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Collection Number: 70169

Collection Title: Duplicating Technologies Collection, 1782-2018

This collection has use restrictions. For details, please see the restrictions.

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the Duplication Policy section for more information.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Collection Overview

Size 101 items
Abstract This collection is composed of culturally significant documents that were copied or printed using different duplicating technologies from 1782 through 2018. Together, these documents trace the development of home and office printing, from Watt's Copy Machine to the Xerox. The copying and printing processes applied by the duplicating technologies chronicled in this collection utilized either pressure or light sensitivity and were largely reliant on new chemical developments to achieve the results collected here. Through this collection, it is possible to see how printing and copying technologies referenced and built on previous processes, improving on previous methods and connecting these technologies through time.
Curatorial Unit University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Rare Book Collection.
Language Armenian, Croatian, English, French, German, Italian, Portugese, Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, Uyghur
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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Information For Users

Restrictions to Access
No restrictions. Open for research.
Restrictions to Use
Scanning and flash photography require conservation review to protect light-fugitive printed material; non-flash photography is allowed.
Copyright Notice
Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the Duplicating Technologies Collection #70169, Rare Book Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Acquisitions Information
Purchased from Type Punch Matrix in 2023 with the Hanes Fund (20231107.1).
Presented by John W. and Anna H. Hanes Foundation in celebration of the Library's 10-millionth volume.
Sensitive Materials Statement
Manuscript collections and archival records may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations, the North Carolina Public Records Act (N.C.G.S. § 132 1 et seq.), and Article 7 of the North Carolina State Personnel Act (Privacy of State Employee Personnel Records, N.C.G.S. § 126-22 et seq.). Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill assumes no responsibility.
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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Processing Information

Processed by: Saija Wilson, February 2024

Encoded by: Laura Smith, February 2024

This finding aid reflects Type Punch Matrix's arrangement of the items and their description. Titles have been lightly edited to follow local descriptive standards.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subject Headings

The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.

Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Scope and Content

This collection is composed of culturally significant documents that were copied or printed using different duplicating technologies from 1782 through 2018. Together, these documents trace the development of home and office printing, from Watt's Copy Machine to the Xerox. The copying and printing processes applied by the duplicating technologies chronicled in this collection utilized either pressure or light sensitivity and were largely reliant on new chemical developments to achieve the results collected here. The processes represented here include hand-copying, stenciling, typewriting, blue printing, white printing, photography and xerography. The types of documents that have been duplicated include, but are not limited to: artist's books, broadsides, catalogs, film scripts, fliers, lectures, memoires, musical scores, newspapers, novellas, novels, periodicals, reports, short stories, song lyrics, speeches, textbooks, and zines.

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Contents list

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series Quick Links

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 1. Origins, 1782-1933

6 items

Arrangement: Chronological.

Item 1

Directions for using the copying-machine / by James Watt ; transcribed by William Temple Franklin. (1782)

Duplication technology: Watt's copy press

Benjamin Franklin's own fair-copy instructions for the famed Watt copy press, executed in part by his grandson and secretary William Temple Franklin, and likely included with the presses Franklin had fashioned in France from his own Watt machine and that were subsequently sent to Congress.

Item 2

Genealogy of Pliney Hayes and Lucretia Jewett. (1855)

Place: Connecticut

Duplication technology: Tabletop letterpress

A work of amateur printing, likely printed on a small tabletop press, detailing the genealogy of a Connecticut family.

Item 3

The practice of the law in civil cases, including matters of pleading / by John Barbee Minor. (1877)

Place: Charlottesville, Va.

Duplication technology: Lithography

Two-volume 19th-century law-school textbook, duplicated on a small lithographic press from holograph.

Item 4

Notes of lectures on molecular dynamics and the wave theory of light / by William Thomson. (1884)

Place: Baltimore, Md.

Duplication technology: Papyrograph

First edition of "one of the monuments of Victorian science" (David B. Wilson, "Kelvin's Baltimore Lectures and Modern Theoretical Physics: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives by Robert Kargon, Peter Achinstein and Kelvin," p. 109), Lord Kelvin's "Baltimore Lectures," delivered at Johns Hopkins, "stenographically reported" by student A.S. Hathaway, and subsequently printed by a 19th-century duplicating processes: the papyrograph.

Item 5

The Kreutzer Sonata / by Leo Tolstoy. (1890)

Place: Tatarstan

Language: Russian

Duplication technology: Hand copying

Contemporary, hand-written copy of Tolstoy's The Kreutzer Sonata, dated December 21, 1890, and with several original annotations by the copyist.

Item 6

Portrait of Thomas Edison and Francis Jehl. (1933)

Place: Menlo Park, Edison, N.J.

Duplication technology: Edison Pen

Original Edison Pen portrait of the inventor of this duplicating technology, with his laboratory assistant Francis Jehl, inscribed by Jehl at Edison Labs.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 2. Impact, 1876-1980

5 items

Arrangement: Chronological.

Item 7

Signed memorandum of agreement with her publisher Henry S. King / by May Laffan. (1876)

Duplication technology: Impact, typewriter, carbon paper

Typed carbon copy of an agreement between Irish novelist May Laffan and publisher Henry King for her first novel Hogan, M.P.— likely typed on the first modern typewriter, the Sholes and Glidden.

Item 8

Investigation of the Pocahontas mine disaster / by a committee appointed from the American Institute of Mining Engineers. (1884)

Place: Pocahontas, Va.

