper describes the meeting and Eleanor Roosevelt’s appearance there. A program for the conference is also included.
Clippings, correspondence, and booklets related to the second meeting of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare in Chattanooga, Tenn. In his letters to Raper, Frank Porter Graham discusses plans for the event and asked Raper to become a sponsor. Also included is a tentative program, which included topics such as "Children in the South, ""Rural Life in the South, " and "The Meaning of Religion for Democracy."
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This series includes material, chiefly notes, correspondence, and other items, that supplements the 1943-1962 segment of the Chronological File (Series I). Many of these papers are field notes on sample counties in the United States and items providing information about Arthur Raper's work overseas through 1962.
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This series consists of material, chiefly reports, articles, and scattered correspondence, that supplements the portions of Chronological File (Series I), that deal with the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development project. These papers document both the experiences of Arthur Raper and his wife Martha in Comilla, East Pakistan, and the evolution of the Comilla Project.
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Correspondence to and from Martha Raper, Arthur Franklin Raper's wife, comprises the bulk of the addition. Other materials include Martha Raper's writings, narrative accounts of her dreams, calendars and address books, clippings and printed items, and Raper family photographs.
Processing Information: Although this series has not been analyzed or fully arranged and described, the materials may be viewed in the reading room at Wilson Special Collections Library.
Arrangement: Chronological by year only. The correspondence is not in order by month or date.
Chiefly correspondence to and from Martha Raper. Primary correspondents are her husband Arthur Franklin Raper particularly when he was working abroad in Asia and the Middle East, their four adult children, and their grandchildren. Other correspondents are chiefly family friends and colleagues. Many letters contain enclosures including photographs of family members, children's drawings, school work, and letters, and newspaper clippings. Letters between Raper family members tend to be rich in content and details and often include comments on contemporary events. Arthur Franklin Raper frequently discussed his work and the places where he conducted the work, especially Taipei, Taiwan in the 1950s. He occasionally included a report with a letter.
Martha Raper compiled copies of her outgoing correspondence in a set of binders. The original order of her correspondence files was retained, but the binders were replaced with archival folders.
Chiefly narrative accounts of Martha Raper's dreams. Also includes scattered correspondence with her psychotherapist in the 1950s.
Essays written by Martha Raper from Taipei and elsewhere and scathing commentary she offered on the report Sexual Behavior in the Human Female by Alfred C. Kinsey. Also contains poems and songs, including "Generally Recognized As Safe" by Martha Raper. Subject files pertain to food science, use of preservatives, and nutrition.
Information is chiefly about Martha Raper, Arthur Raper, and the Jarrell family (Martha's surname at birth was Jarrell).
Includes material related to Arthur and Martha Raper's work in Taipei, Taiwan, Tehran, Iran, and Comilla Pakistan; their son Arthur Harrell Raper; and Arthur Franklin Raper's memorial service in 1979.
Also includes visiting cards and Christmas lists.
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Images chiefly depict Arthur Franklin Raper, Martha Raper, and their four children. Of note is a 1942 photograph album compiled by photographer Jack Delano. The stylized images and layout of the album show the Raper family in Greene County, Ga., where Raper conducted rural sociological research at the tail end of the Depression. Delano worked for the Farm Security Administration. In addition to creating the album, Delano made an ink drawing of himself and his wife [?] leaving Georgia and saying goodbye to the Raper family.
Also included are images of the Kerman Province, Iran in 1957 and a photograph album with images of Taiwan in the early 1950s.
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35mm color transparencies
Images depict the Raper family, particularly Arthur Franklin Raper.
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"Original painting of Slope Oaks, Oakton, Virginia, home of Arthur F. and Martha J. Raper, 1947-1979." Painting was made by a neighbor, Helen Small Bowers, in 1973.