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This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the Duplication Policy section for more information.
|Size||66.0 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 62,400 items)|
|Abstract||Along with its other duties, the Division of Legal Affairs was involved in the desegregation of the University of North Carolina system. In 1970, the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare notified the University of North Carolina System that it was violating Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by maintaining a racially dual system of public higher education. In response, the university began drafting a desegregation plan. Eight years of draft submissions, revisions, rejections, self-studies, and negotiations followed. The matter was finally resolved through an administrative proceeding that began in 1980 and ended with a consent decree in 1981. Implementation of the provisions of the consent decree continued for a number of years. Records include administrative manuals, codes, policies, and tenure regulations compiled by the Division of Legal Affairs and issued by the university system's Board of Governors, 1991-1999; materials pertaining to the ownership and administration of the Stevens Center at the North Carolina School of the Arts, 1979-1990; and files on the desegregation negotiations and litigation between the University system and the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (later Department of Health and Human Services), 1970-1993. The vast majority of the records concern the HEW case. Included are correspondence and legal documents as well as reports and data submitted to HEW by the university. Items dated prior to 1970 are background materials related to the history of desegregation.|
|Creator||University of North Carolina (System). Division of Legal Affairs.|
|Curatorial Unit||University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. University Archives.|
Processed by: University Archives Staff, May 2000
Encoded by: Patrick Harner, October 2008
Updated by Jennifer Coggins and Laura Smith because of addition, May 2018Back to Top
The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.
Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.
In 1969 the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) began investigating the desegregation progress of ten states, including North Carolina, that had historically segregated systems of public higher education. HEW was responsible for enforcing Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as it pertained to educational institutions receiving federal funding. Title VI legislated that "no person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program receiving federal financial assistance."
In February 1970 the University of North Carolina (System) received notice of its non-compliance with Title VI from HEW's Office for Civil Rights (OCR). The university was found to be maintaining a racially identifiable system of public higher education. In response it began drafting a desegregation plan that would comply with Title VI. In October 1970 the Legal Defense and Educational Fund (LDF) of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People filed suit against HEW and charged the department with negligence in enforcing Title VI. The plaintiffs in the suit (Adams v. Richardson) sought to impose more rigorous requirements for desegregation of higher education in the ten affected states and to enforce a termination of federal funds to those states that failed to submit satisfactory plans for desegregation.
In February 1973 federal judge John H. Pratt found for the plaintiffs in Adams v. Richardson and ordered HEW to begin enforcement proceedings against the affected states within 120 days. On appeal HEW was permitted to solicit desegregation plans before commencing proceedings. The University of North Carolina (System) submitted its plan, "A State Program to Enlarge Educational Opportunity in North Carolina," to OCR in June 1973. The plan called for recruitment of minority students and faculty, remedial programs, expanded financial aid funds for all students, intercampus cooperation and exchange, and an anti-discrimination policy for admissions and employment. In November 1973 HEW-OCR rejected the plan on the grounds that it lacked specific goals for race diversity and details of how the plan would be executed.
Eight years of draft submissions, revisions, rejections, self-studies, and negotiations followed. The irresolvable dispute between HEW-OCR and the university revolved around the means by which desegregation should be achieved and monitored. Various initiatives were discussed over the years, including black enrollment quotas at traditionally white institutions (TWIs), increased black enrollment in graduate and professional programs, preservation and enhancement of programs and facilities at traditionally black institution (TBIs), establishment of remedial programs, and affirmative action admissions and employment policies. By 1978, however, the debate had focused on elimination of program duplication at geographically proximate institutions. OCR contended that shifting programs from one campus to another would effect immediate changes in the racial composition of the institutions. OCR would monitor the university's progress toward desegregation via semi-annual reports and by exercising prior approval over major changes to university policy.
Under political pressure from LDF and the Adams court to enforce Title VI, HEW-OCR maintained a hard line on how and when desegregation should be achieved. University of North Carolina President William C. Friday and the Board of Governors resented OCR's dismissal of the university's voluntary good faith efforts toward desegregation in the 1970s. They countered OCR's attack by taking a firm stance against interference by outside agencies in the educational affairs of the state. The university asserted that it had done enough and that the criteria prescribed by HEW were neither legally required nor practical and potentially would harm the state educational system. The university attempted to demonstrate that its own program of slow change was preferable to HEW's micro-managerial attempts to dictate the course of higher education in North Carolina.
Shuttle negotiations between Washington, D.C., and Chapel Hill in 1978 and 1979 failed to produce a lasting compromise. In March 1979 HEW announced it would begin proceedings to terminate federal funding to the University of North Carolina (System). The university retained the Washington-based legal firm of noted civil rights attorney Charles Morgan to continue negotiations with HEW and in April filed suit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina to challenge HEW's right to terminate federal support. Judge Franklin T. Dupree, Jr., ruled that termination of funds could not occur until the outcome of the Administrative Proceeding had been determined.