Duplication technology: Impact, typewriter

Typed report on the Pocahontas mine disaster, likely produced on an early Remington typewriter, the first to utilize a "shift" key.

Item 9

To the president and trustees of the Santa Eulalia Mining Company / by James D. Hague ; typed by Edith V. Day. (1885)

Place: Brooklyn, N.Y.

Duplication technology: Impact, typewriter

Report on "the extent and nature of the ore-bearing deposits," "the character and quality of the ores and of the present resources of the property," and "the probability or possibility of developing out of the Company's available resources a profitable mining business" — an early typed document prepared by "Edith V. Day, Copyist." Mines located in Chihuahua, Mexico

Item 10

[A bound collection including : Abishag : a luscious tale of a successful physiological search after rejuvenescence and three other tales] / by David H. Jerusalem, et al. (1910)

Duplication technology: Impact, typewriter, carbon paper

Carbon typescript fair copy of four erotic short tales, finely bound ("Memoires") — likely disguised for shelving in the open.

Item 11

Desiat' pisem : v dvukh chastiakh [Ten letters : in two volumes] / [translated by] "Dhz[eison] Gudvin" (J[ason] Goodwin or Godwin). (approximately 1975-1980)

Place: Soviet Union.

Language: Russian

Duplication technology: Impact, typewriter, carbon paper

Samizdat erotic epistolary novel, produced by carbon-copy typescript and presented as a translation of an American work ostensibly published in Philadelphia, 1960, by "Dhz[eison] Gudvin" (J[ason] Goodwin or Godwin).

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 3. Hectograph, 1870-1975

10 items

Arrangement: Chronological.

Item 12

Shaker hymnal. (approximately 1870s)

Place: New Lebanon, N.Y.(?)

Duplication technology: Hectograph

Original 19th-century hectographed Shaker hymnal, including a number of songs utilizing the Shaker literal system.

Item 13

Fabrique de pipe en Bruyère de Grappin-Dalloz. (approximately 1880s)

Place: St. Claude (Jura), France.

Language: French

Duplication technology: Hectograph

Original hectographed catalogue of carved briar smoking pipes from French manufacturer Grappin-Dalloz — likely produced for use by company representatives.

Item 14

American manuscript cookbook / by Mrs. Whitlock. (approximately 1880s-1890s)

Place: Bethany, Conn.

Duplication technology: Hectograph

Late 19th-century holograph household cookbook containing a recipe for a "Hektograph."

Item 15

O garonga / by Francisco Valenca. (1897-1898)

Duplication technology: Hectograph

Place: Lisbon, Portugal.

Language: Portuguese

Six issues of some of the earliest published work from Portugese artist and caricaturist — produced on a hectograph. Issues included are: Anno 1, no. 5 (October 25th, 1897) and no. 6 (January 1st, 1898); Anno 2, no. 7 (January 10th, 1898), no. 8 (April 10th, 1898), no. 9 (April 25th, 1898), and no. 10 (May 25th, 1898).

Item 16

[Illustrated postcards advertising New York Motorcycle Club events] / by M.E. Toepel. (1907)

Place: New York.

Duplication technology: Hectograph

Nine promotional postcards from one of the earliest motorcycle clubs in the United States: The New York Motorcycle Club.

Item 17

Схема Расположенія Германо-Болгарско-Турецкихъ Войскъ на Фронтѣ Добруджанской Арміи по Даннымъ къ 3 октяврн 1916 r. [Diagram of the location of the German-Bulgarian-Turkish army on the Dobruja front according to information available as of 3 October 1916.] (1916)

Place: Dobruja Front in Romania

Language: Russian

Duplication technology: Hectograph

Original field-printed World-War-I map showing the front between the German-Bulgarian-Ottoman forces and the Russian-Romanian army along the Dobruja Front in southwestern Romania in the fall of 1916 — hectographed in-theater by the General Staff of the Imperial Russian Army, featuring the latest intelligence on opposing forces.

Item 18

Exquisite sinner / by Marion Orth and Harvey Gates ; directed by Josef von Sternberg. (1925)

Place: Culver City, Calif.

Duplication technology: Hectograph

Original hectographed draft film script (dated December 19, 1925) for a lost 1926 silent film by director Josef von Sternberg.

Item 19

Կոհակ: շաբաթաթերթ [Gohag (Kohak) : weekly]. (May, 1934)

Place: Istanbul.

Language: Armenian

Duplication technology: Hectograph

Post-genocide Armenian language journal, hectographed in Istanbul. The journal Gohag was founded as a conventionally-printed newspaper with a wide circulation in Istanbul’s Armenian community published between 1909 and 1913. It is unclear whether this issue of Gohag is a continuation of the original or in homage to it.

Item 20

The gargoyle. volume one, number two / by John Morgan and Steve Ryan. (July, 1966)

Place: Camp Lejeune, N.C.

Duplication technology: Hectograph

Second issue of anti-war zine, hectographed in the heat of North Carolina at Camp Lejeune by an anti-Vietnam and soon-to-be AWOL Marine.

Item 21

[Collection of hectographic prints and typescripts] / by Mae Strelkov. (1974-1975)

Places: Argentina; Washington, D.C.; Atlanta, Ga.