Hearings for the Administrative Proceeding began in July 1980 and continued through July 1981. Throughout the hearings, negotiations for a consent decree continued in secret. The ongoing dispute over program duplication and the mechanism for evaluation hampered the negotiations until Terrell Bell, then secretary of the Department of Education under President Reagan, removed these criteria. The July 1981 consent decree set enrollment goals rather than quotas (10.6 percent black enrollment at TWIs and 15 percent white enrollment at TBIs), added graduate and undergraduate program offerings to the TBIs, and pledged commitment to equitable salaries and racial composition of faculty and staff. In addition, the university agreed to file annual minority presence reports with the supervising court through 1986.
The consent decree and its supervision by the United States District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina was affirmed in an appeal by LDF to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in July 1983. The matter did not close officially until the Supreme Court refused to hear LDF's appeal of the D.C. circuit court's affirmation.Back to Top
Records include administrative manuals, codes, policies, and tenure regulations compiled by the University of North Carolina (System) Division of Legal Affairs and issued by the system's Board of Governors, 1991-1999; materials pertaining to the ownership and administration of the Stevens Center at the North Carolina School of the Arts, 1979-1990; and files on the desegregation negotiations and litigation between the University of North Carolina (System) and the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (later United States Department of Health and Human Services), 1970-1993. The vast majority of the records concern the HEW case. Included are correspondence and legal documents as well as reports and data submitted to HEW by the university. Items dated prior to 1970 are background materials related to the history of desegregation.
Materials in the University of North Carolina-United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare General files include correspondence among university officials and their legal representatives as well as correspondence between the university and HEW; drafts and final copies of the state plans for desegregation; and numerous related reports filed by the university with HEW. Separate files exist for background information, citizen correspondence, newspaper clippings, legal documents, statistical data, self-studies and programs undertaken by the university to fulfill promises made to HEW, and materials related to the decision to locate the School of Veterinary Medicine at North Carolina State University.
The legal documents pertain to the Adams case as well as to the Administrative Proceeding and include affidavits, depositions, testimony, and various other documents filed with the courts. Statistical data files include exhibits prepared for the Administrative Proceeding, the raw data that informed the semi-annual reports to HEW-OCR, and the Minority Presence Reports submitted under the Consent Decree. Background materials include correspondence, legal decisions, and other materials related to HEW's desegregation negotiations with the North Carolina Community College System and with other states.Back to Top
(includes correspondence, lease agreements, and other documents pertaining to ownership and administration of the center)
(notebooks were compiled to illustrate a chronology of events related to the Stevens Center; a number of the documents are duplicated in the General file)
(includes reel-to-reel audiotape of Commencement luncheon remarks by William Friday, 12 May 1978; tape shelved separately under T-40015/1; consult staff for access)
(includes audiocassette tape of Richard Robinson's part of telephone conversations with Nettie Thigpen, Tom Stafford, and Naomi Wynn, 27? and 30 June 1980; tape shelved separately under C-40015/1; consult staff for access.)
(includes videocassette tape of CBS Sunday Morning with Charles Kuralt, 13 September 1981; tape shelved separately under VT-40015/1; consult staff for access)
(Background includes correspondence, legal decisions, and other materials indirectly related to UNC-HEW negotiations and litigation; Background: General includes pre-negotiation correspondence and other materials)
(includes WEAL v. Department of Education)
(files listed under Statistical Data include exhibits prepared by DBS Corporation for the Administrative Proceeding, the raw data that informed the semi-annual reports to HEW, and the Minority Presence Reports submitted under the Consent Decree)
Statistical Data: Exhibits: Volume 1, FTE Enrollments, Expenditures, Appropriations, General Fund Appropriations, Degrees Awarded, Faculty by Rank, Student-Teacher Ratios
(prepared by DBS Corporation for the Administrative Proceeding; include statistics on UNC System campuses)
(see Addendum, following Volume 17)
Statistical Data: Exhibits: Volume 15, Library Expenditures, Tuition and Fees, State Appropriations, Operating Revenues
(see also Addendum, following Volume 17)
(see also Addendum, following Volume 17)
(see also Addendum, following Volume 17)
(includes Atkins v. Scott materials)
Aquisitions Information: RT 20180514.1.
These reports document efforts by UNC System schools to demonstrate compliance with the 1981 consent decree that ended the University System's negotiations with the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's Office of Civil Rights. Materials in the exhibits include reports, sample letters to minority students, efforts to involve alumni in recruiting students, and efforts to identify and recruit African American high school students. Exhibits also document efforts by North Carolina's historically black colleges and universities to increase their enrollment of white students.