Duplication technology: Hectograph

Annotated collection of original prints from the "hero of hecto" (Rich Dana), Mae Strelkov, along with several letters, and three original unpublished typescripts — including two expanded and unedited versions of her travelogue detailing her fan-funded trip to visit the 1974 World Science Fiction and DeepSouth conventions in the United States.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 4. Spirit Duplication, 1941-1967

9 items

Arrangement: Chronological.

Item 22

How happen I were at Pearl Harbor, on morning of Sunday 7 December 1941 / by Tai Sing Loo. (1941)

Place: Oahu, Hi.

Duplication technology: Spirit duplication

Contemporary eyewitness account of the Pearl Harbor attack by Chinese-American photographer Tai Sing Loo, detailing his experiences on December 7th, 1941.

Item 23

Clinton laboratories : a statement by the scientists of an atomic bomb project. (approximately 1945-1946)

Place: Oak Ridge, Tenn.

Duplication technology: Spirit duplication

Early version of this "epoch-making document" (Congressman Jerry Voorhis) drafted by Manhattan Project scientists and pleading for international cooperation in the wake of the atomic age.

Item 24

"Dixie" / by the 7 Zephyrs Press. (1952)

Place: Tijuana, Mexico.

Duplication technology: Spirit duplication

Spirit duplicated pornographic short story about lesbian eroticism produced by the mysterious but prolific 7 Zephyrs Press.

Item 25

Specifications for Belvedere negro school / by Scroggs and Ewing, Architects. (September 29, 1953)

Place: Belvedere, S.C.

Duplication technology: Spirit duplication

Report on the required specifications for contractor bids in the construction of a South Carolina "equalization school," a state project initiated in an attempt to forestall the expected overturning of the Supreme Court's longstanding "separate but equal" doctrine — prepared by the architecture firm responsible for the designs.

Item 26

[Original two-page song sheet for protest relating to Miami lunch counter sit-ins] / by The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). (1960)

Place: Miami, Fla.

Duplication technology: Spirit duplication

Spirit duplicated four-song lyric sheet distributed to protesters demonstrating against the arrest of 18 CORE members at a Florida lunch-counter sit-in.

Item 27

Stymie two / by Roger Ebert. (1960)

Place: Urbana, Ill.

Duplication technology: Spirit duplication

Second issue of this zine published by Pulitzer-winning film critic Roger Ebert as an 18-year-old high school student.

Item 28

Modern firsts - Dust Bowl Books - 2089 Lubbock St. - Ft. Worth, Texas / by Larry McMurtry. (1961)

Place: Ft. Worth, Tex.

Duplication technology: Spirit duplication

The first list issued by writer and novelist Larry McMurty as a rare book dealer.

Item 29

Poets at le metro : volume XIII / edited by Dan Saxon. (April, 1964)

Place: New York, N.Y.

Duplication technology: Spirit duplication

Issue of a mimeo revolution publication, "handwritten by the authors and published unedited and indiscriminately." Contributors to this issue include Harry Fainlight, John Keys, Allen DeLoach, Ed Sanders, Will Inman, Ted Berrigan, Carol Berge, Allen Ginsberg, Jackson MacLow, Anselm Hollo, and Dan Saxon.

Item 30

Final examination English 429 / by Charles Olson. (1964)

Place: Buffalo, N.Y.

Duplication technology: Spirit duplication

Final exam for poet Charles Olson's 400-level English class at State University of New York (SUNY) Buffalo.

Item 101

The riverside church speech ["Beyond Vietnam : a time to break the silence."] / by Martin Luther King Jr. (approximately 1967)

Place: New York, N.Y.

Duplication technology: Spirit duplication

Undocumented printing of "The most controversial speech he ever gave" (Tavis Smiley). Previously unrecorded first printing of one of King's speeches: his anti-war address at The Riverside Church, delivered exactly one year to the day before his assassination.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 5. Stencil Duplication and Mimeograph, 1897-1978

23 items

Arrangement: Chronological.

Item 31

General orders for the information and guidance of the officers and men, who are about to be landed in the Benin Expedition in West Africa (1897)

Duplication technology: Stencil duplication

Expedition leader Sir Harry Rawson's copy (with his accompanying memo headed in pencil "Admiral's Copy") of the standing General Orders of the brutal and violent "Punitive" Benin Expedition, printed on a ship-board flatbed stencil duplicator, and noting "[a]ll plundering and unnecessary destruction of property are to be strictly repressed."

Item 32

Drifting flowers of the sea : and other poems / by Sadakichi Hartmann. (1904)

Place: United States

Duplication technology: Stencil duplication

Signed "Manuscript Edition" of this duplicated work, an early example of typed mimeograph, by the Japanese-American poet and art critic — the first known American book to contain tanka, a traditional form of Japanese poetry.

Item 33

Mohammedan "Narratives of the Prophets," covering the period from Zacharias to Paul. Turkic text with English translation / translated, edited, and printed by George W. Hunter. (1916)

Place: Urumqi (Tihwafu), Xinjiang

Language: Turkic Uyghur and English

Duplication technology: Stencil duplication

Translation from missionary-explorer-linguist George Hunter, the so-called "Scotsman of the Gobi" and "Apostle of Turkestan," of this (Beller-Hann) linguistic study of the Turkic Uyghur language, stencil duplicated in Sinkiang, part of Chinese Turkestan.

Item 34

Drei märchen [Three tales] / by E. Behr ; illustrated by Gustav Möller. (1918)

Place: Bandō, Japan

Language: German

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

Second edition of stencil-duplicated children's book, printed by German prisoners of war at the Bandō prison camp on the Japanese island of Shikoku.

Item 35

The Oraibi book of Indian designs / [compiled by] J. Preston Myers. (1930)

Place: Horton, Kan.

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

Collection of more than 70 Oraibi designs, gathered by Indigenous students at the Oraibi Day School between 1924 and 1928 under the direction of the school's principal, J. Preston Myers. The introduction mentions a number of students who worked on the project by name, including Kyrat Tuvehoyiwma, Emerson Quanno, Felix Coin, Clarence Honani, Waldo Mootska, and Kyrat Tuvehoyiwma.

Item 36

Play directing / by Alexander Dean. (1931)

Place: New Haven, Conn.

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

First edition of this textbook on the theater.

Item 37

Holiday greetings. vol. 1 / by Tuskegee Institute Division of Biology. (December, 1936)

Place: Tuskegee, Ala.

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

Handbook mimeographed for students in the biology department at the Tuskegee Institute.

Item 38

The Rabaul times. no. 633 / edited by Gordon Thomas. (Friday, June 4, 1937)

Place: Vunapope, Papua New Guinea

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

A rare and remarkable survival: the "Volcanic Issue" of this Papua New Guinea newspaper, hurriedly printed on a mimeograph machine following a series of earthquakes and eruptions in the capital city that destroyed the paper's usual presses — additionally annotated by a survivor.

Item 39

Six-man football manual / by A.W. Larson. (1937, 1938)

Place: North Dakota

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

First edition and the revised edition of the second book devoted to this small-town adaptation of traditional football.

Item 40

La Bhagavad-Gita : le livre de consecration. Dialogue entre Krishna, seigneur de la consecration, et Arjuna, prince des Indes. Du sanscrit par William Q. Judge. (1935)

Place: Papeete, Tahiti

Lagnuage: French

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

Tahitian imprint of the first French translation from Judge's English translation, in an unusual quarto format.

Item 41

Naš dan 8. marec [Our Day is March 8th] / by Izdalo uredništvo Slovenk pod Karavankami [The Editorial Board of Slovenian Women Under the Karawanks]. (1944)

Place: Gorenjska, Slovenia

Language: Slovenian

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

A samizdat pamphlet printed by women resistance fighters in Nazi-occupied Slovenia to celebrate International Woman's Day (March 8th, 1944).

Item 42

My life as a Honolulu prostitute / by Jean O'Hara. (1944)

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

First edition of this memoir of the life of a sex worker that, according to the author, "had to be mimeographed — BECAUSE NOBODY DARED PRINT IT!!"

Item 43

[Collection of post-liberation publications mimeographed at the Dachau Concentration Camp].

Place: Dachau, Germany

Languages: Solvenian; Serbian; Croatian

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

Collection of 22 items — including 18 issues of the Dahavski Poročevalec (The Dachau Reporter) — published by Yugoslavian and Slovenian Partisan concentration camp survivors in Dachau beginning just days after liberation. Including:

Eighteen Issues of Dahavski Poročevalec: Glasilo Jugoslav. Narod. Odbora v Dachau [THE DACHAU REPORTER: Newspaper of the Yugoslavian National Liberation Army in Dachau] / edited by Ludwig Mrzel (May-June, 1945)

Two Maps of Dachau: Skica Dahavskega Koncentraciskega Taborišča [Sketch of the Dachau Concentration Camp] and Ko ni mogel moloh-krematorij vec pozirati svojih zrtev, je bil na tem mestu izkopan grob za tisoce ze razkrajajocih se trupel [After the Moloch Crematorium could not swallow its victims anymore, on this spot a grave for thousands of decomposing bodies was dug] / designed by Marko Zupančič (June, 1945)

The Memorial Broadside NE MOREMA Z VAMI — TODA NE POZABITE NAS! [We Cannot Be With You — But Don't Forget Us!] / art by Božidar Pengov ([June], 1945)

Jež za žico [Hedgehog Behind Barbed Wire] / edited by Emil Smasek (June, 1945)

Item 44

Negro F.E.P.C. leader murdered!! / produced by the Community FEPC Committee and the Civil Rights Congress. (1952)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

Protest flier mimeographed in the immediate aftermath of the slaying of Black student activist Enus L. Christiani by a security guard at NYU.

Item 45

Must Jimmy Wilson die because he is black? (1958)

Place: Alabama

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

Mimeographed flyer calling on readers to write Alabama governor James E. Folsom to stop the execution of Jimmy Wilson, a Black man sentenced to death for stealing $1.95 from a white woman.

Item 46

Collection of San Quentin Prison Library publications / edited by Herman K. Spector. (1958-1959)

Place: San Quentin, Calif.

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

Small group of mimeographed library catalogues and other materials from the San Quentin Library, the brainchild of California Department of Corrections supervising librarian Herman Spector, documenting in part his experiments in "bibliotherapy."

Item 47

Memories of people and events / by Alexandra Poustchine. (approximately 1960?)

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

Memoir about the Russian Revolution told from the point-of-view of the young daughter of an aristocratic family.

Item 48

"Blowing in the wind" in Broadside. #6 / by Bob Dylan. (Late May, 1962)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

The first published appearance of Bob Dylan's song, "Blowin' in the Wind," printed in one of the earliest issues of the mimeographed folk zine published by Sis Cunningham.

Item 49

Sinking bear. no. 9 / edited and published by Soren Agenoux. (July 1964)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Mimeograph, electrostencil

Final issue of this parody of LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka) and Diane di Prima's mimeo, Floating Bear.

Item 50

Vote for me / by The Diggers, Communication Company. (approximately late 1967-early 1968)

Place: San Francisco, Calif.

Duplication technology: Mimeograph, electrostencil

Broadside from Chester Anderson and Claude Hayward's Communications Company.

Item 51

"Pig paranoia" / by "Marcus Garvey." (approximately 1970)

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

Likely Black Panther-produced, pseudonymous lyric sheet expressing anger with white liberals and advocating for a modern version of Garveyism.

Item 52

[Small collection of ephemera relating to an abortion rights rally in Albany, NY] / by the Women's Strike Coalition. (1971)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

Collection of three (mostly) mimeographed flyers promoting and seeking support for a March 27th, 1971 march on the NY state capital in support of abortion and contraception. Includes a mimeographed solicitation letter for the march, an electrostenciled flyer for the planning meeting, as well as an offset flyer for the event itself (with a list of supporters mimeographed to the verso).

Item 53

Black History Museum UMUM newsletter / edited by James G. Spady. (1972-1978)

Place: Philadelphia, Pa.

Duplication technology: Mimeograph

21 issues of this publication aligned with the Black Arts Movement, mimeographed under the auspices of Philadelphia's Black History Museum. UMUM covered events and developments at the museum and published poetry (both contemporary and historic), essays, editorials, histories, and lists of books available for purchase from the museum. It regularly dedicated entire issues to subjects such as Black science, Laurence Dunbar, poetry, Ishmael Reed, music, Black health, and other topics.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 6. Offset Duplication and Lithographic Processes, 1925-1978

10 items

Arrangement: Chronological.

Item 54

Notes on the seminar in analytical psychology / conducted by Dr. C.G. Jung ; arranged by members of the class by C.G. Jung. (1925)

Place: Zurich, Switzerland

Duplication technology: Offset duplication

"Mulitgraphed" edition of the first of Jung's lectures to be privately-printed for attendees to his series of seminars.

Item 55

Маяковский по-французски: 4 поэмы, Перевод Андрея Гиппиуса [Mayakovsky po frantsuzski: 4 poemy / Perevod Andreia Gippiusa, i.e. Mayakovsky in French: 4 Poems / Translation by Andrey Gippius] / by Vladimir Mayakovsky. (1930)

Languages: Russian and French

Duplication technology: Steklograph

First edition of this Futurist-influenced book of poetry, one of just 150 copies published by the translator in the year of Mayakovsky's death, and printed by steklograph.

Item 56

Hiroshima / by John Hersey. (approximately 1946?)

Duplication technology: "Bad Offset"

Edition of John Hersey's work of journalistic witness. This publication appears at first to be mimeographed but was likely printed on a larger offset duplicator or smaller offset press. It contains several reproduced page edges, which was nearly impossible on mimeographs of this time. It also has an unusual leaf size (250 millimeters by 176 to 177 millimeters) and a precise pagination (64 pages). This suggests that these pages were likely imposed: eight pages up on eight sheets of standard B2-sized (707 mm x 500 mm) commercial paper. No mimeograph machine was ever produced to accommodate paper of that size.

Item 57

[Original flyer for the "Panhandle agora"] / by Happening House. (1967)

Place: San Francisco, Calif.

Duplication technology: Offset

Original flyer for a Haight Ashbury event held on July 5, 1967 as part of the Open University at the Haight Ashbury Happening House. This broadside appars at first to be mimeographed, but its sharply reproduced fine lines, legibility at very small scale, and almost complete lack of either bleedthrough or offsetting from other copies were beyond even the most sophisticated mimeo machines of the time.

Item 58

Unattendable Lunches / by Claes Oldenburg. (1968)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Offset

Oldenburg’s book describes a series of seven conceptual, theoretical (i.e. “unattendable”) lunch menus along with a letter regret. The artist's book, entirely printed offset, is often misdescribed because Oldenburg went to great lengths to convincingly recreate the appearance of handwritten marker on the of the cover and bleed-through on the verso. The folded “letter” inserted into an envelope and loosely laid into the pamphlet is often misidentified as a typewritten note.

Item 59

Death hitches a ride / by Ronald Dunlap. (1972)

Duplication technology: Offset

An artist's book with directions for creating a “Xerox Book”: "At random, purchase 112 paperback books. At random, select one page of a different number from each book and arrange in numerical order. At random, select a cover."

Item 60

An unfortunate experience with the offset press / by Keith Waldrop. (1974)

Duplication technology: Offset

Limited edition broadside — an item from Keith and Rosemary Waldrop's Burning Deck Press — demonstrating the challenges of offset duplication.

Item 61

London's burning. no. 1 / edited by John Ingham. (1976)

Place: London, England

Duplication technology: Offset

First (and only) issue of this "fanzine by a Clash fan for Clash fans…Conceived, partly photographed, put together, and generally masterminded by John Ingham" and offering a case study in the dangers of both the "xerox aesthetic" and of relying to heavily on genericized terminology and punk cliches.

Item 62

Disco history : audubon : sparkle 6D.Js convention. (December 8,1978)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Offset

Hip-hop flyer for this "convention" held at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem, featuring some figures in early rap, including "DJ [Grandwizard] Theodore (widely credited with inventing scratching), Kevie Kev (member of the Fantastic Five), The Funky Four (Raheim, KK Rockwell, Keith Keith, and Sha-Rock — the first female MC), Lovebug Starski (perhaps the earliest coiner of the term “hip-hop”), DJ Breakout (soon to join the above Funky Four as the Funky 4 + 1), DJ Jones, Mean Gene, Casanova Fly (aka Grandmaster Caz, whose lyrics — it is now generally recognized — were plagiarized by Big Bank Hank in “Rapper’s Delight”) and many others pioneering MCs and DJs.

Item 63

Thrust : an exploration of the Kirk/Spock relationship / edited by Carol A. Frisbie. Pulsar Press. (1978)

Place: Arlington, Va.

Duplication technology: Offset

The birth of slash: first printing of the first book dedicated to Kirk/Spock fanfic (and by extension the first book of dedicated slash) — fan-produced at a neighborhood copy-shop.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 7. Chemical: Architectural, Photographic, Thermal, etc., 1913-1994

13 items

Arrangement: Chronological.

Item 64

The fundamentals of moving picture operating / by B.W. Cooke. (1913)

Place: Chicago, Ill.

Duplication technology: Blueprint

An early book dedicated to motion picture film projection, executed entirely in blueprint.

Item 65

Journal of Robert N. Ferrell, of his trip to California on the ship "Arkansas" P.W. Shepard Master 1849 / by Robert Ferrell ; published by E.M. Francis. (1926)

Duplication technology: Photostat

"Photo-Static" edition, one of just twenty copies, reproducing directly from Ferrell's diary an account of his June to December 1849 voyage from New York to San Francisco (via Cape Horn) aboard the clipper ship Arkansas.

Item 66

La navassa : organo di sfottimento dei dep centrati a Tagliolo. (1944-1945)

Place: Tagliolo, Italy

Language: Italian

Duplication technology: Diazotype

Nearly complete run of this antifascist satirical newspaper, printed clandestinely during the final six months of WWII via diazotype. Contents of most issues include satirical poems, fiction, theater scripts, comics. The columns discuss local politics in Tagliolo and village news while referencing the occupation and the economic hardships of war; many absurdist entries on art, women’s fashion, drinking, and licentious themes of village life; and reports on partisan actions in the area, including a Nazi ambush near Genoa. The final issue (No. 6: May 1, 1945) is dedicated to the liberation of Italy, the execution of Mussolini, and the denunciation of regional fascists. Five (of six) volumes, including: Anno I, Nos. 1 and 3-6 (though chronology of nos. 4 and 5 reversed — addressed by editor in issue no. 4).

Item 67

The extermination of Polish Jewry. (1945)

Place: Compiled in Łódź, Poland

Languages: English, Yiddish, and Hebrew

Duplication technology: Chemical, photographic

True first edition of a work later republished seperately by the Central Jewish Historical Committee and the American Joint Distribution Committee in 1946 (dated 1945) as Extermination of Polish Jews. This first edition is the work of surviving Jews in Łódź who, in the immediate aftermath of the liberation of the camps and the end of WWII, complied photographs showing evidence of Nazi atrocities, including photographs from captured Germans, from clandestine and official cameras in camps and ghettos, and from other sources. Without access to a press, the compilers rephotographed them and bound them together as copy prints on photographic paper.

Item 68

A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits / by Claude E. Shannon. (1938) (approximately 1959?)

Place: Cambridge, Mass.

Duplication technology: Diazotype

Duplicated from Shannon's original 1938 master's thesis, a foundational work in the history of computing and computer science. This edition was privately printed by Shannon later in his career. This copy contains his corrections.

Item 69

The wonderful widow of eighteen springs : for voice and piano / by John Cage. Henmar Press. (1960)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Diazotype

Apparent publisher's proof of Cage's 1942 piece for voice and closed piano, reproduced in large ozolid or diazo format, typically an architectural duplicating method but frequently utilized by composers of the period for reproduction from holograph, and a format Cage used throughout his career. "The Wonderful Widow of Eighteen Springs" was inspired by James Joyce and borrows its lyrics from the description of the sleeping Isobel in Finnegans Wake.

Item 70

Collection of diazotype masters / by Japanese fluxus composers Toshi Ichiyanagi, Yoriaki Matsudaira, George Yusua, and Yasunao Tone. (approximately 1963)

Duplication technology: Diazotype

Set of original Ozalid masters (with some final corresponding prints) for a series of experimental scores from four Japanese (and one American) composers.

Item 71

Two thermofax letters to literary agent Audrey Woods / by Tennessee Williams. (1963)

Place: Key West, Fla.

Duplication technology: Thermofax

Two vintage thermofax letters from playwright Tennessee Williams to his literary agent Audrey Woods.

Item 72

Science liberation college. (1970)

Place: Stanford, Calif.

Duplication technology: Diazotype

Diazotype poster announcing the Science Department's events for Stanford's "Liberation College," a two-day boycott of classes in April 1970 to protest ROTC activities on campus.

Item 73

Samizdat collection of poems and song lyrics / by Vladimir Vysotsky. (approximately 1980?)

Place: Soviet Union

Language: Russian

Duplication technology: Blueprint

Blueprinted samizdat edition, likely published just after Vysotsky's death in 1980, of this collection of verse and lyrics from the Soviet cult singer.

Item 74

Original faxed copy of the poem "City lights city" / by Allen Ginsberg. (1994)

Place: San Francisco, Calif.

Duplication technology: Fax

Early draft of this poem written on the occasion of the dedication of "Via Ferlinghetti," a San Francisco street named in honor of his longtime friend and publisher, Lawrence Ferlighetti, in San Francisco, faxed by Ginsberg to Robert Sharrard ("Bob Sharard" [sic]), editor at City Lights Books.

Item 75

Pacific legend : a mapping of a year's mythology / by Susan E. King. (1977)

Place: Venice, Calif.

Duplication technology: Faux blueprint

A striking artist's book of autobiographical recollections from times past, prominently claiming to be blueprinted — produced by traditional printing, merely reversing the role of text and ink, with the graphic and textual elements revealed not by the presence but rather the absence of ink

Item 76

Collection of documents from the Santa Clara County California Chapter of the AIDS Foundation. (1983-1984)

Place: San Jose, Calif.

Duplication technology: Thermofax, offset

Archive of maquettes and other documents used in the duplication of forms, promotional materials, and educational brochures from the foundation of one of the earliest AIDS education and support organizations in the country, all printed by Ms. Atlas Press, an important queer and feminist Bay Area bookstore and print shop owned by Johnie Staggs and Rosalie Nichols.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 8. Xerograph, 1963-2012

18 items

Arrangement: Chronological.

Item 77

"Original" "Xerocopy" / by Haloid Corporation ; from art by Pablo Picasso. (1963)

Place: Stamford, Conn.

Duplication technology: Offset Lithography

Framed promotional giveaway promoting the Xerox 914. In 1963 Xerox purchased a small drawing by Pablo Picasso and ran ads nationwide placing the original and a Xerox copy of the piece side-by-side, challenging readers to distinguish between the two: "Which is the $2,800 Picasso? Which is the 5¢ Xerox 914 copy?" More than 15,000 people responded and each respondent received what was billed as a Xerox copy of the original. Most, if not all, of the more than 16,000 “xerocopies” distributed werenot xerographically reproduced, but rather were offset lithographs. The original drawing, which was offered in 2019 at Christie’s, shows a number of small stains, smudges, and other irregularities that a true xerox would have picked up and exaggerated. These irregularities would have easily been eliminated by any trained offset operator and, in fact, were.

Item 78

Ad hoc bulletin (Marxist-Leninist) / published by the "Ad Hoc Committee for a Marxist-Leninist Party." (1967-1976)

Place: Washington, D.C.

Duplication technology: Xerography

The Ad Hoc Bulletin was a nearly twenty-year project of the FBI’s “Ad Hoc Committee,” a counterintelligence program created to sow discord among US Communists by creating the impression that there was a thriving and competing domestic Chinese Communist offshoot. The Ad Hoc Bulletin puported itself to be a radical 1960s leftist newsletter, published by a splinter group of the US Communist Party. The serial publication was xeroxed, an unusual fact in the late 1960s when most Xerox machines were still found only in corporate environments and per copy costs were quite high. Aaron Leonard, who has written about the Ad Hoc Bulletin, notes that the US Communist Party worried the Bulletin had national backing.

Item 79

Play 9: 22.9.69 / by HHK Schoenherr. (1969)

Duplication technology: Xerography

Artist's book of xeroxed images compiled into a phonebook-sized volume, evocative of Seth Siegelaub's Xerox book, but actually printed xerographically.

Item 80

Letter / by Aram Saroyan. (approximately 1969)

Duplication technology: Xerography

Place: New York?

Original copy of Aram Saroyan's "Letter Book," a long found poem appropriated from a letter by Saroyan's father, the writer William Saroyan, to his son and subsequently xeroxed in a tiny edition by Aram Saroyan for private distribution.

Item 81

Yony / edited by Sonia Sheridan and Keith Smith. (1975-1976)

Place: Chicago, Ill.

Duplication technology: Xerography, color xerography, et al.

Three issues (in four volumes) of this xerox art journal, produced by the Generative Systems Department at the Art Institute of Chicago.

Item 82

Anticollabora / by Steve McCaffery. (1977)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Xerography

"L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E Distributing Service" edition (published by Charles Bernstein, Ron Silliman, and Bruce Andrews) of poet Steve McCaffery's unpublished reading of James Joyce's Finnegans Wake — reproduced from the author's typescript, bound in generic LDS wrappers, and numbered by hand noting "[t]his material is photocopied with the permission of the author."

Item 83

XX: 6500 x 20 / curated by Ries Niemi. (1978)

Place: Seattle, Wash.

Duplication technology: Xerography, color

Catalogue for the first exhibition dedicated entirely to color xerography, which ran at Seattle's and/or arts space from November 16th through December 3rd, 1978.

Item 84

Dodgems. #1 and 2 / edited by Eileen Myles. (1977 and 1979)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Xerography

Complete two-issue set of this short-lived late 1970s xeroxed little magazine edited by Eileen Myles that stood in opposition to the mimeograph.

Item 85

Curiosities / compiled by Philip-Lorca diCorcia. (approximately 1978)

Place: New Haven, Conn.

Duplication technology: Xerography

Apparently unrecorded artist's book, containing xeroxed found images with wry commentary, and the artist's "Genuine" blindstamp on the title page.

Item 86

Two sisters : a xerox book / by Lynda Barry. (1979)

Place: Seattle, Wash.

Duplication technology: Xerography

Cartoonist Lynda Barry's first book, xeroxed by her at a local copy shop and sold directly.

Item 87

Stonewall romances / edited by Ray Dobbins and Steven Watson. (1979)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Xerography, color; offset

One-shot zine, "A Tenth Anniversary Celebration" of the Stonewall riots, featuring a color xerox cover. Includes interviews, recollection, and works by Peter Hujar; John Lurie; J. Carmicia; Elmer Kline; Craig Rodwell, the owner of the Oscar Wilde Book Store; and transgender activist Sylvia Rivera, founder of S.T.A.R (Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries).

Item 88

Boy blackmail / designed by John Dove and Molly White. (1980)

Place: London, England

Duplication technology: Color xerography

First printing — identifiable by the presence of color xerox inserts — of this document of punk fashion: the first catalogue from the legendary fashion boutique BOY. Illustrated throughout with photographs by Sheila Rock and Derek Hutchins.

Item 89

Report and determination in the matter of Christo : the gates / prepared by Gordon J. Davis, Commissioner, Department of Parks and Recreation. (1981)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Xerography

Report rejecting Christo and Jean-Claude's original 1979 application to mount their project "The Gates," which was successfully staged in 2005.

Item 90

The valium addict [and] Dumb fucker / edited by Richard Kern. (1981-1983)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Xerography

The first two issues of Richard Kern's No Wave early eighties zine, Valium addict, along with three issues of its immediate successor, Dumb fucker.

Item 91

Love kills / by Alex Cox and Abbe Wool. (1985)

Place: London, England

Duplication technology: Xerography

Third Draft script for the 1986 film Sid and Nancy, here under the working title LOVE KILLS — xeroxed and bound with green twist ties, as issued — and previously belonging to director Alex Cox's friend and advisor Kate Simon. Inscribed by photographer Kate Simon, who helped advise on the film.

Item 92

In the shadow of forward motion / by David Wojnarowicz. (1989)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Xerography (and risograph)

First edition of Wojnarowicz's artist book, xeroxed by him for his February 8th-March 4th, 1989 exhibition at PPOW.

Item 93

Sacred water / by Leslie Marmon Silko. (1993)

Place: Tucson, Ariz.

Duplication technology: Xerography

Limited edition proof copy of Silko's self-published collection of autobiographical prose vignettes, issued by her own Flood Plain Press, one of just 20 copies.

Item 94

Original X setlist / written by John Doe. (approximately 2012)

Duplication technology: Xerography

Undated (but likely early 2010s) setlist from the Los Angeles punk band.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 9. 21st Century, 2000-2018


Arrangement: Chronological.

Item 95

Hum(s) : for Dianne Perry and Michael Friedman / by Anne Waldman and Anselm Hollo. (10 September 2000)

Duplication technology: Ink jet

Collaborative poem written on the occasion of the wedding of SHINY-editor Michael Friedman by mimeo revolution stalwarts Hollo and Waldman — "stapled through the side in memory of 'C' magazine days."

Item 96

Sal Mimeo. no. 1 [and] Poets at le swoopo [Fell Swoop. no. 71] / edited by Larry Fagin [and] Joel Dailey. [2000] (2004)

Places: New York, N.Y., and New Orleans, La.

Duplication technology: Laser printed

Two 21st-century literary journals that harken back to their 20th-century duplicated predecessors.

Item 97

Transmission / by Lucy Helton. (2014)

Place: New York

Duplication technology: Thermography, fax

Contemporary artist's book created using an increasingly obsolete technology: the fax machine.

Item 98

Words like dynamite / by Jan Krzysztof Kelus, Jan Walc, and Witold Łuczywo. (2014)

Places: Warsaw, Poland, and Riverside, Calif.

Duplication technology: Laser printer

Limited edition reprint of three texts of the Polish printing underground: "A Pompous Song" by Jan Krzysztof Kelus, "Our Free Roller Press" by Jan Walc, and "The Practical Printer" by Witold Łuczywo.

Item 99

Sinking bear : a newsletter / edited by Phil Aarons, Adam Davis, and Johan Kugelberg. (2013)

Places: Portland, Ore., and New York, N.Y.

Duplication technology: Risograph

Risographed facsimile reproduction of Soren Agenoux's SINKING BEAR, a publication of the mimeo revolution.

Item 100

Brain cell / edited by Ryosuke Cohen. (1985-2018)

Place: Osaka, Japan

Duplication technology: Gocco

Over 100 individually mailed examples, almost certainly one of the largest extant, of this long-running Japanese mail art journal — created and edited by the Japanese artist Ryosuke Cohen, and printed by the Gocco process. Contributors to Brain Cell included Pawel Petasz (Poland), Clemente Padin (Uruguay), György Galantai (Hungary), Paulo Bruscky (Brazil), Julian Blaine (France), Klaus Groh (Germany), Vittore Baroni (Italy), Aaron Flores (Mexico), Rod Summers (Holland), Anna Banana (Canada), John Evans, Richard Craven, John Bennett, and E. F. Higgins (United States), Clive Phillpot, and Judith Hoffberg. Artists from Cuba, Republica di San Marino, Malaysia, Burkina Faso, Macedonia, Taiwan, South Korea, Ukraine, and Uruguay and elsewhere have also contributed to Brain Cell.

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